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Confined Space Entry.

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Presentation on theme: "Confined Space Entry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Confined Space Entry

2 Table of Contents Module 1: Pertinent legislation
Module 2: Definitions & Terminology Module 3: Examples of confined space injuries &/or fatalities Module 4: Overview of confined space hazards; hazard identification & assessment process Module 5: Overview of control methods Module 6: Methods of analyzing, eliminating, & controlling confined space hazards Module 7: Personal protective equipment / Life Saving Equipment Module 8: Emergency planning

3 Table of Contents (cont.)
Module 9: Legislated documentation requirements Module 10: Oxygen deficiency & enrichment Module 11: Flammable gases / hot Work Requirements Module 12: Toxic atmospheres that are Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. Module 13: Occupational Exposure Limits Module 14: Accident Incident Reporting Module 15: Hands on: PPE/rescue equipment Sample permits/ Hazard Assessment Gas monitors

4 Why Train? Often fatal consequences - catastrophic
Often multiple injuries Frequency of incidents is too high Would be rescuers become victims Iceberg principle - lots of incidents General lack of awareness & training “never happen to me” mentality Goal of training: Knowledge and skills needed to recognize variety of CS hazards Understand importance of CS entry program Hopefully will result in effective implementation of CS entry program Aim for Excellence NOT Stupidity!

5 Training ALL workers who work within confined spaces must receive specific training. Examples of additional training in addition to confined space training: Gas Testing Fall Protection training for vertical entry First aid/rescue planning ALL workers with related duties, such as rescue workers, supervisors, attendants and “fire watch" personnel must also receive training specific to confined spaces. Training records must be kept. Refresher training to be considered. Competence in first aid, the use of appropriate emergency response equipment and appropriate confined space procedures must be developed for workers responding to a confined space emergency. These procedures & plan must be reviewed during the pre-entry safety talk and noted on the permit &/or hazard assessment

6 What are Confined Spaces in Schools?
4 questions need to be asked… an enclosed or partially enclosed space? is it designed or intended for human occupancy? Does it have restricted means of access & egress? Can it become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of: (i) its design, construction, location or atmosphere, or (ii) the materials or substances in it, or (iii) any other conditions relating to it. Needs to meet all of these criteria

7 Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?

8 Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?

9 Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?

10 Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a potentially hazardous space?

11 Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?

12 and/or the lack of oxygen.
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ? Trenches & excavations can be confined spaces, if there is a likelihood of hazardous gases, engulfment and/or the lack of oxygen.

13 Worksafe Videos

14 Worksafe Videos

15 Worksafe Videos

16 Legislation September, 2009 Section 511. Confined Space Entry (1) An employer shall assess the work area to determine whether it contains confined spaces. (2) "confined space" means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that (a) is not designed or intended for human occupancy except for the purpose of performing work; (b) has restricted means of access and egress; and (c )may become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of (i ) its design, construction, location or atmosphere, (ii) the materials or substances in it, or (iii) any other conditions relating to it. (3) A worker shall not work in a confined space after January 1, 2013 unless he or she has completed a confined space entry program prescribed by the commission. (4) An employer shall inform a worker who may have to work in a Confined space of a hazard by posting signs or other equally effective means of advising of the existence of and dangers posed by confined spaces. Limited access & egress can interfere with first aid, evacuation, and rescue

17 Legislation Legislation (cont.)
Section 512. Corrective precautions (1) Upon first entering a confined space, a worker shall assume the space is hazardous until the contrary is demonstrated. (2) An employer shall ensure that a worker does not enter a confined space until (a) an adequate assessment of the hazards related to the confined space has been carried out; (b) a source containing a hazardous substance leading to the confined space is safely and completely blocked off or disconnected; (c) a test required under subsection (11) has been completed; (d) the worker is qualified to safely enter and perform duties within the confined space; (e) a written work permit documenting the tests and safety precautions has been completed (f) a set of written safe work procedures has been developed and a worker has been instructed in these procedures. (3) The assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) shall be recorded in writing and shall consider, with respect to each confined space, (a) the hazards that may exist due to the design, construction, location, use or contents of the confined space; and (b) the hazards that may develop while work is done inside the confined space.

18 Legislation (cont.) (4) The record of the assessment may be incorporated into an entry permit. (5) Where 2 or more confined spaces are of similar construction and present the same hazards, their assessments may be recorded in a single document, but each confined space shall be clearly identified in the assessment. (6) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to carry out the assessment and shall maintain a record containing details of the person’s knowledge, training and experience. (7) The assessment shall contain the name of the person who carries out the assessment. (8) The person shall sign and date the assessment and provide it to the employer.

19 Legislation (cont.) (10)The employer shall ensure that the assessment is reviewed as often as necessary to ensure that the assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) remains current. (11)Appropriate tests for harmful vapours, gasses, fumes, mists, dusts or explosive substances and oxygen deficiency shall be made and recorded (a) before entry into the confined space; (b) after an interruption in the work procedures; and (c) at appropriate intervals. (12)Where a test made under subsection (11) indicates an unsafe condition, the confined space shall be ventilated or cleaned or both and periodically retested to ensure that: (a) the oxygen content is between 20% and 22%; (b) the concentration of flammable substances is maintained below 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL ) of that substance or substances; and (c) a worker's exposure to harmful substances is maintained at acceptable levels in accordance the TLVs established by ACGIH.

20 Legislation Legislation (cont.)
(13) Where gas tests indicate harmful or explosive substances and it is not feasible to provide a safe respirable atmosphere, an employer shall ensure that : (a) entrants wear respiratory and personal protective equipment appropriate to the hazards; and (b) where a flammable or explosive gas or liquid is present all sources of ignition are controlled or eliminated. (14) Where control measures cannot be implemented, a worker shall leave the confined space. (15) Gas tests made shall be performed by a person who has been adequately trained in the proper use of testing equipment. (16) Equipment used in testing and monitoring shall be calibrated and monitored according to the manufacturer's instructions. (17) The completed permit shall be available at the time of entry to all authorized personnel by posting it at the entry portal or by another effective means.

21 Legislation Legislation (cont.) Section 513. Work procedures
(1) If an entrant may be exposed to a harmful atmosphere or may become entrapped by material (a) wears appropriate retrieval equipment for rescue; and (b) has a life-line attached to the retrieval equipment which is tended at all times by a person, stationed outside the entrance able to effect rescue. (2) the use of a lifeline is not required where an obstruction or other condition makes its use impractical or unsafe but, in that case, an employer shall implement procedures to ensure the safety of the worker.

22 Legislation (cont.) (3) Entrants require attendants
(b) stationed outside and near i) the entrance to the confined space, or if there is more than 1 entrance ii) near the one that best allows the attendant to perform their duties; (c) is in continuous communication with the worker as per safe work procedure; and (d) is provided with a device for summoning an adequate rescue response. (4) An attendant shall not enter a confined space and shall, in accordance with the required safe work procedure, (a) monitor the safety of the worker; (b) provide assistance to entrants and rescuers; and (c) summon an adequate rescue response where required.

23 Legislation (cont.) Section 514. Entry into confined space
A confined space shall be entered only where (a) opening is sufficient to allow safe passage of a person wearing PPE/safety equipment; (b) mechanical equipment in the confined space is (i) disconnected from its power source, and (ii) locked out and tagged; (c) pipes & other supply lines with hazardous contents are blanked off; (d) measures, where appropriate, to continuously ventilate space; (e) liquid / free-flowing solid capable of drowning / entrapping have been removed; (f) adequate explosion-proof illumination is provided where appropriate; and (g) adequate barriers are erected to prohibit unauthorized entry.

24 OHS-ACT Right to Refuse to Work
45. (1) A worker may refuse to do work that the worker has reasonable grounds to believe is dangerous to his or her health or safety, or the health and safety of another person at the workplace (a) until remedial action has been taken by the employer to the worker's satisfaction; (b) until the committee or worker health and safety representative has investigated the matter and advised the worker to return to work; or (c) until an officer has investigated the matter and has advised the worker to return to work. Steps in process: a. Worker reports the problem to their supervisor stating they are refusing unsafe work b. Supervisor investigates the problem and makes a decision c. If worker disagrees with supervisor, they proceed to notifying the OHS Committee d. Committee makes decision e. If worker disagrees, then reports refusal to OHS Officer who makes final decision Not required to be in writing.

25 Owner Requirements Outside Contractors
program should meet regulations program needs to be reviewed Inform them of your hazard assessment Ensure they use sop’s/permits Emergency response planning Periodically audit incident reporting system – “incidents don’t become accidents”

26 Common Terms Competent - in relation to a person, means adequately qualified, suitably trained and with sufficient experience to safely perform work without supervision or with only a minimal degree of supervision; Explosive atmosphere - means an atmosphere that (a) contains a substance in a mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions and at a concentration between the substance's lower explosive limit and upper explosive limit, Hazard - means a situation, condition or thing that may be dangerous to the safety or health of workers; Methane in Air Too rich UEL 15 % LEL 5 % Too lean 26

27 Common Terms (cont.) Risk – likelihood hazard becomes incident; based on severity, frequency, duration, etc Hot work - means work in which a flame is used or sparks or other sources of ignition may be produced, including cutting, welding, burning, air gouging, riveting, drilling, grinding, and chipping, using electrical equipment not classified for use in a hazardous location, and introducing a combustion engine to a work process; 27

28 Flammability Terms Flash point:
Minimum T of which a liquid fuel is heated to give off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air (i.e burns) Ignition T: Minimum T req’d for substance to be heated to achieve self sustaining combustion independent of ignition source FP is used as a criteria for differentiating flammable liquids, from combustible liquids from non-combustible liquids Combustible liquids have FP above 37.8 C (less than that is flammable) Also must consider residues that when heated pose significant fire risk that when cold do not register on LEL meter MSDSs give fire and explosion data 28

29 Fire Triangle-Tetrahedron
Ignition source Lower flammable limit/flammable range Flash Point/Vapor Pressure Vapor density Spaces may become flammable as a result of : Product vapors & residues Fuel vapors & residues Coatings and preservatives Leaking acetylene, propane or gas lines 29

30 Lower Limit (LEL) Methane in Air Lowest conc. of flammable gas/vapor, expressed in % volume in air, that will burn or explode in presence of ignition source. Below this level, atmosphere is too lean to burn. LEL is lowest part of the flammable range; upper limit is the UEL Too rich UEL 15 % LEL 5 % Too lean 30

31 Flammable Liquids Flammable vapors exist above volatile liquids
such vapors are heavier than air and settle in low spots; travel large distances & ignite Gas testing not enough; remove all liquids, residues, sludge MSDS: look at flash point, vapor pressure, LEL, boiling point, vapor density

32 Section 515 – Explosive Atmospheres
Worker not to stay in Confined Space if: > 25%LEL for inspection only; no source of ignition; > 10%LEL - cold work; > 5% LEL &/or > 23% O2 during hot work;

33 Vapor Density Air = 1 Light gases hydrogen Ammonia, methane
Air, carbon monoxide, nitrogen propane argon, carbon dioxide Hydrogen, methane, acetylene, & ammonia are lighter than air Chlorine, carbon dioxide, butane, gasoline are heavier than air , hydrogen sulfide 20 % heavier than air Chlorine, benzene, gasoline Heavy gases 33

34 Hazard Identification
System to ID all hazards existing in absence of controls; control minimizes risk Every CS hazardous unless determined otherwise by risk assessment Take into account: Routine & non-routine activities in & out of space Facilities & activities of adjacent spaces/workplace Contents and supply lines into/out of the space

35 Hazard Identification Process
Engulfment or entrapment by liquids/materials Potential for fire or explosion, oxygen deficiency Biological hazards – crawl spaces Physical hazards - Temperature - Noise - Humidity - Lighting - Ergonomics Flammable residues - fire resistant coveralls ineffective Toxic hazards – lead, asbestos, VOC’s, etc

36 Risk Assessment Eliminate hazard
Best Option Eliminate hazard Substitute hazardous materials, processes, equipment Engineering controls Administrative controls PPE-selection, use & maintenance Remove flammable or toxic residues, isolate gas line Cold work versus hot work Adequate ventilation setup; lock-outs/de-energizing / ensuring safe access & egress D. signage, training, sop’s PPE-least effective but often necessary Least Preferred option

37 Classification of Confined Spaces
Most confined spaces are designed to hold substances such as liquids, gases, and loose materials, or to house equipment. Though they come in many sizes and shapes, most can be classified in one of two ways: 1. Spaces that are open-topped and have depth • pits • well • bins 2. Spaces with narrow openings • pipes • utility vaults • Attics • HVAC

38 Confined Space Entry Definitions
Entrant is the person who enters a confined space. Attendant stays outside the confined space, monitors the space, responsible for assisting the entrant, summons assistance in emergency. Safety representative (or entry supervisor) is the competent person who assesses the hazards, lists necessary equipment and control measures, controls Confined Space Entry Permit process.

39 Attendant Remain alert outside space
summon help if needed but do not enter Consider activities outside space Maintain 2 way communication Know hazards posed & work requirements assess conditions/changes that may impact entrants Ensure controls measures working properly Initiate emergency procedures as per sop Perform non-entry emergency rescue if safe to do so

40 Entrant Remain alert at all times Aware of all potential hazards
Aware of symptoms & warning signs of exposure Report concerns to attendant Exit immediately if conditions warrant, alarms sound, or if directed Don’t be afraid to ask for safety info You have a right to be made aware of all potential hazards

41 Hazard Assessment Form
Assessment must be carried out by a qualified person, and form completed Must identify existing and potential hazards Must contain name of person performing assessment Must be signed and dated Must be copied to Occupational Health and Safety Committee Must be recorded and maintained in filing system Has been separated into sections for ease of use

42 Assessment Form Sections
Access into the confined space Internal configuration and features of the confined space Electrical hazards Mechanical hazards Engulfment Hazards External Hazards Communications Ventilation Adverse temperatures Noise / Vibration Chemical Hazards Other Considerations

43 1. Access into Confined Space
Entrance/Exit Accessibility and Configuration Entrance/exit easily accessible? Type: Round, Oval, Square, Other? Vertical Entry/Exit Stairs, Fixed ladder, Portable ladder, Other? Condition? Tripod to be used? Horizontal Entry/Exit Elevated entry/exit? Work platform provided?

44 2. Internal Configuration and Features
Use & Shape of a space can create hazardous conditions: Low Ceilings? Walk in Erect Stooped Head Hazards? Footing inside space? Narrow areas entrapping entrant/rescuer Sloping surface Uneven surfaces & bends *Use retrieval and fall protection when possible create challenges for attendant to communicate Need to protect openings with barricades

45 2. Internal Configuration (Cont.)
Other Internal features of space? Wet or slippery surfaces Poor lighting Sharp objects Mold Pipelines going through the space? Use of ladders & scaffolding? *Use retrieval and fall protection when possible Need to protect openings with barricades

46 3. Electrical Hazards Possible contact with energized conductors?
Controls: Lockout procedures, GFCI’s, grounding & bonding, double insulated tools Hazardous sources: - Broken/energized lighting & power - Damaged cords - Welding equipment not grounded/bonded Wet surfaces confound problems Explosion/vapor proof lighting may need to be assessed Sources of ignition: grinding, welding & burning, static electricty, powder actuated tools Bonding Connect 2 or more electrically conductive objects together by means of a connecting bridge (metal wires) Grounding Connect 1 or more metallic objects to the ground and is a specific form of bonding. CSA C22.1 Canadian Electrical Code Part 1 Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, Clause 18 “Hazardous Locations”

47 4. Mechanical Hazards Unguarded mechanical equipment Examples:
Moving/rotating belts or chains, gears, paddles, blades, shafts, pinch points Lockout / Tag-out procedures required

48 5. Engulfment Hazards Chemical? Sludge/sewage?
Other hazardous liquid (water)? Lock out and/or Isolate: physically prevent and/or disconnect pipes & energy sources by applying controls: Such as: Locks, Tags, Blanks & blinds Double block & bleed

49 6. External Hazards Traffic hazard?
Parking lot (loading area/parking spaces in vicinity)? Precipitation? Overhead electrical wires Spill or possibility of objects falling into opening?

50 7. Ventilation Space has configuration that will hamper ventilation/purging? Convoluted space? Large volume? Other?

51 8. Communications Entrants can be visually observed by attendant?
Voice only adequate? Visual hang signal adequate? Internal telephone available? Cell phone required? Radio required? Intercom? Rope Signal?

52 9. Adverse Temperatures Heat stress? Cold stress?

53 10. Noise / Vibration Too loud? PPE required? Anti-vibration tools?

54 11. Chemical Hazards Pipes/lines? Accumulation of:
Flammable/combustible/oxygen enriched Oxygen deficient atmospheres Toxic atmosphere Oxygen deficiency can be caused by: Consumption: oxygen is used up (respiration, fire, bacterial action) Displacement: heavier materials push out normal air (argon, CO2, freon) . Reaction: air reacts with other materials to make other compounds (oxidation-rust). The air that leaves a person's lungs during exhalation contains 14% oxygen and 4.4% carbon dioxide. Combustion uses up O2 faster than respiration

55 Symptoms of Oxygen Deficiency
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Symptoms of Oxygen Deficiency Percent of Oxygen in Air Symptoms in workers 20.9% Normal Air, NO Symptoms 19.5% Minimum allowable level 18% Early symptoms, Decreased ability to work 16% Increased heart and lung rate 14% Impaired judgement and coordination , Fatigue Loss of peripheral vision 12% Nausea and Vomiting, Extreme Fatigue Less than 10% Nausea and Vomiting, unconsciousness, convulsions, death

56 Symptoms of Oxygen Deficiency
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Symptoms of Oxygen Deficiency Does lack of oxygen cause shortness of breath? Are there adequate warning signs of oxygen deficiency?

57 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Oxygen Enriched Levels above 21%. flammables & combustibles burn faster & harder Don’t use pure oxygen to ventilate. Don’t store oxygen tanks/hoses in a confined space Wear fire resistant clothing

58 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Flammable liquids Flammable vapors - above liquid surface often heavier than air (lower tank region) Vapors can reach great distances to ignition sources Fire prevention: Remove all hydrocarbons, vapors & flammable gases from tanks Eliminate ignition sources Properly ventilate space to dilute vapors

59 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Chemical Toxicity Chemicals bought into space Fugitive emissions (welding, solvents, degreasers) Waxy surfaces (hydrocarbons) No magic meter to test all chemicals Need to refer to MSDS’s & hazard assessment Consider skin & inhalation hazards

60 Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Airborne levels of hazardous substances that may: Impair the worker's ability to safely leave the dangerous situation Lead to irreversible or delayed health effects, serious injury, or death in a short period Used for purpose of respirator selection

61 ACGIH TLVs - Time Weighted Average
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) ACGIH TLVs - Time Weighted Average TWA = Concentration at which workers can be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse health effects Can exceed TWA from time to time as long as average exposure not exceeded Some chemicals require us to be concerned even for short term exposures STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) Ceiling limit

62 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Carbon Monoxide Formed by incomplete combustion Colorless, odorless gas, non irritating Slightly lighter than air Causes suffocation without warning Go unconscious at high concentrations LEL = 12.5%, TWA=25 ppm NIOSH IDLH = 1200 ppm Sampling: gas meter or colorimetric tubes Typical respirator not adequate No odor or warning properties at safe levels, first symptoms are headaches, dizziness and nausea (by this time may be too late) No approved air purifying respirator cartridge

63 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Hydrogen Sulfide Sewer gas –rotten egg smell-organic breakdown Colorless, flammable gas at high concentrations TLV=10 ppm; STEL=15 ppm; NIOSH IDLH=100 ppm Natural component of crude oil (heavy/sour crude) Paralyzes sense of smell (can’t rely on smell) heavier than air Mutligas meter or colorimetric tubes

64 Chlorine - Chlorinators
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Chlorine - Chlorinators 3 forms: liquid (4 %); solid (12 %) & gas 100 % Pungent irritating corrosive gas Upper respiratory & eye irritation Heavy gas (Vapor density > air) Ventilate at low levels TLV-TWA = 0.5 ppm TWA-STEL = 1 ppm (15 minute) Colorimetric tubes

65 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Air Monitoring Assesser must be competent Calibrate monitors Remote sampling first, then enter Reassess to ensure conditions stay safe before entry; after break in work; & at appropriate intervals If tests indicate unsafe condition; ventilation &/or clean & retest so that: O2 is between 20 & 22 % < 10 % LFL ACGIH TLVs not exceeded Permit to be posted at portal entry (with gas testing results) Consider worst case scenario for testing: shut off ventilation before testing & retest with ventilation on

66 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
How to test? Need to test remotely first at least 3 different levels to see if results vary vapor density is important Hint: test exhaust air sludge can give off volatiles if heated or disturbed Various types of air testing equipment Equipment must be calibrated on a regular basis Must perform bump tests on regular basis Ask for calibration logs and maintenance records Ask about bump tests Ask about alarm settings Ask what they look for first on monitor – Oxygen is most impt! Then LEL and finally toxics

67 11. Chemical Hazards (cont.)
Air Monitoring Cont’d Pass or fail scenario Not looking for 100 % accurate readings Use portable fairly accurate instruments gas meter – oxygen, LEL, CO, H2S, colorimetric tubes – , Cl2, CO2,, NO2, etc PID – TVOC’s (hydrocarbons) Is it safe or unsafe for entry!

68 Calibration vs. Bump Test
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Calibration vs. Bump Test Calibration - gases of known concentration verify instrument is measuring properly (quantitative test) Bump test – a short burst of gas to ensure that sensors and alarms are working (qualitative test)

69 Detector Tubes Numerous Toxic Gas/Vapors
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Detector Tubes Numerous Toxic Gas/Vapors Chemical reactions colored reagent Length of colored stain = concentration Pump (draws 100 ml) Need to follow instructions Simple procedure but limitations + interferences Accuracy: + or – 30 % Draeger, Gastec, Kitigawa Need to know contaminant of concern Grab samples only CO = silica sand with colorless solution of iodine pentoxide in tube; produces brown iodine

70 Photo-ionization Detector
11. Chemical Hazards (cont.) Photo-ionization Detector Real time measurements of TVOC’s Universal detector (not selective) Very sensitive (volatile toxics & flammables)

71 12. Other Considerations Structural integrity? Rodents/animals?

72 Confined Space Hazard Assessment Form

73 Assessment Form (cont.)

74 Confined Space Hazards
Hazards found in confined spaces can be placed in the following groups: a.) Oxygen deficient atmospheres can be caused by rusting of a steel vessel, any form of burning (including welding & brazing), absorption by grain or soils, and consumption by bacteria. b.) Asphyxiant gas physiologically inert gases can dilute or displace atmospheric oxygen below the level required for normal human functioning examples of asphyxiant gases are carbon dioxide, ethane, helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen. c.) Toxic atmospheres - containing gases, vapours, dusts or fumes that have poisonous effects on the body. Cleaning, painting or welding may produce dangerous vapours or fumes. Gases such as hydrogen sulphide may leak into or be released from sludge present in the confined space. Carbon monoxide may be generated in the space by an internal combustion engine. Methane may be created through the fermentation of plant material in the space.

75 Confined Space Hazards
d.) Flammable or explosive atmospheres - containing flammable gases, vapours or dusts that could be ignited by a spark or open flame. The risk of explosion increases if an oxygen enriched atmosphere is present. e.) Engulfment - workers can be trapped or buried by dry bulk materials such as grain, sand, flour, fertilizer and sawdust. f.) Operation of moving parts being trapped or crushed by augers, mixers, agitators, or conveyor belts. g.) Uncontrolled introduction - of steam, water or gas h.) Other hazards - these could result from the work being done Examples are noise, extremes of temperature, radiation, manual handling and falls.

76 “HOT” Work Any situation involving the risk of fire or explosion is considered to be a “hot work” hazard situation, if the work being done could generate a spark. Common hot work hazards would include, but are not limited to: cutting - welding burning - air gouging riveting - drilling grinding - chipping the use of non-classified electrical equipment placing a combustion engine in the confined space If a hot work hazard situation exists, a special hot work hazard safe work permit must be issued.

77 Confined Space Complications
Noise Confined space can amplify sounds Noise interferes with essential produced by tools and equipment. communication between entrants and attendants. Falling objects Objects fall into the space because topside openings are unguarded or improperly guarded. Extreme temperatures The space's location and equipment make it hot or cold Environments put workers at risk. equipment it contains make it ideal for heat stress, doing strenuous work or wearing protective clothing make tasks more difficult to accomplish Slippery Surfaces Leaks, spills and condensation make walking surfaces slippery Wet surfaces are usually slippery. They increase the risk of falls.

78 Hazard Control Methods
Methods used to control hazards found in confined spaces fall into three categories: 1.) Engineering controls - ex. ventilation systems 2.) Administrative controls - ex. entry permit system 3.) Personal protective equipment ex. supplied air breathing apparatus Engineering controls are designed to eliminate the hazard administrative controls and personal protective equipment try to minimize the hazard.

79 Hierarchy of Controls Eliminate hazard Substitute with other materials
Use engineering control measures Use administrative controls PPE

80 Eliminating and Controlling Hazards
Once an existing or potential hazard is identified, an employer is required to eliminate the hazard or if elimination is not reasonably practicable, control the hazard. If reasonably practicable, an employer must eliminate or control a hazard through the use of engineering controls. If this can not be done, the employer must use administrative controls that control the hazard to a level as low as reasonably achievable. If engineering and administrative controls will not control the hazard, then an employer must ensure the appropriate personal protective equipment is used by workers affected by the hazard.

81 Atmospheric Hazards The following are examples of practices used to eliminate and control atmospheric confined space hazards. Cleaning the space to remove contaminants. For example: use a vacuum and hose to remove petrochemical sludge, Replacing an unsafe atmosphere with clean respirable air by purging and ventilating Replacing the unsafe atmosphere before entry usually involves mechanical ventilation to blow or suck fresh air in and continuously move it throughout the space.

82 Atmospheric Hazards (cont.)
Preventing fires and explosions. Fire prevention requires control of the three elements needed for a fire or explosion Inerting the confined space. Inerting is used to eliminate hazards such as chemical reactions, flammable vapours, and the possibility of explosions. Using continuous ventilation to keep the atmosphere safe.

83 Physical Hazards Loose and unstable material.
Shoring of unstable trench or evacuation walls Removal of unstable material from confined space before entry. Requirement for lifeline and harness and provision for immediate rescue of a worker in distress. Moving parts of machinery. Locking out. The use of a Lock or locks to render machinery or equipment inoperable or to isolate an energy source.

84 Electrical Hazards Substitute pneumatic tools for electrical ones.
Properly grounded tools. Double-insulated tools. Use of ground fault circuit interrupter.

85 Basic Personal Protective Equipment
The type of PPE to be worn will depend on the job to be done and the hazards that have been identified. PPE considered basic for almost any job are: Employees are responsible to ensure their PPE is clean, properly maintained, in good serviceable condition, CSA approved, and suitable for the type of work to be performed. approved safety footwear gloves hard hat safety glasses flame retardant coveralls

86 Personal Protective Equipment
Determined by hazard /risk assessment- based on hazards Noted on entry permit Protective clothing: chemical (corrosive/toxic) & flame resistant (residues) Need to consider hazardous materials (mold, asbestos, lead) Hydrocarbon stained coveralls can affect fire resistant clothing Garments: chemical resistance, appearance, comfort Among the more widely used fibers for protective clothing are NOMEX, INDURA and FLAMEX.  

87 Air Purifying Respirators
Mechanical filters – NRP – 95,99,100 Chemical cartridges – OV, AG Combination of OV/AG/HEPA Negative (+) pressure field check Qualitative fit test CSA program & training – CSA Z94.4 “Selection Care & Use” Don’t protect against oxygen deficiency

88 Respiratory Protective Equipment
Selection of respiratory protective equipment depends on the type of work and the hazards to be encountered. There are three main types of respiratory protection devices: 1. Dust Masks - these masks may be disposable or reusable and are designed to filter out certain particles, mists and some fumes. 2. Canister or Cartridge - cartridge respirators can only protect you against the specific hazard(s) and specific concentration levels as identified on the canister/cartridge. The canister or cartridge respirator has limited use in confined space entry work. 3. Supplied Air - these devices are designed to supply fresh air from an independent and safe source.

89 Respirator Program written program with worksite-specific procedures when respirators are necessary provide necessary training on selection, use, care & limitations and medical evaluations as per CSA Z94.4 Program elements: 1. Selection Medical evaluation 3. Fit testing Use 5. Maintenance and care 6. Breathing air quality and use 7. Training Program evaluation 89

90 Supplied Air Apparatus
Air-Supplying Respirators Deliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby. Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA) The SABA has a positive pressure face mask connected by an airline to a cylinder of compressed breathing air not carried by the worker. For safety purposes, the SABA comes equipped with an egress bottle of air which is carried by the worker. This bottle contains a maximum of five minutes of air supply. In an emergency the worker disconnects the air line and turns on the egress bottle. SABA respirators are commonly used when the work to be performed will take several hours.

91 Supplied Air Apparatus
Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) The SCBA has a positive pressure face mask connected to a compressed air cylinder which is carried by the worker. This type of equipment provides a limited air supply. Due to this limitation, SCBA respirators are best suited to perform short term and emergency tasks. The amount of air supply possible will be affected negatively by many factors including: • condition of the equipment • was it filled properly • temperature bottle was filled at versus temperature it will be used in • physical condition of the person using the SCBA • physical size of the person using the SCBA • workers emotional state and experience level • exertion level required of worker

92 Emergency Response The emergency response plan must include the emergency procedures to follow in the event of an emergency, including procedures to evacuate the confined space immediately if: an alarm is activated the concentration of oxygen inside the confined space moves outside of the acceptable range there is a significant change in the amount of hazardous substances inside the confined space. Plan must be in writing & explained to entrants

93 The Emergency Response Plan
Emergency response plans must include the following: • the identification of potential emergencies, • procedures for dealing with the identified emergencies, • the identification of, location of and operational procedures for emergency equipment, • the emergency response training requirements, • the location and use of emergency facilities, • the fire protection requirements, • the alarm and emergency communication requirements, • the first aid services required, • procedures for rescue and evacuation, and • the designated rescue and evacuation workers.

94 The Emergency Response Plan (cont.)
Additional items that you may want to include in a rescue plan are: • dimensions of the space, location of entry and exit points, and obstacles to removing an injured worker, • possible hazards that may arise during rescue, the appropriate evaluation of these hazards, and control methods recommended by the qualified person, and • rescue methods for a worker who is unconscious (on or off of a lifeline), or distressed. Drills must be carried out periodically

95 Types of Rescue Self rescue: entrant capable of exiting unassisted
External rescue: need outside assistance without additional entry; opening & path unobstructed to allow external Retrieval system (already set up). Entry rescue: entrant needs assistance to escape; but opening &/or path obstructed, or entrant needs to be assessed/helped before moving them IDLH entry rescue: unknown atmosphere or immediately dangerous to life & health condition. Time is critical. Principle: “life over limb” is allowed. Assumes early warning of developing hazard Important for workers to be wearing harness & tethered to extraction line for easy extraction CS may have obstacles, or more than 3 metres horizontally to move injured worker 95

96 Emergency Response Group
Internal or external Not become victims themselves-assess-sop’s Ready to respond when notified minutes for IDLH Trained and properly equipped Locate the entrant(s), stabilize them, package & extract them Ensure proper first aid equipment on site Prior to entry be given opportunity to prepare extraction plan Determine # persons req’d to extract personnel Ensure req’d actions taken before sending in rescue personnel (ie. Proper equipment, capabilities Maintain appropriate communication throughout External rescuers must be made aware in advance of site, spaces, hazards, through appropriate drills and be briefed of same prior to rescue Need to be trained in: physical distress systems recognition training, personal protective devices, communication systems, supplied air breathing apparatus, spinal board packaging, severe bleeding management, hazard ID, evaluation, & control, knowledge of managing an emergency response incident 96

97 Worksafe Video


99 Tending Worker For every confined space entry, an employer must designate a competent worker to be in communication with a worker in the confined space. The “tending person” does not have to be immediately outside the confined space unless the following point comes into play. * the oxygen content of the atmosphere inside the confined space is Less than 19.5% or greater than 23.0% * a hazard is identified by the hazard assessment and the hazard cannot be eliminated or effectively controlled.

100 Tending Worker (cont.) The role of the tending worker is to monitor the safety of the person(s) working inside the confined space and to take action if an emergency arises. This tending worker must: • keep track at all times of the number of workers inside the confined space • be in constant communication with the workers inside the confined space, • have a suitable system for summoning assistance, and • not leave the area until all workers have left the confined space or another tending worker is in place.

101 Safe Work Permit A safe work permit is a document that identifies the work to be done, the hazard(s) involved, and the precautions to be taken. It ensures that all hazards and precautions have been considered before work begins. Safe work permits should always be used when work is performed by an outside agency or employer. What is a safe work permit? A safe work permit is a written record that authorizes specific work, at a specific work location, for a specific time period. Permits are used for controlling and coordinating work to establish and maintain safe working conditions. They ensure that all foreseeable hazards have been considered and that the appropriate precautions are defined and carried out in the correct sequence. Employers are required to provide workers with a safe place of work and to identify known safety hazards. This can be partly achieved through the use of a safe work permit system.

102 Safe Work Permit (cont.)
There are two types of safe work permits. 1. Hot Work Permit Hot work permits are used when heat or sparks are generated by work such as welding, burning, cutting, riveting, grinding, drilling, and where work involves the use of pneumatic hammers and chippers, non-explosion proof electrical equipment (lights, tools, and heaters), and internal combustion engines. 2. Cold Work Permit Cold work permits are used in hazardous maintenance work that does not involve "hot work". Cold work permits are issued when there is not reasonable source of ignition, and when all contact with harmful substances has been eliminated or appropriate precautions taken.

103 Entry Permit System A confined space entry permit is essentially a document that sets out the work to be done and the precautions to be taken. It can function as a safety checklist to make sure that nothing is overlooked. A worker must not enter a confined space at a worksite without a valid entry permit. The entry permit must, at a minimum: List the name of each worker who enters the confined space and the reason for their entry Provide the location of the confined space, Specify the time period for which the entry permit is valid Take into account the work being done in the confined space, and therefore the safety precautions that must be taken, and take into account the code of practice requirements for entering, being in and Leaving the confined space. The completed, signed permit must be kept readily available If an employer performs a hazard assessment of a representative sample of identical confined spaces, then a single entry permit can be used for these and any additional identical confined spaces

104 Confined Space Entry Permit
Location and description of confined space: Reason for entry: Permit issued to: Supervisor’s Name: Attendant’s name: Permit issuer’s name: % oxygen: % lower explosive limit: ppm CO: H2S: Requirements Emergency Rescuer yes no Continuous Gas Monitor yes no Barrier for ground openings yes no Warning Signs yes no

105 Confined Space Entry Log
The entry log is a document kept by the Safety Watch (Monitor). It is an up to the minute running account of the personnel inside the confined space. Recommended information includes: • the name of each worker • their personal protective equipment • the time the confined space was entered • the time the confined space was exited, and • the total number of workers in the confined space.

106 Oxygen Deficiency Oxygen Deficiency
A worker enters an enclosed area and collapses. Another worker rushes in to rescue the first worker. Both workers die. A worker enters a confined space. When he doesn't come out, a co-worker goes after him. A third worker tries to hold his breath and rescue both. All three workers die. Can I tell if the air doesn't have enough oxygen? NO! Air that is low in oxygen has no warning properties. You can't smell, taste, or see any difference. By the time you feel faint or dizzy, you may not have enough energy or alertness to escape

107 Oxygen Deficiency (cont.)
• Oxygen is used up when metals rust. • Oxygen is used up during combustion - for example, by propane space heaters, during cutting and welding, and by internal combustion engines, • Oxygen is replaced by other gases used in industrial processes for example, welding gases or gases forced into the space to prevent corrosion. • Oxygen is replaced by gases leaking into an enclosed space through drains or other openings. • Micro-organisms use up oxygen - for example, in sewer lines and fermentation vessels. The only way to know what the oxygen level is in the atmosphere is to test for oxygen levels with a properly calibrated oxygen tester.

108 Inert Atmospheres Inerting is the process of intentionally replacing the atmosphere inside a confined space with an inert gas such as nitrogen. Inert means that the gas will not react or cause an explosion or fire. Inerting creates an oxygen deficient atmosphere because the air (with its oxygen) has been replaced by another gas. Inerting is used to eliminate hazards such as: • chemical reactions • flammable vapours • the possibility of explosions • to prevent oxidation (rusting) of equipment or the walls of the confined space

109 GASES Carbon Monoxide Gas (CO) - CO usually comes from the exhaust of gasoline engines and it is both odourless and colourless. Ringing in the ears, nausea, headaches and sleepiness are common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. Gasoline - Gasoline is in such wide spread use by the general public and industry that gasoline vapours are likely to be found almost anywhere. The average person can smell gasoline at 10 ppm. Other toxic gases commonly associated with confined space entry are: • Ammonia • Chlorine • Carbon dioxide • Benzene • H2S – Hydrogen Sulphide • Vapours of the toxic component in cleaning products being used in the confined space

110 LEL and UEL Lower Explosive Limit is defined as "the minimum concentration of combustible gas or vapour in air, expressed as a percentage by volume, which will ignite if a source of ignition is present". Below this Level the mixture is too Lean to ignite (there is not enough of the gas or vapour present to form an explosion hazard). In contrast, the Upper Explosive Limit, "the maximum concentration of combustible gas or vapour in air, expressed as a percentage by volume, which will ignite if a source of ignition is present". Above this level the mixture is too rich to ignite (there is too much of the gas or vapour present or too little air to form an explosion hazard) .

111 OEL & STEL Occupational Exposure Limit
The maximum airborne concentration of a substance a worker may safely be exposed to for an eight hour period. Short Term Exposure Limit The maximum allowable exposure of a toxic substance a worker may safely be exposed to over a 15 minute period. Regulations allow only four 15 minute exposures per day with at least one hour between each exposure.

112 Incident Investigation
Report all hazardous occurrences – spvsr Complete Hazardous Occurrence report Not to find blame but to learn from them Lessons learned new sop’s Most fatalities investigated reveal long term deficiencies/incidents before fatal event !

113 Ventilation Requirements
Purpose: prevent 02 deficient, toxic & flammable atmospheres Some sources: 1/3rd the volume of CS per minute for low level contaminants Ventilation: primary means to control toxic air Air testing determines actual ventilation requirements mechanical ventilation: 2 types – General supply & exhaust & local exhaust Natural ventilation is not reliable More efficient to push air than to pull air test CS before and after introducing ventilation

114 Ventilation Requirements (cont.)

115 Welding In CS not allowed without special Hot Work permit
sign off req’d by safety officer & supervisor Local exhaust at source General dilution – minimum 2000 cfm/welder HEPA/P100 respirators as minimum fire resistant clothing Special air monitoring requirements

116 Assessments

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122 Questions?

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