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INSTRUMENT GROUND SCHOOL HAZARDOUS WEATHER Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 TX-129 th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel.

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Presentation on theme: "INSTRUMENT GROUND SCHOOL HAZARDOUS WEATHER Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 TX-129 th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel."— Presentation transcript:

1 INSTRUMENT GROUND SCHOOL HAZARDOUS WEATHER Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 TX-129 th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan

2 2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Members personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentations Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 Weather Hazards to Flight Weather Hazards to Flight Most Weather is Flyable – Robert Buck Most Weather is Flyable – Robert Buck There a primarily 3 Weather Hazards can really get you into trouble: There a primarily 3 Weather Hazards can really get you into trouble: Low Visibility / Ceilings Low Visibility / Ceilings Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Ice Ice 3 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

4 The #1 Rule to Dealing with Hazardous Weather is: The #1 Rule to Dealing with Hazardous Weather is: Always have a way out! That means knowing the weather around, above & below. That means knowing the weather around, above & below. Know Yourself, and resist influence of outside factors Know Yourself, and resist influence of outside factors Passengers Passengers Get-there-itis Get-there-itis 4 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

5 Low Visibility Low Visibility Hazards Hazards Mountain Obscuration Mountain Obscuration Inability to Identify Runway Environment Inability to Identify Runway Environment Caused By Caused By Fog Fog Stable Air with Low Clouds Stable Air with Low Clouds Rain Rain 5 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

6 Fog Fog Coastal areas Coastal areas Large bodies of water, rivers Large bodies of water, rivers Upslope Fog Upslope Fog Valleys Valleys Precipitation Induced Precipitation Induced 6 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

7 Low Visibility requires Precision! Low Visibility requires Precision! Maintain Altitude, Heading, Navigation Track precisely! Maintain Altitude, Heading, Navigation Track precisely! Follow Instrument Procedures precisely Follow Instrument Procedures precisely Departure Departure Enroute Enroute Arrival Arrival Approach Approach 7 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

8 Low Visibility on Departure: Low Visibility on Departure: Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures SIDs SIDs 8 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

9 Low Visibility Enroute & Arrival Low Visibility Enroute & Arrival Know MEA, MOCA, MRA, etc. Know MEA, MOCA, MRA, etc. STARS STARS Follow airways precisely, especially in mountain areas Follow airways precisely, especially in mountain areas 9 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

10 Low Visibility on Approach: Low Visibility on Approach: Dont be committed to landing at an airport thats below minimums Dont be committed to landing at an airport thats below minimums Have a good alternate, with plenty of fuel to get there. Have a good alternate, with plenty of fuel to get there. Alternate Minimums Alternate Minimums Never duck below minimums! Never duck below minimums! 10 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

11 Low Visibility Low Visibility Set Personal Minimums Set Personal Minimums Know weather trends, and have personal pre- departure destination minimums. Know weather trends, and have personal pre- departure destination minimums. At the destination, set personal minimums for approach At the destination, set personal minimums for approach 11 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

12 Low Visibility Low Visibility Know where VFR weather is Know where VFR weather is Especially handy during emergencies, like electrical / radio failure where IFR navigation capability is severely limited. Especially handy during emergencies, like electrical / radio failure where IFR navigation capability is severely limited. Have backup navigation & communication ability – handheld Nav/Com & GPS. Have backup navigation & communication ability – handheld Nav/Com & GPS. 12 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

13 Low Visibility – Resources Low Visibility – Resources AOPA ASF Online Course – Weather Wise: Ceiling & Visibility AOPA ASF Online Course – Weather Wise: Ceiling & Visibility Aviation Weather, Chap. 12. Aviation Weather, Chap Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

14 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Hazards Hazards Severe or Extreme Turbulence Severe or Extreme Turbulence Hail Hail Lightning Lightning Causes & Types Causes & Types Airmass Airmass Frontal Frontal 14 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

15 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Produced by cumulonimbus clouds, and occur with Produced by cumulonimbus clouds, and occur with Water Vapor Water Vapor Unstable Lapse Rate Unstable Lapse Rate Lifting Action Lifting Action 15 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

16 Thunderstorms Life Cycle Thunderstorms Life Cycle Cumulus – the building stage. Cumulus – the building stage. Towering Cumulus, with continuous updrafts Towering Cumulus, with continuous updrafts Mature Mature Greatest Intensity, both updrafts & downdrafts Greatest Intensity, both updrafts & downdrafts Dissipating Dissipating Continuous downdrafts, raining out. Continuous downdrafts, raining out. 16 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

17 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms 17 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

18 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Lapse rate > 2C per 1000 ft, combined with high humidity indicates an unstable atmosphere, and thunderstorms are likely. Lapse rate > 2C per 1000 ft, combined with high humidity indicates an unstable atmosphere, and thunderstorms are likely. Moist air is less stable than dry air, because it cools more slowly with altitude, so it must rise higher to cool. Moist air is less stable than dry air, because it cools more slowly with altitude, so it must rise higher to cool. 18 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

19 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms K-Index measures moisture content of the atmosphere K-Index measures moisture content of the atmosphere High K-Index means Moist Air High K-Index means Moist Air Low K-Index means Dry Air Low K-Index means Dry Air 19 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

20 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Use Lifted Index to measure atmospheric stability, i.e.. thunderstorm potential. Use Lifted Index to measure atmospheric stability, i.e.. thunderstorm potential. LI ValueT-Storm Potential PositiveUnlikely 0 to -2Possible, w/ good trigger -3 to -5Probable < -5Strong Probability 20 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

21 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms 21 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

22 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Avoid ALL Thunderstorms, and especially Strong Thunderstorms by 20 nm or more Avoid ALL Thunderstorms, and especially Strong Thunderstorms by 20 nm or more May cause turbulence and hail miles from the storm. May cause turbulence and hail miles from the storm. Remember that even a benign looking cell can become a monster in minutes. Remember that even a benign looking cell can become a monster in minutes. Do Not Fly Under Thunderstorms, either. Do Not Fly Under Thunderstorms, either. Fly well clear of area, or land and wait for the storm to pass. Fly well clear of area, or land and wait for the storm to pass. 22 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

23 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Embedded thunderstorms are storms that are obscured by cloudy conditions, haze layers, etc. Embedded thunderstorms are storms that are obscured by cloudy conditions, haze layers, etc. Visual see & avoid may be inadequate Visual see & avoid may be inadequate Spherics, like Stormscope or Strikefinder, detect electrical discharge of lightning strikes Spherics, like Stormscope or Strikefinder, detect electrical discharge of lightning strikes Use Spherics to stay well clear of thunderstorm areas Use Spherics to stay well clear of thunderstorm areas Do NOT Use to pick your way between cells Do NOT Use to pick your way between cells 23 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

24 Thunderstorms Thunderstorms Radar detects precipitation, not instrument conditions. Radar detects precipitation, not instrument conditions. Learn to use and interpret radar properly Learn to use and interpret radar properly Without Radar or Spherics, avoid IMC around thunderstorms. Without Radar or Spherics, avoid IMC around thunderstorms. Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather 24

25 Thunderstorm Penetration Thunderstorm Penetration Youve run out of options, got yourself boxed into a corner, and penetration is inevitable. Youve run out of options, got yourself boxed into a corner, and penetration is inevitable. Youve probably passed up numerous opportunities to land, or go around, but kept saying, this doesnt look so bad, and now youre stuck. Youve probably passed up numerous opportunities to land, or go around, but kept saying, this doesnt look so bad, and now youre stuck. Penetrate fronts or squall lines where the tops are the lowest Penetrate fronts or squall lines where the tops are the lowest Do NOT fly through areas of fuzzy white – thats probably hail Do NOT fly through areas of fuzzy white – thats probably hail Dark clouds mean rain Dark clouds mean rain 25 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

26 Thunderstorm Penetration Thunderstorm Penetration Fly straight ahead, Do not turn around Fly straight ahead, Do not turn around Turn increases load factor on airplane Turn increases load factor on airplane Straight through is often the shortest route out of the storm. Straight through is often the shortest route out of the storm. Maintain Attitude – Wings Level, Level Pitch Maintain Attitude – Wings Level, Level Pitch Do not try to maintain altitude Do not try to maintain altitude Autopilot Altitude-Hold Off Autopilot Altitude-Hold Off 26 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

27 Thunderstorm Penetration Thunderstorm Penetration Set power & trim for turbulence penetration speed Set power & trim for turbulence penetration speed Pitot & Carb Heat ON Pitot & Carb Heat ON Tighten Seatbelts Tighten Seatbelts Panel lights to maximum, seat at lowest setting, and focus on the instruments Panel lights to maximum, seat at lowest setting, and focus on the instruments Lightning flashes may cause temporary blindness Lightning flashes may cause temporary blindness 27 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

28 Thunderstorm Penetration Thunderstorm Penetration You will probably be more scared than youve ever been – Control Your Fear. You will probably be more scared than youve ever been – Control Your Fear. Its loud, turbulent, and very distracting Its loud, turbulent, and very distracting Never Stop Flying the Airplane Never Stop Flying the Airplane Maintain attitude and airspeed Maintain attitude and airspeed Most T-storm related in-flight breakups result from loss of control, and overspeed. Most T-storm related in-flight breakups result from loss of control, and overspeed. 28 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

29 Thunderstorms Resources Thunderstorms Resources Aviation Weather, Chap. 11 Aviation Weather, Chap. 11 Weather Flying Chap. 14, Robert Buck Weather Flying Chap. 14, Robert Buck Severe Weather Flying, Dennis Newton Severe Weather Flying, Dennis Newton Weather Subject Weather Subject AOPA ASF Subject Reports AOPA ASF Subject Reports 29 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

30 Icing Icing 30 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

31 Icing – Effects Icing – Effects Clear Ice & Rime Ice Clear Ice & Rime Ice 31 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

32 Icing – Effects Icing – Effects Frost on the wings disrupts the flow over the wings, and should be removed before flight. Frost on the wings disrupts the flow over the wings, and should be removed before flight. Tests indicate that frost, snow or ice with texture similar to coarse sandpaper reduces lift by up to 30%, and increased drag by up to 40%. Tests indicate that frost, snow or ice with texture similar to coarse sandpaper reduces lift by up to 30%, and increased drag by up to 40%. 32 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

33 Icing - Effects Icing - Effects Ice collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges. Ice collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges. Wings & Stabilizers Wings & Stabilizers Causes a loss of lift, increased drag Causes a loss of lift, increased drag Antennas Antennas Ice may cause to flutter, and break Ice may cause to flutter, and break 33 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

34 Icing Icing Ice collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges. Ice collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges. Pitot Tubes Pitot Tubes Ice obstructs pitot-tube, causing loss of airspeed indication Ice obstructs pitot-tube, causing loss of airspeed indication Engine Inlets Engine Inlets Obstructs induction system Obstructs induction system Propellers Propellers Unbalances propeller, causing severe vibrations Unbalances propeller, causing severe vibrations Causes loss of lift, and therefore loss of thrust. Causes loss of lift, and therefore loss of thrust. 34 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

35 Icing - Tail Stall Icing - Tail Stall Due to smaller leading edge, tail collects ice faster than wing. Due to smaller leading edge, tail collects ice faster than wing. Loss of tail down force causes nose-down pitch. Loss of tail down force causes nose-down pitch. Flaps change the airflow over the tail. Flaps change the airflow over the tail. 35 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

36 36 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

37 Icing Icing Requires 2 conditions Requires 2 conditions Visible Moisture Visible Moisture Temperature at or below freezing Temperature at or below freezing Freezing Level is the altitude where freezing temperatures exist. Freezing Level is the altitude where freezing temperatures exist. Can be determined using the average lapse rate of 2C per 1000 ft. Can be determined using the average lapse rate of 2C per 1000 ft. Not a precise indication, so leave some margin. Not a precise indication, so leave some margin. 37 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

38 Icing Icing Freezing rain results in the fastest and greatest accumulation of ice. Freezing rain results in the fastest and greatest accumulation of ice. Indicates warmer temperatures above – temperature inversion. Indicates warmer temperatures above – temperature inversion. Super-Cooled Liquid Droplets (SLD) are liquid below freezing, large diameter, and freeze on impact. Super-Cooled Liquid Droplets (SLD) are liquid below freezing, large diameter, and freeze on impact. 38 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

39 Icing Icing 39 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

40 Icing Icing Freezing drizzle results in an accumulation of ice similar to freezing rain. Freezing drizzle results in an accumulation of ice similar to freezing rain. May form due to collision-coalescence, and doesnt necessarily indicate warmer temperatures above. May form due to collision-coalescence, and doesnt necessarily indicate warmer temperatures above. 40 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

41 Icing Icing Ice pellets caused by rain freezing at higher altitude Ice pellets caused by rain freezing at higher altitude Heavy, wet snow means temperature is above freezing at your altitude. Heavy, wet snow means temperature is above freezing at your altitude. It formed above you, but is on the verge of melting It formed above you, but is on the verge of melting 41 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

42 Icing Icing In stratus clouds, 90% of ice occurs within 3000 feet altitude band. In stratus clouds, 90% of ice occurs within 3000 feet altitude band. In cumulus clouds, icing can occur over any altitude range In cumulus clouds, icing can occur over any altitude range Avoid individual clouds when conditions are right for ice. Avoid individual clouds when conditions are right for ice. 42 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

43 43 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

44 Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06) Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06) Icing is most likely when temperatures are between 0C & -22C Icing is most likely when temperatures are between 0C & -22C 87% of reported icing (with >50% humidity outside cloud) 87% of reported icing (with >50% humidity outside cloud) 71% of reported icing occurs with >65% humidity, and temperatures between -2C & -15C. 71% of reported icing occurs with >65% humidity, and temperatures between -2C & -15C. 44 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

45 Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06) Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06) 95% Probability of Icing occurs under the following conditions: 95% Probability of Icing occurs under the following conditions: OAT < 0C, and OAT < 0C, and OAT is between dewpoint (T = T d ) and 80% dewpoint (T = 0.8*T d ) OAT is between dewpoint (T = T d ) and 80% dewpoint (T = 0.8*T d ) 45 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

46 Icing Icing 46 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

47 Icing Icing 47 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

48 Icing Strategies Icing Strategies In stratus clouds, with no freezing rain, Climb In stratus clouds, with no freezing rain, Climb In cumulus clouds, stay in clear air In cumulus clouds, stay in clear air Approaching a warm front from behind Approaching a warm front from behind Climb along the front, the descend rapidly through it. Climb along the front, the descend rapidly through it. Turn Around Turn Around 48 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

49 Icing Case Study Icing Case Study Field elevation around 600 feet, Field elevation around 600 feet, Temp = 48F, DP = 37F Temp = 48F, DP = 37F At what altitude would the cloud bases be, and would you expect to encounter ice in the clouds At what altitude would the cloud bases be, and would you expect to encounter ice in the clouds If encountering ice, what would you do about it? If encountering ice, what would you do about it? 49 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

50 Icing Case Study Icing Case Study Cirrus SR22, N87HK, departed Birmingham AL on 13 Jan 06 at 1601 CST headed for Orlando, ATP rated pilot. Cirrus SR22, N87HK, departed Birmingham AL on 13 Jan 06 at 1601 CST headed for Orlando, ATP rated pilot. DUATS briefing DUATS briefing Forecast ice from 8000 to 10,000 feet. Forecast ice from 8000 to 10,000 feet. Pilot overlooked Airmet for ice from 3000 to 8000 feet. Pilot overlooked Airmet for ice from 3000 to 8000 feet. Pilot climbs at 120 kias, enters clouds at 5000 feet, encounters ice at 7000 feet. Pilot climbs at 120 kias, enters clouds at 5000 feet, encounters ice at 7000 feet. Stated he did not know MOCA where he was. Stated he did not know MOCA where he was. 50 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

51 Icing Case Study Icing Case Study Was cleared to climb to 9000 feet. Was cleared to climb to 9000 feet. Stalled & spun at cloud tops, at 8000 feet, with a climb speed of 80 kias. Stalled & spun at cloud tops, at 8000 feet, with a climb speed of 80 kias. Unsuccessfully tried to recover from spin. Unsuccessfully tried to recover from spin. Pulled the boy, Im glad I bought a Cirrus so I can live through this BRS handle. Pulled the boy, Im glad I bought a Cirrus so I can live through this BRS handle. Stopped in trees, 4 feet above ground Stopped in trees, 4 feet above ground Pilot and 2 passengers exited safely. Pilot and 2 passengers exited safely. 51 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

52 Icing Dos – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Icing Dos – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Do Have a Plan A, and a Plan B Do Have a Plan A, and a Plan B Do take immediate action when you encounter ice Do take immediate action when you encounter ice Do Climb when you encounter ice, unless you KNOW you can get out of it by descending Do Climb when you encounter ice, unless you KNOW you can get out of it by descending 52 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

53 Icing Dos – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Icing Dos – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Do use maximum power to climb Do use maximum power to climb If you must enter ice, Do use maximum forward speed If you must enter ice, Do use maximum forward speed Do zoom climb through icing layer, if possible Do zoom climb through icing layer, if possible Do tell ATC that you must take immediate action Do tell ATC that you must take immediate action Do ALWAYS FLY THE AIRPLANE! Do ALWAYS FLY THE AIRPLANE! 53 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

54 Icing Donts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Icing Donts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Dont EVER Fly in Freezing Rain Dont EVER Fly in Freezing Rain Dont rely on boots to save you Dont rely on boots to save you Dont Climb at too slow an airspeed Dont Climb at too slow an airspeed Dont climb in ice pellets Dont climb in ice pellets Freezing Rain is above you Freezing Rain is above you Dont descend into colder air if its raining Dont descend into colder air if its raining Freezing Rain is below you. Freezing Rain is below you. 54 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

55 Icing Donts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Icing Donts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Dont allow ATC to fly your airplane Dont allow ATC to fly your airplane Dont think the airplane will fall out of the sky with a little ice Dont think the airplane will fall out of the sky with a little ice Dont stop flying the airplane Dont stop flying the airplane Dont use flaps on an ice-laden airplane Dont use flaps on an ice-laden airplane Dont get too slow in an ice-laden airplane Dont get too slow in an ice-laden airplane Dont PANIC Dont PANIC 55 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

56 Icing Icing Induction Icing Induction Icing Use Carb Heat Use Carb Heat Alternate Induction Air Source Alternate Induction Air Source Pilot-Static Icing Pilot-Static Icing Use Pitot-Heat in the clouds, when temperatures are near freezing. Use Pitot-Heat in the clouds, when temperatures are near freezing. 56 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

57 Icing Icing Propeller Icing Propeller Icing Run at High-RPM Run at High-RPM Cycle RPM up & down Cycle RPM up & down Use prop-deice, if equipped. Use prop-deice, if equipped. 57 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

58 Icing References Icing References IFR Magazine – wintertime issues IFR Magazine – wintertime issues Weather Flying, Robert Buck Weather Flying, Robert Buck In-Flight Icing, Perkins & Rieke. In-Flight Icing, Perkins & Rieke. AC 91-74, Pilot Guide to Flight in Icing Conditions) AC 91-74, Pilot Guide to Flight in Icing Conditions) AOPA ASF Safety Advisor – Aircraft Icing AOPA ASF Safety Advisor – Aircraft Icing Icing Course – FAA, NASA, AOPA Icing Course – FAA, NASA, AOPA 58 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

59 Questions? Always Think Safety! 59 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather


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