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Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

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Presentation on theme: "Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather"— Presentation transcript:

1 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006 TX-129th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014

2 This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.

3 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Weather Hazards to Flight “Most Weather is Flyable” – Robert Buck There a primarily 3 Weather Hazards can really get you into trouble: Low Visibility / Ceilings Thunderstorms Ice

4 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
The #1 Rule to Dealing with Hazardous Weather is: Always have a way out! That means knowing the weather around, above & below. Know Yourself, and resist influence of outside factors Passengers “Get-there-itis”

5 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility Hazards Mountain Obscuration Inability to Identify Runway Environment Caused By Fog Stable Air with Low Clouds Rain

6 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Fog Coastal areas Large bodies of water, rivers Upslope Fog Valleys Precipitation Induced

7 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility requires Precision! Maintain Altitude, Heading, Navigation Track precisely! Follow Instrument Procedures precisely Departure Enroute Arrival Approach

8 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility on Departure: Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures SID’s

9 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility Enroute & Arrival Know MEA, MOCA, MRA, etc. STARS Follow airways precisely, especially in mountain areas

10 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility on Approach: Don’t be committed to landing at an airport that’s below minimums Have a good alternate, with plenty of fuel to get there. Alternate Minimums Never duck below minimums!

11 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility Set Personal Minimums Know weather trends, and have personal pre- departure destination minimums. At the destination, set personal minimums for approach

12 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility Know where VFR weather is Especially handy during emergencies, like electrical / radio failure where IFR navigation capability is severely limited. Have backup navigation & communication ability – handheld Nav/Com & GPS.

13 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Low Visibility – Resources AOPA ASF Online Course – Weather Wise: Ceiling & Visibility Aviation Weather, Chap. 12.

14 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Hazards Severe or Extreme Turbulence Hail Lightning Causes & Types Airmass Frontal

15 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Produced by cumulonimbus clouds, and occur with Water Vapor Unstable Lapse Rate Lifting Action

16 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Life Cycle Cumulus – the building stage. Towering Cumulus, with continuous updrafts Mature Greatest Intensity, both updrafts & downdrafts Dissipating Continuous downdrafts, raining out.

17 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms

18 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Lapse rate > 2C per 1000 ft, combined with high humidity indicates an unstable atmosphere, and thunderstorms are likely. Moist air is less stable than dry air, because it cools more slowly with altitude, so it must rise higher to cool.

19 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms K-Index measures moisture content of the atmosphere High K-Index means Moist Air Low K-Index means Dry Air

20 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Use Lifted Index to measure atmospheric stability, i.e.. thunderstorm potential. LI Value T-Storm Potential Positive Unlikely 0 to -2 Possible, w/ good trigger -3 to -5 Probable < -5 Strong Probability

21 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms

22 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Avoid ALL Thunderstorms, and especially Strong Thunderstorms by 20 nm or more May cause turbulence and hail miles from the storm. Remember that even a benign looking cell can become a monster in minutes. Do Not Fly Under Thunderstorms, either. Fly well clear of area, or land and wait for the storm to pass.

23 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Embedded thunderstorms are storms that are obscured by cloudy conditions, haze layers, etc. Visual “see & avoid” may be inadequate “Spherics”, like Stormscope or Strikefinder, detect electrical discharge of lightning strikes Use Spherics to stay well clear of thunderstorm areas Do NOT Use to pick your way between cells

24 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Radar detects precipitation, not instrument conditions. Learn to use and interpret radar properly Without Radar or Spherics, avoid IMC around thunderstorms.

25 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorm Penetration You’ve run out of options, got yourself boxed into a corner, and penetration is inevitable. You’ve probably passed up numerous opportunities to land, or go around, but kept saying, “this doesn’t look so bad”, and now you’re stuck. Penetrate fronts or squall lines where the tops are the lowest Do NOT fly through areas of fuzzy white – that’s probably hail Dark clouds mean rain

26 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorm Penetration Fly straight ahead, Do not turn around Turn increases load factor on airplane Straight through is often the shortest route out of the storm. Maintain Attitude – Wings Level, Level Pitch Do not try to maintain altitude Autopilot Altitude-Hold Off

27 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorm Penetration Set power & trim for turbulence penetration speed Pitot & Carb Heat ON Tighten Seatbelts Panel lights to maximum, seat at lowest setting, and focus on the instruments Lightning flashes may cause temporary blindness

28 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorm Penetration You will probably be more scared than you’ve ever been – Control Your Fear. It’s loud, turbulent, and very distracting Never Stop Flying the Airplane Maintain attitude and airspeed Most T-storm related in-flight breakups result from loss of control, and overspeed.

29 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Thunderstorms Resources Aviation Weather, Chap. 11 “Weather Flying” Chap. 14, Robert Buck “Severe Weather Flying”, Dennis Newton Weather Subject AOPA ASF Subject Reports

30 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing

31 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing – Effects Clear Ice & Rime Ice

32 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing – Effects Frost on the wings disrupts the flow over the wings, and should be removed before flight. Tests indicate that frost, snow or ice with texture similar to coarse sandpaper reduces lift by up to 30%, and increased drag by up to 40%.

33 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing - Effects Ice collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges. Wings & Stabilizers Causes a loss of lift, increased drag Antennas Ice may cause to flutter, and break

34 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Ice collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges. Pitot Tubes Ice obstructs pitot-tube, causing loss of airspeed indication Engine Inlets Obstructs induction system Propellers Unbalances propeller, causing severe vibrations Causes loss of lift, and therefore loss of thrust.

35 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing - Tail Stall Due to smaller leading edge, tail collects ice faster than wing. Loss of tail down force causes nose-down pitch. Flaps change the airflow over the tail.

36 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

37 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Requires 2 conditions Visible Moisture Temperature at or below freezing “Freezing Level” is the altitude where freezing temperatures exist. Can be determined using the average lapse rate of 2C per 1000 ft. Not a precise indication, so leave some margin.

38 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Freezing rain results in the fastest and greatest accumulation of ice. Indicates warmer temperatures above – temperature inversion. Super-Cooled Liquid Droplets (SLD) are liquid below freezing, large diameter, and freeze on impact.

39 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing

40 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Freezing drizzle results in an accumulation of ice similar to freezing rain. May form due to “collision-coalescence”, and doesn’t necessarily indicate warmer temperatures above.

41 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Ice pellets caused by rain freezing at higher altitude Heavy, wet snow means temperature is above freezing at your altitude. It formed above you, but is on the verge of melting

42 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing In stratus clouds, 90% of ice occurs within 3000 feet altitude band. In cumulus clouds, icing can occur over any altitude range Avoid individual clouds when conditions are right for ice.

43 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather

44 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06) Icing is most likely when temperatures are between 0C & -22C 87% of reported icing (with >50% humidity outside cloud) 71% of reported icing occurs with >65% humidity, and temperatures between -2C & -15C.

45 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06) 95% Probability of Icing occurs under the following conditions: OAT < 0C, and OAT is between dewpoint (T = Td) and 80% dewpoint (T = 0.8*Td)

46 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing

47 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing

48 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Strategies In stratus clouds, with no freezing rain, Climb In cumulus clouds, stay in clear air Approaching a warm front from behind Climb along the front, the descend rapidly through it. Turn Around

49 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Case Study Field elevation around 600 feet, Temp = 48F, DP = 37F At what altitude would the cloud bases be, and would you expect to encounter ice in the clouds If encountering ice, what would you do about it?

50 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Case Study Cirrus SR22, N87HK, departed Birmingham AL on 13 Jan 06 at 1601 CST headed for Orlando, ATP rated pilot. DUATS briefing Forecast ice from 8000 to 10,000 feet. Pilot overlooked Airmet for ice from 3000 to feet. Pilot climbs at 120 kias, enters clouds at 5000 feet, encounters ice at 7000 feet. Stated he did not know MOCA where he was.

51 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Case Study Was cleared to climb to 9000 feet. Stalled & spun at cloud tops, at 8000 feet, with a climb speed of 80 kias. Unsuccessfully tried to recover from spin. Pulled the “boy, I’m glad I bought a Cirrus so I can live through this” BRS handle. Stopped in trees, 4 feet above ground Pilot and 2 passengers exited safely.

52 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Do’s – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Do Have a Plan A, and a Plan B Do take immediate action when you encounter ice Do Climb when you encounter ice, unless you KNOW you can get out of it by descending

53 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Do’s – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Do use maximum power to climb If you must enter ice, Do use maximum forward speed Do zoom climb through icing layer, if possible Do tell ATC that you must take immediate action Do ALWAYS FLY THE AIRPLANE!

54 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Don’ts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Don’t EVER Fly in Freezing Rain Don’t rely on boots to save you Don’t Climb at too slow an airspeed Don’t climb in ice pellets Freezing Rain is above you Don’t descend into colder air if it’s raining Freezing Rain is below you.

55 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Don’ts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05 Don’t allow ATC to fly your airplane Don’t think the airplane will fall out of the sky with a little ice Don’t stop flying the airplane Don’t use flaps on an ice-laden airplane Don’t get too slow in an ice-laden airplane Don’t PANIC

56 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Induction Icing Use Carb Heat Alternate Induction Air Source Pilot-Static Icing Use Pitot-Heat in the clouds, when temperatures are near freezing.

57 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing Propeller Icing Run at High-RPM Cycle RPM up & down Use prop-deice, if equipped.

58 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Icing References IFR Magazine – wintertime issues “Weather Flying”, Robert Buck “In-Flight Icing”, Perkins & Rieke. AC 91-74, “Pilot Guide to Flight in Icing Conditions) AOPA ASF Safety Advisor – Aircraft Icing Icing Course – FAA, NASA, AOPA

59 Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather
Questions? Always Think Safety!


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