Presentation on theme: "Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather"— Presentation transcript:
1Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Authored By Lt Colonel Garrett L. Sager 30-Jan-2006TX-129th Fort Worth Senior Squadron Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014
2This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.
3Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Weather Hazards to Flight“Most Weather is Flyable” – Robert BuckThere a primarily 3 Weather Hazards can really get you into trouble:Low Visibility / CeilingsThunderstormsIce
4Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather The #1 Rule to Dealing with Hazardous Weather is:Always have a way out!That means knowing the weather around, above & below.Know Yourself, and resist influence of outside factorsPassengers“Get-there-itis”
5Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Low VisibilityHazardsMountain ObscurationInability to Identify Runway EnvironmentCaused ByFogStable Air with Low CloudsRain
6Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather FogCoastal areasLarge bodies of water, riversUpslope FogValleysPrecipitation Induced
8Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Low Visibility on Departure:Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure ProceduresSID’s
9Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Low Visibility Enroute & ArrivalKnow MEA, MOCA, MRA, etc.STARSFollow airways precisely, especially in mountain areas
10Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Low Visibility on Approach:Don’t be committed to landing at an airport that’s below minimumsHave a good alternate, with plenty of fuel to get there.Alternate MinimumsNever duck below minimums!
11Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Low VisibilitySet Personal MinimumsKnow weather trends, and have personal pre- departure destination minimums.At the destination, set personal minimums for approach
12Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Low VisibilityKnow where VFR weather isEspecially handy during emergencies, like electrical / radio failure where IFR navigation capability is severely limited.Have backup navigation & communication ability – handheld Nav/Com & GPS.
14Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsHazardsSevere or Extreme TurbulenceHailLightningCauses & TypesAirmassFrontal
15Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsProduced by cumulonimbus clouds, and occur withWater VaporUnstable Lapse RateLifting Action
16Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorms Life CycleCumulus – the building stage.Towering Cumulus, with continuous updraftsMatureGreatest Intensity, both updrafts & downdraftsDissipatingContinuous downdrafts, raining out.
17Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorms
18Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsLapse rate > 2C per 1000 ft, combined with high humidity indicates an unstable atmosphere, and thunderstorms are likely.Moist air is less stable than dry air, because it cools more slowly with altitude, so it must rise higher to cool.
19Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsK-Index measures moisture content of the atmosphereHigh K-Index means Moist AirLow K-Index means Dry Air
20Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsUse Lifted Index to measure atmospheric stability, i.e.. thunderstorm potential.LI ValueT-Storm PotentialPositiveUnlikely0 to -2Possible, w/ good trigger-3 to -5Probable< -5Strong Probability
21Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorms
22Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsAvoid ALL Thunderstorms, and especially Strong Thunderstorms by 20 nm or moreMay cause turbulence and hail miles from the storm.Remember that even a benign looking cell can become a monster in minutes.Do Not Fly Under Thunderstorms, either.Fly well clear of area, or land and wait for the storm to pass.
23Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsEmbedded thunderstorms are storms that are obscured by cloudy conditions, haze layers, etc.Visual “see & avoid” may be inadequate“Spherics”, like Stormscope or Strikefinder, detect electrical discharge of lightning strikesUse Spherics to stay well clear of thunderstorm areasDo NOT Use to pick your way between cells
24Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather ThunderstormsRadar detects precipitation, not instrument conditions.Learn to use and interpret radar properlyWithout Radar or Spherics, avoid IMC around thunderstorms.
25Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorm PenetrationYou’ve run out of options, got yourself boxed into a corner, and penetration is inevitable.You’ve probably passed up numerous opportunities to land, or go around, but kept saying, “this doesn’t look so bad”, and now you’re stuck.Penetrate fronts or squall lines where the tops are the lowestDo NOT fly through areas of fuzzy white – that’s probably hailDark clouds mean rain
26Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorm PenetrationFly straight ahead, Do not turn aroundTurn increases load factor on airplaneStraight through is often the shortest route out of the storm.Maintain Attitude – Wings Level, Level PitchDo not try to maintain altitudeAutopilot Altitude-Hold Off
27Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorm PenetrationSet power & trim for turbulence penetration speedPitot & Carb Heat ONTighten SeatbeltsPanel lights to maximum, seat at lowest setting, and focus on the instrumentsLightning flashes may cause temporary blindness
28Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorm PenetrationYou will probably be more scared than you’ve ever been – Control Your Fear.It’s loud, turbulent, and very distractingNever Stop Flying the AirplaneMaintain attitude and airspeedMost T-storm related in-flight breakups result from loss of control, and overspeed.
29Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Thunderstorms ResourcesAviation Weather, Chap. 11“Weather Flying” Chap. 14, Robert Buck“Severe Weather Flying”, Dennis NewtonWeather SubjectAOPA ASF Subject Reports
30Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing
32Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing – EffectsFrost on the wings disrupts the flow over the wings, and should be removed before flight.Tests indicate that frost, snow or ice with texture similar to coarse sandpaper reduces lift by up to 30%, and increased drag by up to 40%.
33Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing - EffectsIce collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges.Wings & StabilizersCauses a loss of lift, increased dragAntennasIce may cause to flutter, and break
34Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingIce collects on any protuberance, especially those with sharp leading edges.Pitot TubesIce obstructs pitot-tube, causing loss of airspeed indicationEngine InletsObstructs induction systemPropellersUnbalances propeller, causing severe vibrationsCauses loss of lift, and therefore loss of thrust.
35Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing - Tail StallDue to smaller leading edge, tail collects ice faster than wing.Loss of tail down force causes nose-down pitch.Flaps change the airflow over the tail.
37Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingRequires 2 conditionsVisible MoistureTemperature at or below freezing“Freezing Level” is the altitude where freezing temperatures exist.Can be determined using the average lapse rate of 2C per 1000 ft.Not a precise indication, so leave some margin.
38Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingFreezing rain results in the fastest and greatest accumulation of ice.Indicates warmer temperatures above – temperature inversion.Super-Cooled Liquid Droplets (SLD) are liquid below freezing, large diameter, and freeze on impact.
39Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing
40Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingFreezing drizzle results in an accumulation of ice similar to freezing rain.May form due to “collision-coalescence”, and doesn’t necessarily indicate warmer temperatures above.
41Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingIce pellets caused by rain freezing at higher altitudeHeavy, wet snow means temperature is above freezing at your altitude.It formed above you, but is on the verge of melting
42Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingIn stratus clouds, 90% of ice occurs within 3000 feet altitude band.In cumulus clouds, icing can occur over any altitude rangeAvoid individual clouds when conditions are right for ice.
44Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06)Icing is most likely when temperatures are between 0C & -22C87% of reported icing (with >50% humidity outside cloud)71% of reported icing occurs with >65% humidity, and temperatures between -2C & -15C.
45Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing – The Appleman Line (IFR Magazine, Feb.06)95% Probability of Icing occurs under the following conditions:OAT < 0C, andOAT is between dewpoint (T = Td) and 80% dewpoint (T = 0.8*Td)
46Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing
47Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing
48Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing StrategiesIn stratus clouds, with no freezing rain, ClimbIn cumulus clouds, stay in clear airApproaching a warm front from behindClimb along the front, the descend rapidly through it.Turn Around
49Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Case StudyField elevation around 600 feet,Temp = 48F, DP = 37FAt what altitude would the cloud bases be, and would you expect to encounter ice in the cloudsIf encountering ice, what would you do about it?
50Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Case StudyCirrus SR22, N87HK, departed Birmingham AL on 13 Jan 06 at 1601 CST headed for Orlando, ATP rated pilot.DUATS briefingForecast ice from 8000 to 10,000 feet.Pilot overlooked Airmet for ice from 3000 to feet.Pilot climbs at 120 kias, enters clouds at 5000 feet, encounters ice at 7000 feet.Stated he did not know MOCA where he was.
51Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Case StudyWas cleared to climb to 9000 feet.Stalled & spun at cloud tops, at 8000 feet, with a climb speed of 80 kias.Unsuccessfully tried to recover from spin.Pulled the “boy, I’m glad I bought a Cirrus so I can live through this” BRS handle.Stopped in trees, 4 feet above groundPilot and 2 passengers exited safely.
52Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Do’s – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05Do Have a Plan A, and a Plan BDo take immediate action when you encounter iceDo Climb when you encounter ice, unless you KNOW you can get out of it by descending
53Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Do’s – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05Do use maximum power to climbIf you must enter ice, Do use maximum forward speedDo zoom climb through icing layer, if possibleDo tell ATC that you must take immediate actionDo ALWAYS FLY THE AIRPLANE!
54Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Don’ts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05Don’t EVER Fly in Freezing RainDon’t rely on boots to save youDon’t Climb at too slow an airspeedDon’t climb in ice pelletsFreezing Rain is above youDon’t descend into colder air if it’s rainingFreezing Rain is below you.
55Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing Don’ts – From IFR Magazine Dec. 05Don’t allow ATC to fly your airplaneDon’t think the airplane will fall out of the sky with a little iceDon’t stop flying the airplaneDon’t use flaps on an ice-laden airplaneDon’t get too slow in an ice-laden airplaneDon’t PANIC
56Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingInduction IcingUse Carb HeatAlternate Induction Air SourcePilot-Static IcingUse Pitot-Heat in the clouds, when temperatures are near freezing.
57Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather IcingPropeller IcingRun at High-RPMCycle RPM up & downUse prop-deice, if equipped.
58Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Icing ReferencesIFR Magazine – wintertime issues“Weather Flying”, Robert Buck“In-Flight Icing”, Perkins & Rieke.AC 91-74, “Pilot Guide to Flight in Icing Conditions)AOPA ASF Safety Advisor – Aircraft IcingIcing Course – FAA, NASA, AOPA
59Instrument Ground School Hazardous Weather Questions?Always Think Safety!