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Module 1: Pertinent legislation Module 2: Definitions & Terminology Module 3: Examples of confined space injuries &/or fatalities Module 4: Overview of.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 1: Pertinent legislation Module 2: Definitions & Terminology Module 3: Examples of confined space injuries &/or fatalities Module 4: Overview of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Module 1: Pertinent legislation Module 2: Definitions & Terminology Module 3: Examples of confined space injuries &/or fatalities Module 4: Overview of confined space hazards; hazard identification & assessment process Module 5: Overview of control methods Module 6: Methods of analyzing, eliminating, & controlling confined space hazards Module 7: Personal protective equipment / Life Saving Equipment Module 8: Emergency planning

3 Module 9: Legislated documentation requirements Module 10: Oxygen deficiency & enrichment Module 11: Flammable gases / hot Work Requirements Module 12: Toxic atmospheres that are Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. Module 13: Occupational Exposure Limits Module 14: Accident Incident Reporting Module 15: Hands on: PPE/rescue equipment Sample permits/ Hazard Assessment Gas monitors

4 Often fatal consequences - catastrophic Often multiple injuries Frequency of incidents is too high Would be rescuers become victims Iceberg principle - lots of incidents General lack of awareness & training never happen to me mentality Aim for Excellence NOT Stupidity!

5 ALL workers who work within confined spaces must receive specific training. Examples of additional training in addition to confined space training: Gas Testing Gas Testing Fall Protection training for vertical entry Fall Protection training for vertical entry First aid/rescue planning First aid/rescue planning ALL workers with related duties, such as rescue workers, supervisors, attendants and fire watch" personnel must also receive training specific to confined spaces. Training records must be kept. Refresher training to be considered.

6 an enclosed or partially enclosed space? an enclosed or partially enclosed space? is it designed or intended for human occupancy? Does it have restricted means of access & egress? Can it become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of: (i)its design, construction, location or atmosphere, or (ii)the materials or substances in it, or (iii)any other conditions relating to it. 4 questions need to be asked… Needs to meet all of these criteria

7 Is this a confined space ?

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10 Is this a potentially hazardous space?

11 Is this a confined space ?

12 Trenches & excavations can be confined spaces, if there is a likelihood of hazardous gases, engulfment and/or the lack of oxygen.

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16 September, 2009 Section 511. Confined Space Entry (1) An employer shall assess the work area to determine whether it contains confined spaces. (2) "confined space" means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that (a) is not designed or intended for human occupancy except for the purpose of performing work; (b) has restricted means of access and egress; and (c )may become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of (i )its design, construction, location or atmosphere, (ii)the materials or substances in it, or (iii)any other conditions relating to it. (3) A worker shall not work in a confined space after January 1, 2013 unless he or she has completed a confined space entry program prescribed by the commission. (4) An employer shall inform a worker who may have to work in a Confined space of a hazard by posting signs or other equally effective means of advising of the existence of and dangers posed by confined spaces.

17 Section 512. Corrective precautions (1) Upon first entering a confined space, a worker shall assume the space is hazardous until the contrary is demonstrated. (2) An employer shall ensure that a worker does not enter a confined space until (a) an adequate assessment of the hazards related to the confined space has been carried out; (b) a source containing a hazardous substance leading to the confined space is safely and completely blocked off or disconnected; (c) a test required under subsection (11) has been completed; (d) the worker is qualified to safely enter and perform duties within the confined space; (e) a written work permit documenting the tests and safety precautions has been completed (f) a set of written safe work procedures has been developed and a worker has been instructed in these procedures. (3) The assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) shall be recorded in writing and shall consider, with respect to each confined space, (a) the hazards that may exist due to the design, construction, location, use or contents of the confined space; and (b) the hazards that may develop while work is done inside the confined space.

18 (4) The record of the assessment may be incorporated into an entry permit. (5) Where 2 or more confined spaces are of similar construction and present the same hazards, their assessments may be recorded in a single document, but each confined space shall be clearly identified in the assessment. (6) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to carry out the assessment and shall maintain a record containing details of the persons knowledge, training and experience. (7) The assessment shall contain the name of the person who carries out the assessment. (8) The person shall sign and date the assessment and provide it to the employer.

19 (10)The employer shall ensure that the assessment is reviewed as often as necessary to ensure that the assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) remains current. (11)Appropriate tests for harmful vapours, gasses, fumes, mists, dusts or explosive substances and oxygen deficiency shall be made and recorded (a) before entry into the confined space; (b) after an interruption in the work procedures; and (c) at appropriate intervals. (12)Where a test made under subsection (11) indicates an unsafe condition, the confined space shall be ventilated or cleaned or both and periodically retested to ensure that: (a) the oxygen content is between 20% and 22%; (b) the concentration of flammable substances is maintained below 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL ) of that substance or substances; and (c) a worker's exposure to harmful substances is maintained at acceptable levels in accordance the TLVs established by ACGIH. levels in accordance the TLVs established by ACGIH.

20 (13) Where gas tests indicate harmful or explosive substances and it is not feasible to provide a safe respirable atmosphere, an employer shall ensure that : (a) entrants wear respiratory and personal protective equipment appropriate to the hazards; and (b) where a flammable or explosive gas or liquid is present all sources of ignition are controlled or eliminated. (14) Where control measures cannot be implemented, a worker shall leave the confined space. (15) Gas tests made shall be performed by a person who has been adequately trained in the proper use of testing equipment. (16) Equipment used in testing and monitoring shall be calibrated and monitored according to the manufacturer's instructions. instructions. (17) The completed permit shall be available at the time of entry to all authorized personnel by posting it at the entry portal or by another effective means.

21 Section 513. Work procedures (1) If an entrant may be exposed to a harmful atmosphere or may become entrapped by material (a) wears appropriate retrieval equipment for rescue; and (b) has a life-line attached to the retrieval equipment which is tended at all times by a person, stationed outside the entrance able to effect rescue. (2) the use of a lifeline is not required where an obstruction or other condition makes its use impractical or unsafe but, in that case, an employer shall implement procedures to ensure the safety of the worker.

22 (3) Entrants require attendants (b) stationed outside and near i) the entrance to the confined space, or if there is more than 1 entrance ii) near the one that best allows the attendant to perform their duties; (c) is in continuous communication with the worker as per safe work procedure; and (d) is provided with a device for summoning an adequate rescue response. (4) An attendant shall not enter a confined space and shall, in accordance with the required safe work procedure, in accordance with the required safe work procedure, (a) monitor the safety of the worker; (b) provide assistance to entrants and rescuers; and (c) summon an adequate rescue response where required.

23 Section 514. Entry into confined space A confined space shall be entered only where (a) opening is sufficient to allow safe passage of a person wearing PPE/safety equipment; (b) mechanical equipment in the confined space is (i) disconnected from its power source, and (ii) locked out and tagged; (c) pipes & other supply lines with hazardous contents are blanked off; (d) measures, where appropriate, to continuously ventilate space; ventilate space; (e) liquid / free-flowing solid capable of drowning / entrapping have been removed; entrapping have been removed; (f) adequate explosion-proof illumination is provided where appropriate; and where appropriate; and (g) adequate barriers are erected to prohibit unauthorized entry. unauthorized entry.

24 45. (1) A worker may refuse to do work that the worker has reasonable grounds to believe is dangerous to his or her health or safety, or the health and safety of another person at the workplace (a)until remedial action has been taken by the employer to the worker's satisfaction; (b)until the committee or worker health and safety representative has investigated the matter and advised the worker to return to work; or (c)until an officer has investigated the matter and has advised the worker to return to work.

25 program should meet regulations program needs to be reviewed Inform them of your hazard assessment Ensure they use sops/permits Emergency response planning Periodically audit incident reporting system – incidents dont become accidents

26 5 % 15 % Methane in Air LEL UEL Too rich Too lean Competent - in relation to a person, means adequately qualified, suitably trained and with sufficient experience to safely perform work without supervision or with only a minimal degree of supervision; Explosive atmosphere - means an atmosphere that (a) contains a substance in a mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions and at a concentration between the substance's lower explosive limit and upper explosive limit, Hazard - means a situation, condition or thing that may be dangerous to the safety or health of workers;

27 Risk – likelihood hazard becomes incident; based on severity, frequency, duration, etc Hot work - means work in which a flame is used or sparks or other sources of ignition may be produced, including (a)cutting, welding, burning, air gouging, riveting, drilling, grinding, and chipping, (b)using electrical equipment not classified for use in a hazardous location, and (c)introducing a combustion engine to a work process;

28 Flash point: Minimum T of which a liquid fuel is heated to give off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air (i.e burns) Ignition T: Minimum T reqd for substance to be heated to achieve self sustaining combustion independent of ignition source

29 Fire triangle Ignition source Lower flammable limit/flammable range Flash Point/Vapor Pressure Vapor density

30 Lowest conc. of flammable gas/vapor, expressed in % volume in air, that will burn or explode in presence of ignition source. Below this level, atmosphere is too lean to burn. LEL is lowest part of the flammable range; upper limit is the UEL 5 % 15 % Methane in Air LEL UEL Too rich Too lean

31 Flammable vapors exist above volatile liquids such vapors are heavier than air and settle in low spots; travel large distances & ignite Gas testing not enough; remove all liquids, residues, sludge MSDS: look at flash point, vapor pressure, LEL, boiling point, vapor density

32 Worker not to stay in Confined Space if: > 25%LEL for inspection only; no source of ignition; > 10%LEL - cold work; > 5% LEL &/or > 23% O2 during hot work;

33 hydrogen Chlorine, benzene, gasoline argon, carbon dioxide argon, carbon dioxide Ammonia, methane Air, carbon monoxide, nitrogen propane Light gases Heavy gases Air = 1

34 System to ID all hazards existing in absence of controls; control minimizes risk Every CS hazardous unless determined otherwise by risk assessment Take into account: Routine & non-routine activities in & out of space Facilities & activities of adjacent spaces/workplace Contents and supply lines into/out of the space

35 Engulfment or entrapment by liquids/materials Potential for fire or explosion, oxygen deficiency Biological hazards – crawl spaces Physical hazards - Temperature- Noise- Humidity - Lighting - Ergonomics Flammable residues - fire resistant coveralls ineffective Toxic hazards – lead, asbestos, VOCs, etc

36 a)Eliminate hazard b)Substitute hazardous materials, processes, equipment c)Engineering controls d)Administrative controls e)PPE-selection, use & maintenance Best Option Least Preferred option

37 Most confined spaces are designed to hold substances such as liquids, gases, and loose materials, or to house equipment. Though they come in many sizes and shapes, most can be classified in one of two ways: 1. Spaces that are open-topped and have depth pits well bins pits well bins 2. Spaces with narrow openings pipes utility vaults pipes utility vaults Attics HVAC Attics HVAC

38 a)Entrant is the person who enters a confined space. b)Attendant stays outside the confined space, monitors the space, responsible for assisting the entrant, summons assistance in emergency. c)Safety representative (or entry supervisor) is the competent person who assesses the hazards, lists necessary equipment and control measures, controls Confined Space Entry Permit process.

39 Remain alert outside space summon help if needed but do not enter Consider activities outside space Maintain 2 way communication Know hazards posed & work requirements assess conditions/changes that may impact entrants Ensure controls measures working properly Initiate emergency procedures as per sop Perform non-entry emergency rescue if safe to do so

40 Remain alert at all times Aware of all potential hazards Aware of symptoms & warning signs of exposure Report concerns to attendant Exit immediately if conditions warrant, alarms sound, or if directed You have a right to be made aware of all potential hazards

41 Assessment must be carried out by a qualified person, and form completed Must identify existing and potential hazards Must contain name of person performing assessment Must be signed and dated Must be copied to Occupational Health and Safety Committee Must be recorded and maintained in filing system Has been separated into sections for ease of use

42 1.Access into the confined space 2.Internal configuration and features of the confined space 3.Electrical hazards 4.Mechanical hazards 5.Engulfment Hazards 6.External Hazards 7.Communications 8.Ventilation 9.Adverse temperatures 10.Noise / Vibration 11.Chemical Hazards 12.Other Considerations

43 Entrance/Exit Accessibility and Configuration Entrance/exit easily accessible? Type: Round, Oval, Square, Other? Vertical Entry/Exit Stairs, Fixed ladder, Portable ladder, Other? Condition? Tripod to be used? Horizontal Entry/Exit Elevated entry/exit? Work platform provided?

44 Use & Shape of a space can create hazardous conditions: Low Ceilings? Walk in ErectStooped Head Hazards? Footing inside space? Narrow areas entrapping entrant/rescuer Sloping surface Uneven surfaces & bends create challenges for attendant to communicate Need to protect openings with barricades

45 Other Internal features of space? Wet or slippery surfaces Poor lighting Sharp objects Mold Pipelines going through the space? Use of ladders & scaffolding? Need to protect openings with barricades

46 Possible contact with energized conductors? Controls: Lockout procedures, GFCIs, grounding & bonding, double insulated tools Hazardous sources: - Broken/energized lighting & power - Damaged cords - Welding equipment not grounded/bonded - Wet surfaces confound problems - Explosion/vapor proof lighting may need to be assessed need to be assessed CSA C22.1 Canadian Electrical Code Part 1 Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, Clause 18 Hazardous Locations

47 Unguarded mechanical equipment Examples: Moving/rotating belts or chains, gears,paddles,blades,shafts, pinch points Lockout / Tag-out procedures required

48 Chemical?Sludge/sewage? Other hazardous liquid (water)? Lock out and/or Isolate: physically prevent and/or disconnect pipes & energy sources by applying controls: Such as: Locks,Tags, Blanks & blinds Double block & bleed

49 Traffic hazard? Parking lot (loading area/parking spaces in vicinity)? Precipitation? Overhead electrical wires Spill or possibility of objects falling into opening?

50 Space has configuration that will hamper ventilation/purging? Convoluted space? Large volume? Other?

51 Entrants can be visually observed by attendant? Voice only adequate? Visual hang signal adequate? Internal telephone available? Cell phone required? Radio required? Intercom? Rope Signal?

52 Heat stress? Cold stress?

53 Too loud? PPE required? Anti-vibration tools?

54 Pipes/lines? Accumulation of: Flammable/combustible/oxygen enriched Oxygen deficient atmospheres Toxic atmosphere Oxygen deficiency can be caused by: Consumption: oxygen is used up (respiration, fire, bacterial action) Displacement:heavier materials push out normal air (argon, CO2, freon). Reaction:air reacts with other materials to make other compounds (oxidation-rust). Combustion uses up O2 faster than respiration

55 Symptoms of Oxygen Deficiency

56 Does lack of oxygen cause shortness of breath? Are there adequate warning signs of oxygen deficiency? Symptoms of Oxygen Deficiency

57 Oxygen Enriched Levels above 21%. flammables & combustibles burn faster & harder Dont use pure oxygen to ventilate. Dont store oxygen tanks/hoses in a confined space Wear fire resistant clothing

58 Flammable liquids Flammable vapors - above liquid surface often heavier than air (lower tank region) Vapors can reach great distances to ignition sources Fire prevention: Remove all hydrocarbons, vapors & flammable gases from tanks Eliminate ignition sources Properly ventilate space to dilute vapors

59 Chemical Toxicity Chemicals bought into space Fugitive emissions (welding, solvents, degreasers) Waxy surfaces (hydrocarbons) No magic meter to test all chemicals Need to refer to MSDSs & hazard assessment Consider skin & inhalation hazards

60 Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Used for purpose of respirator selection Airborne levels of hazardous substances that may: Impair the worker's ability to safely leave the dangerous situation Lead to irreversible or delayed health effects, serious injury, or death in a short period

61 ACGIH TLVs - Time Weighted Average TWA = Concentration at which workers can be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse health effects Can exceed TWA from time to time as long as average exposure not exceeded Some chemicals require us to be concerned even for short term exposures STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) Ceiling limit

62 Carbon Monoxide Formed by incomplete combustion Colorless, odorless gas, non irritating Slightly lighter than air Causes suffocation without warning Go unconscious at high concentrations LEL = 12.5%, TWA=25 ppm NIOSH IDLH = 1200 ppm Sampling: gas meter or colorimetric tubes Typical respirator not adequate

63 Hydrogen Sulfide Sewer gas –rotten egg smell-organic breakdown Colorless, flammable gas at high concentrations TLV=10 ppm; STEL=15 ppm; NIOSH IDLH=100 ppm Natural component of crude oil (heavy/sour crude) Paralyzes sense of smell (cant rely on smell) heavier than air Mutligas meter or colorimetric tubes

64 Chlorine - Chlorinators 3 forms: liquid (4 %); solid (12 %) & gas 100 % Pungent irritating corrosive gas Upper respiratory & eye irritation Heavy gas (Vapor density > air) Ventilate at low levels TLV-TWA = 0.5 ppm TWA-STEL = 1 ppm (15 minute) Colorimetric tubes

65 Air Monitoring Assesser must be competent Calibrate monitors Remote sampling first, then enter Reassess to ensure conditions stay safe before entry; after break in work; & at appropriate intervals If tests indicate unsafe condition; ventilation &/or clean & retest so that: O2 is between 20 & 22 % < 10 % LFL ACGIH TLVs not exceeded Permit to be posted at portal entry (with gas testing results)

66 How to test? Need to test remotely first at least 3 different levels to see if results vary vapor density is important Hint: test exhaust air sludge can give off volatiles if heated or disturbed

67 Air Monitoring Contd Pass or fail scenario Not looking for 100 % accurate readings Use portable fairly accurate instruments gas meter – oxygen, LEL, CO, H2S, colorimetric tubes –, Cl2, CO2,, NO2, etc PID – TVOCs (hydrocarbons) Is it safe or unsafe for entry!

68 Calibration vs. Bump Test Calibration - gases of known concentration verify instrument is measuring properly (quantitative test) Bump test – a short burst of gas to ensure that sensors and alarms are working (qualitative test)

69 Detector Tubes Numerous Toxic Gas/Vapors Chemical reactions colored reagent Length of colored stain = concentration Pump (draws 100 ml) Need to follow instructions Simple procedure but limitations + interferences Accuracy: + or – 30 % Draeger, Gastec, Kitigawa Need to know contaminant of concern Grab samples only

70 Photo-ionization Detector Real time measurements of TVOCs Universal detector (not selective) Very sensitive (volatile toxics & flammables)

71 Structural integrity? Rodents/animals?

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74 Hazards found in confined spaces can be placed in the following groups: a.) Oxygen deficient atmospheres can be caused by rusting of a steel vessel, any form of burning (including welding & brazing), absorption by grain or soils, and consumption by bacteria. b.) Asphyxiant gas physiologically inert gases can dilute or displace atmospheric oxygen below the level required for normal human functioning examples of asphyxiant gases are carbon dioxide, ethane, helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen. c.) Toxic atmospheres - containing gases, vapours, dusts or fumes that have poisonous effects on the body. Cleaning, painting or welding may produce dangerous vapours or fumes. Gases such as hydrogen sulphide may leak into or be released from sludge present in the confined space. Carbon monoxide may be generated in the space by an internal combustion engine. Methane may be created through the fermentation of plant material in the space.

75 d.) Flammable or explosive atmospheres - containing flammable gases, vapours or dusts that could be ignited by a spark or open flame. The risk of explosion increases if an oxygen enriched atmosphere is present. e.) Engulfment - workers can be trapped or buried by dry bulk materials such as grain, sand, flour, fertilizer and sawdust. f.) Operation of moving parts being trapped or crushed by augers, mixers, agitators, or conveyor belts. g.) Uncontrolled introduction - of steam, water or gas h.) Other hazards - these could result from the work being done Examples are noise, extremes of temperature, radiation, manual handling and falls.

76 Any situation involving the risk of fire or explosion is considered to be a hot work hazard situation, if the work being done could generate a spark. Common hot work hazards would include, but are not limited to: cutting - welding burning - air gouging riveting - drilling riveting - drilling grinding - chipping the use of non-classified electrical equipment placing a combustion engine in the confined space If a hot work hazard situation exists, a special hot work hazard safe work permit must be issued.

77 NoiseConfined space can amplify sounds Noise interferes with essential produced by tools and equipment. communication between entrants and attendants. Falling objectsObjects fall into the space because topside openings are unguarded or improperly guarded. Extreme temperaturesThe space's location and equipment make it hot or cold Environments put workers at risk. equipment it contains make it ideal for heat stress, doing strenuous work or wearing protective clothing make tasks more difficult to accomplish Slippery SurfacesLeaks, spills and condensation make walking surfaces slippery Wet surfaces are usually slippery. They increase the risk of falls.

78 Methods used to control hazards found in confined spaces fall into three categories: 1.) Engineering controls - ex. ventilation systems 2.) Administrative controls - ex. entry permit system 3.) Personal protective equipment ex. supplied air breathing apparatus Engineering controls are designed to eliminate the hazard administrative controls and personal protective equipment try to minimize the hazard.

79 a)Eliminate hazard b)Substitute with other materials c)Use engineering control measures d)Use administrative controls e)PPE

80 Once an existing or potential hazard is identified, an employer is required to eliminate the hazard or if elimination is not reasonably practicable, control the hazard. If reasonably practicable, an employer must eliminate or control a hazard through the use of engineering controls. If this can not be done, the employer must use administrative controls that control the hazard to a level as low as reasonably achievable. If engineering and administrative controls will not control the hazard, then an employer must ensure the appropriate personal protective equipment is used by workers affected by the hazard.

81 The following are examples of practices used to eliminate and control atmospheric confined space hazards. The following are examples of practices used to eliminate and control atmospheric confined space hazards. Cleaning the space to remove contaminants. For example: use a vacuum and hose to remove petrochemical sludge, Cleaning the space to remove contaminants. For example: use a vacuum and hose to remove petrochemical sludge, Replacing an unsafe atmosphere with clean respirable air by purging and ventilating Replacing an unsafe atmosphere with clean respirable air by purging and ventilating Replacing the unsafe atmosphere before entry usually involves mechanical ventilation to blow or suck fresh air in and continuously move it throughout the space. Replacing the unsafe atmosphere before entry usually involves mechanical ventilation to blow or suck fresh air in and continuously move it throughout the space.

82 Preventing fires and explosions. Fire prevention requires control of the three elementsneeded for a fire or explosion Preventing fires and explosions. Fire prevention requires control of the three elementsneeded for a fire or explosion Inerting the confined space. Inerting is used to eliminate hazards such as chemical reactions, flammable vapours, and the possibility of explosions. Inerting the confined space. Inerting is used to eliminate hazards such as chemical reactions, flammable vapours, and the possibility of explosions. Using continuous ventilation to keep the atmosphere safe. Using continuous ventilation to keep the atmosphere safe.

83 Loose and unstable material. Loose and unstable material. Shoring of unstable trench or evacuation walls Shoring of unstable trench or evacuation walls Removal of unstable material from confined space before entry. Removal of unstable material from confined space before entry. Requirement for lifeline and harness and provision for immediate rescue of a worker in distress. Requirement for lifeline and harness and provision for immediate rescue of a worker in distress. Moving parts of machinery. Moving parts of machinery. Locking out. The use of a Lock or locks to render machinery or equipment inoperable or to isolate an energy source. Locking out. The use of a Lock or locks to render machinery or equipment inoperable or to isolate an energy source.

84 Substitute pneumatic tools for electrical ones. Substitute pneumatic tools for electrical ones. Properly grounded tools. Properly grounded tools. Double-insulated tools. Double-insulated tools. Use of ground fault circuit interrupter. Use of ground fault circuit interrupter.

85 The type of PPE to be worn will depend on the job to be done and the hazards that have been identified. PPE considered basic for almost any job are: Employees are responsible to ensure their PPE is clean, properly maintained, in good serviceable condition, CSA approved, and suitable for the type of work to be performed. approved safety footwear approved safety footwear gloves gloves hard hat hard hat safety glasses safety glasses flame retardant coveralls flame retardant coveralls

86 Determined by hazard /risk assessment- based on hazards Noted on entry permit Protective clothing: chemical (corrosive/toxic) & flame resistant (residues) Need to consider hazardous materials (mold, asbestos, lead) Hydrocarbon stained coveralls can affect fire resistant clothing Garments: chemical resistance, appearance, comfort Among the more widely used fibers for protective clothing are NOMEX, INDURA and FLAMEX. Among the more widely used fibers for protective clothing are NOMEX, INDURA and FLAMEX.

87 Mechanical filters – NRP – 95,99,100 Chemical cartridges – OV, AG Combination of OV/AG/HEPA Negative (+) pressure field check Qualitative fit test CSA program & training – CSA Z94.4 Selection Care & Use Dont protect against oxygen deficiency

88 Selection of respiratory protective equipment depends on the type of work and the hazards to be encountered. There are three main types of respiratory protection devices: 1. Dust Masks - these masks may be disposable or reusable and are designed to filter out certain particles, mists and some fumes. 2. Canister or Cartridge - cartridge respirators can only protect you against the specific hazard(s) and specific concentration levels as identified on the canister/cartridge. The canister or cartridge respirator has limited use in confined space entry work. 3. Supplied Air - these devices are designed to supply fresh air from an independent and safe source.

89 written program with worksite-specific procedures when respirators are necessary provide necessary training on selection, use, care & limitations and medical evaluations as per CSA Z94.4 Program elements: 1. Selection2. Medical evaluation 3. Fit testing4. Use 5. Maintenance and care6. Breathing air quality and use 7. Training8. Program evaluation

90 Air-Supplying Respirators Deliver a safe supply of breathing air from a tank or an uncontaminated area nearby. Supplied Air Breathing Apparatus (SABA) The SABA has a positive pressure face mask connected by an airline to a cylinder of compressed breathing air not carried by the worker. For safety purposes, the SABA comes equipped with an egress bottle of air which is carried by the worker. This bottle contains a maximum of five minutes of air supply. In an emergency the worker disconnects the air line and turns on the egress bottle. SABA respirators are commonly used when the work to be performed will take several hours.

91 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) The SCBA has a positive pressure face mask connected to a compressed air cylinder which is carried by the worker. This type of equipment provides a limited air supply. Due to this limitation, SCBA respirators are best suited to perform short term and emergency tasks. The amount of air supply possible will be affected negatively by many factors including: condition of the equipment condition of the equipment was it filled properly was it filled properly temperature bottle was filled at versus temperature temperature bottle was filled at versus temperature it will be used in it will be used in physical condition of the person using the SCBA physical condition of the person using the SCBA physical size of the person using the SCBA physical size of the person using the SCBA workers emotional state and experience level workers emotional state and experience level exertion level required of worker exertion level required of worker

92 The emergency response plan must include the emergency procedures to follow in the event of an emergency, including procedures to evacuate the confined space immediately if: an alarm is activated an alarm is activated the concentration of oxygen inside the confined space moves outside of the acceptable range the concentration of oxygen inside the confined space moves outside of the acceptable range there is a significant change in the amount there is a significant change in the amount of hazardous substances inside the of hazardous substances inside the confined space. Plan must be in writing & explained to entrants to entrants

93 Emergency response plans must include the following: the identification of potential emergencies, the identification of potential emergencies, procedures for dealing with the identified emergencies, procedures for dealing with the identified emergencies, the identification of, location of and operational procedures for emergency equipment, the identification of, location of and operational procedures for emergency equipment, the emergency response training requirements, the emergency response training requirements, the location and use of emergency facilities, the location and use of emergency facilities, the fire protection requirements, the fire protection requirements, the alarm and emergency communication requirements, the alarm and emergency communication requirements, the first aid services required, the first aid services required, procedures for rescue and evacuation, and procedures for rescue and evacuation, and the designated rescue and evacuation workers. the designated rescue and evacuation workers.

94 Additional items that you may want to include in a rescue plan are: dimensions of the space, location of entry and exit points, and obstacles to removing aninjured worker, dimensions of the space, location of entry and exit points, and obstacles to removing aninjured worker, possible hazards that may arise during rescue, the appropriate evaluation of these hazards, and control methods recommended by the qualified person, and possible hazards that may arise during rescue, the appropriate evaluation of these hazards, and control methods recommended by the qualified person, and rescue methods for a worker who is unconscious (on or off of a lifeline), or distressed. rescue methods for a worker who is unconscious (on or off of a lifeline), or distressed. Drills must be carried out periodically

95 1.Self rescue: entrant capable of exiting unassisted 2.External rescue: need outside assistance without additional entry; opening & path unobstructed to allow external Retrieval system (already set up). 3.Entry rescue: entrant needs assistance to escape; but opening &/or path obstructed, or entrant needs to be assessed/helped before moving them 4.IDLH entry rescue: unknown atmosphere or immediately dangerous to life & health condition. Time is critical. Principle: life over limb is allowed.

96 Internal or external Not become victims themselves-assess-sops Ready to respond when notified minutes for IDLH Trained and properly equipped Locate the entrant(s), stabilize them, package & extract them Ensure proper first aid equipment on site

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99 For every confined space entry, an employer must designate a competent worker to be in communication with a worker in the confined space. The tending person does not have to be immediately outside the confined space unless the following point comes into play. * the oxygen content of the atmosphere inside the confined space is Less than 19.5% or greater than 23.0% * a hazard is identified by the hazard assessment and the hazard cannot be eliminated or effectively controlled.

100 The role of the tending worker is to monitor the safety of the person(s) working inside the confined space and to take action if an emergency arises. This tending worker must: keep track at all times of the number of workers inside the confined space keep track at all times of the number of workers inside the confined space be in constant communication with the workers inside the confined space, be in constant communication with the workers inside the confined space, have a suitable system for summoning assistance, and have a suitable system for summoning assistance, and not leave the area until all workers have left the confined space or another tending worker is in place. not leave the area until all workers have left the confined space or another tending worker is in place.

101 A safe work permit is a document that identifies the work to be done, the hazard(s) involved, and the precautions to be taken. It ensures that all hazards and precautions have been considered before work begins. Safe work permits should always be used when work is performed by an outside agency or employer. What is a safe work permit? A safe work permit is a written record that authorizes specific work, at a specific work location, for a specific time period. Permits are used for controlling and coordinating work to establish and maintain safe working conditions. They ensure that all foreseeable hazards have been considered and that the appropriate precautions are defined and carried out in the correct sequence. A safe work permit is a written record that authorizes specific work, at a specific work location, for a specific time period. Permits are used for controlling and coordinating work to establish and maintain safe working conditions. They ensure that all foreseeable hazards have been considered and that the appropriate precautions are defined and carried out in the correct sequence. Employers are required to provide workers with a safe place of work and to identify known safety hazards. This can be partly achieved through the use of a safe work permit system. Employers are required to provide workers with a safe place of work and to identify known safety hazards. This can be partly achieved through the use of a safe work permit system.

102 There are two types of safe work permits. 1. Hot Work Permit Hot work permits are used when heat or sparks are generated by work such as welding, burning, cutting, riveting, grinding, drilling, and where work involves the use of pneumatic hammers and chippers, non-explosion proof electrical equipment (lights, tools, and heaters), and internal combustion engines. 2. Cold Work Permit Cold work permits are used in hazardous maintenance work that does not involve "hot work". Cold work permits are issued when there is not reasonable source of ignition, and when all contact with harmful substances has been eliminated or appropriate precautions taken.

103 A confined space entry permit is essentially a document that sets out the work to be done and the precautions to be taken. It can function as a safety checklist to make sure that nothing is overlooked. It can function as a safety checklist to make sure that nothing is overlooked. A worker must not enter a confined space at a worksite without a valid entry permit. A worker must not enter a confined space at a worksite without a valid entry permit. The entry permit must, at a minimum: The entry permit must, at a minimum: – List the name of each worker who enters the confined space and the reason for their entry – Provide the location of the confined space, – Specify the time period for which the entry permit is valid – Take into account the work being done in the confined space, and therefore the safety precautions that must be taken, and take into account the code of practice requirements for entering, being in and Leaving the confined space. – The completed, signed permit must be kept readily available – If an employer performs a hazard assessment of a representative sample of identical confined spaces, then a single entry permit can be used for these and any additional identical confined spaces

104 Location and description of confined space: Reason for entry: Permit issued to: Supervisors Name: Attendants name: Permit issuers name: % oxygen:% lower explosive limit: ppm CO: H 2 S: Requirements Emergency Rescueryesno Continuous Gas Monitoryesno Barrier for ground openingsyesno Warning Signsyesno

105 The entry log is a document kept by the Safety Watch (Monitor). It is an up to the minute running account of the personnel inside the confined space. Recommended information includes: the name of each worker the name of each worker their personal protective equipment their personal protective equipment the time the confined space was entered the time the confined space was entered the time the confined space was exited, and the time the confined space was exited, and the total number of workers in the confined space. the total number of workers in the confined space.

106 Oxygen Deficiency A worker enters an enclosed area and collapses. Another worker rushes in to rescue the first worker. Both workers die. A worker enters a confined space. When he doesn't come out, a co- worker goes after him. A third worker tries to hold his breath and rescue both. All three workers die. A worker enters an enclosed area and collapses. Another worker rushes in to rescue the first worker. Both workers die. A worker enters a confined space. When he doesn't come out, a co- worker goes after him. A third worker tries to hold his breath and rescue both. All three workers die. Can I tell if the air doesn't have enough oxygen? NO! Air that is low in oxygen has no warning properties. You can't smell, taste, or see any difference. By the time you feel faint or dizzy, you may not have enough energy or alertness to escape NO! Air that is low in oxygen has no warning properties. You can't smell, taste, or see any difference. By the time you feel faint or dizzy, you may not have enough energy or alertness to escape

107 Oxygen is used up when metals rust. Oxygen is used up when metals rust. Oxygen is used up during combustion - for example, by propane space heaters, during cutting and welding, and by internal combustion engines, Oxygen is used up during combustion - for example, by propane space heaters, during cutting and welding, and by internal combustion engines, Oxygen is replaced by other gases used in industrial processes for example, welding gases or gases forced into the space to prevent corrosion. Oxygen is replaced by other gases used in industrial processes for example, welding gases or gases forced into the space to prevent corrosion. Oxygen is replaced by gases leaking into an enclosed space through drains or other openings. Oxygen is replaced by gases leaking into an enclosed space through drains or other openings. Micro-organisms use up oxygen - for example, in sewer lines and fermentation vessels. Micro-organisms use up oxygen - for example, in sewer lines and fermentation vessels. The only way to know what the oxygen level is in the atmosphere is to test for oxygen levels with a properly calibrated oxygen tester.

108 Inerting is the process of intentionally replacing the atmosphere inside a confined space with an inert gas such as nitrogen. Inert means that the gas will not react or cause an explosion or fire. Inerting creates an oxygen deficient atmosphere because the air (with its oxygen) has been replaced by another gas. Inerting is used to eliminate hazards such as: chemical reactions chemical reactions flammable vapours flammable vapours the possibility of explosions the possibility of explosions to prevent oxidation (rusting) of equipment or the walls of the confined space to prevent oxidation (rusting) of equipment or the walls of the confined space

109 Carbon Monoxide Gas (CO) - CO usually comes from the exhaust of gasoline engines and it is both odourless and colourless. Ringing in the ears, nausea, headaches and sleepiness are common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. Gasoline - Gasoline is in such wide spread use by the general public and industry that gasoline vapours are likely to be found almost anywhere. The average person can smell gasoline at 10 ppm. Other toxic gases commonly associated with confined space entry are: Ammonia Ammonia Chlorine Chlorine Carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide Benzene Benzene H2S – Hydrogen Sulphide H2S – Hydrogen Sulphide Vapours of the toxic component in cleaning products being used in the confined space Vapours of the toxic component in cleaning products being used in the confined space

110 Lower Explosive Limit is defined as "the minimum concentration of combustible gas or vapour in air, expressed as a percentage by volume, which will ignite if a source of ignition is present". Below this Level the mixture is too Lean to ignite (there is not enough of the gas or vapour present to form an explosion hazard). In contrast, the Upper Explosive Limit, "the maximum concentration of combustible gas or vapour in air, expressed as a percentage by volume, which will ignite if a source of ignition is present". Above this level the mixture is too rich to ignite (there is too much of the gas or vapour present or too little air to form an explosion hazard).

111 Occupational Exposure Limit The maximum airborne concentration of a substance a worker may safely be exposed to for an eight hour period. The maximum airborne concentration of a substance a worker may safely be exposed to for an eight hour period. Short Term Exposure Limit The maximum allowable exposure of a toxic substance a worker may safely be exposed to over a 15 minute period. Regulations allow only four 15 minute exposures per day with at least one hour between each exposure. The maximum allowable exposure of a toxic substance a worker may safely be exposed to over a 15 minute period. Regulations allow only four 15 minute exposures per day with at least one hour between each exposure.

112 Report all hazardous occurrences – spvsr Complete Hazardous Occurrence report Not to find blame but to learn from them Lessons learned new sops Most fatalities investigated reveal long term deficiencies/incidents before fatal event !

113 Purpose: prevent 02 deficient, toxic & flammable atmospheres Some sources: 1/3 rd the volume of CS per minute for low level contaminants Ventilation: primary means to control toxic air Air testing determines actual ventilation requirements mechanical ventilation: 2 types – General supply & exhaust & local exhaust Natural ventilation is not reliable More efficient to push air than to pull air test CS before and after introducing ventilation

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115 In CS not allowed without special Hot Work permit sign off reqd by safety officer & supervisor Local exhaust at source General dilution – minimum 2000 cfm/welder HEPA/P100 respirators as minimum fire resistant clothing Special air monitoring requirements

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