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Unit #10 WWII Chapters 34-35. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War The American public was still suffering from the great depression and wanted.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit #10 WWII Chapters 34-35. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War The American public was still suffering from the great depression and wanted."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit #10 WWII Chapters 34-35

2 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War The American public was still suffering from the great depression and wanted little to do with the pending issues in Europe London Economic Conference 66 nations met in 1933 Goal was to discuss ways to beat the global depression The other nations wanted to stabilize the value of the dollar Roosevelt undermined the Conference when he refused to agree to the stabilization policy As a result of Roosevelts withdrawal a trend towards extreme nationalism and isolationism strengthened This actually allows the strength of Fascist dictators to grow

3 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Foreign relations In Roosevelts first term he made a formal recognition of the Soviet Union He also promised to grant the Philippines independence This was because Roosevelt felt that the islands were economic liabilities The net effect of these policies was that the US was giving up ambitions to be a world power in order to concentrate on the Western Hemisphere The Good Neighbor Policy Roosevelt was eager to employ this policy because he wanted Latin American allies to defend the Western Hemisphere against rising dictators Roosevelt renounced armed intervention and reversed the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine put in by Teddy Roosevelt

4 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Secretary Hulls Reciprocal Trade Agreements 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act increased Americas foreign trade Roosevelts foreign trade policy lowered tariffs to increase trade Did not eliminate the Hawley-Smoot tariff but it lowered the rates by 50% Totalitarianism spreads throughout Europe Stalin in USSR Mussolini in Italy Hitler in Germany Hirohito and Tojo in Japan In the 30s the American people responded to the Aggressive actions of Germany, Italy and Japan by retreating further into isolationism

5 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Japan seizes Manchuria – 1931 Mussolini invades Ethiopia - 1935 Italy was expected to win in a week but find themselves in a brutal stalemate until Mussolini decides to employ chemical warfare Spanish Civil War US did nothing to prevent the spread of fascism in Spain (1936-1939) In the US Roman Catholics supported Francos fascist rebels while the Abraham Lincoln Brigade provided active support for the Spanish Republican Govt Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis created Neutrality Acts passed by U.S. Congress Abandoned the policy of freedom of the seas Reduced the size of the navy and other armed forces Made no distinction between aggressors and victims Allowed aggressors to continue their path of conquest American ships would be prohibited from sailing on the ships of warring nations

6 Hitlers path to conquest

7 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Hitler systematically eliminates the Treaty of Versailles Rearms Germany and returns troops to the Rhineland Annexes Austria and the Sudetenland Invades the rest of Czechoslovakia Many nations allowed Hitler to do this because the treaty of Versailles was so lopsided Munich conference 1938 Neville Chamberlain gives in to Hitlers requests and grants Germany the Sudetenland Hitler Vows to Chamberlain that he would stop there Six months later he takes the rest of Czechoslovakia – Monty Python Clip Chamberlain knows that Appeasement did not work British politician Winston Churchill – reaction – They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.

8 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Germany signs the Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union Hitler wanted to avoid a two front war He could now invade Poland with the Blitzkrieg effectively starting WWII (1939) Germany then goes on to conquer Norway, Denmark, The Netherlands and France by the end of 1940 Many Jewish refugees from Europe had a difficult time fleeing to the US due to restrictive immigration laws and opposition from Southern Democrats and the State Department In the 1930s almost no Jewish refugees were allowed to immigrate to the US Exceptions were made (Albert Einstein 1933) Franklin Roosevelts War Refugee Board helped Hungarian Jews escape

9 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War After the invasion of Poland, France and Britain waited behind the Maginot line for Hitler to attack Nothing occurred for months earning the title of Phony War Hitler was mobilizing his armies for the full onslaught of France France Falls – 1940 The weight of the Blitzkrieg collapses France in six weeks Churchill takes over as Prime Minister of Britain Southern portion of France becomes a puppet state of Nazi Germany known as Vichy France The Miracle at Dunkirk – Hundreds of ships help evacuate friendly troops across the English Channel

10 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War US Congresss first response to the fall of France was to pass a conscription law (the draft) Americas attempt to remain neutral had now come to an end In 1940 Britain gave the US eight valuable naval bases in exchange for 50 American Destroyers Direct violation of the Neutrality Acts A strong majority of the American public favored providing Britain with all aid short of war Election of 1940 Franklin Roosevelt seeks election for a third term (unprecedented) Republicans nominate Wendell Willkie to run against him Roosevelt never intended to run for a third term but felt that the US needed his experienced leadership during international crisis Willkie avoided deepening the sharp divisions among the American people when he avoided attacking Roosevelt for his increasingly interventionist policies

11 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War After the failed attempt to conquer Britain the Germans shifted their focus to the Soviet Union Catastrophic mistake by Hitler Lend-Lease Act Increased the debate over interventionists vs isolationists Was a direct challenge to Axis dictators Gave nonmilitary aid to the USSR Made lend-lease aid available to the USSR Roosevelt announces that the US will be the Arsenal of Democracy Seinfeld Clip Roosevelt knew that American involvement was inevitable, now he had to convince the American public An American propagandist Theodor Seuss Geisel creates anti-isolation cartoons

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13 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Atlantic Charter (Aug. 1941) Roosevelt + Churchill met secretly in the Atlantic to set goals for the war destroy the Nazi regime before Japan people of all nations should choose their own govt. (self-determination) permanent system of general security (United Nations) American merchant ships fired upon Greer fired upon Kearny crippled Reuben James sunk Congress allows the arming of merchant ships Roosevelt insists that Japan must leave China Japan needed the resources of China to build their imperialistic empire When Japan refuses the US cuts Japans oil supplies and freezes all Japanese assets in the US

14 FDR and Churchill- Atlantic Charter

15 Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Japans surprise attack on Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor clip Invasion of Pearl Harbor was a short term success for Japan Japan seizes the Philippines MacArthur is forced to abandon his men in Corregidor and flee to Australia MacArthurs men are forced on the Bataan Death March

16 Pearl Harbor

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18 America in World War II Once at war, Americas first great challenge was to retool its industry for all-out war production Unlike WWI, during WWII, the United States was nearly unanimous in support of the war Most ethnic groups were further assimilated into American society Although Japanese Americans were placed in internment camps during WWII as a result of anti-Japanese prejudice and fear The general American attitude toward WWII was less idealistic and ideological and more practical than the outlook in WWI

19 America in World War II Conservative Congress elected in 1942 eliminates many New Deal programs Despite the demands of the wartime economy, inflation was kept in check during the war by federally imposed wage and price controls In December of 1941 many Americans had no real clue what the war was about All they knew was Japan attacked us The US government had to commission production in rubber due to the fact that most of it came from Southeast Asia

20 America in World War II Wartime Agencies War Production Board – assigned priorities with respect to the use of raw materials and transportation facilities Office of Price Administration – controlled inflation by rationing essential goods National War Labor Board – Imposed ceilings on wage increases Fair Employment Practices Commission – saw to it that no hiring discrimination practices were used against blacks seeking employment in war industries While most American workers were strongly committed to the war effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes led by the United Mine Workers During WWII labor unions substantially increased their membership The employment of more than six million women in American industry during WWII led to the establishment of day-care centers by the government Rosie the Riveter Most women were forced to reluctantly leave the workforce after WWII due to family obligations and men returning to their factory jobs

21 America in World War II African Americans in WWII Serve in the Army Air Corps (Tuskegee) Form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality Move North and West in large numbers seeking work Rally behind the slogan Double V (victory over dictators abroad and racism at home) Many Native Americans left their reservations to find work or join the military Navajo Code Talkers During WWII most Americans experienced economic prosperity and a doubling of their income The National Debt increased the most during WWII (up to that point) Most of the money raised to finance WWII came through borrowing from the American public (war bonds)

22 America in World War II Pacific Campaign Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942) – First naval battle in history that took place entirely in the air Saved Australia Battle of Midway (June 1942) – Battle for a tiny air field that saved Hawaii Turning point of the Pacific campaign Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942, in their attempt to control the Pacific they overextended themselves instead of digging in and consolidating their gains After Coral Sea and Midway the US relies on a strategy known as island hopping The US seizes Guam which now allows US aircraft to conduct round-trip bombing raids on Japanese home islands

23 War At Sea May 1942- Battle of the Coral Sea May 1942- Battle of the Coral Sea Northeast of Australia, this was the first naval battle carried out entirely by planes Northeast of Australia, this was the first naval battle carried out entirely by planes Aircraft carriers and battleships never saw each other! Aircraft carriers and battleships never saw each other!

24 Battle of Coral Sea This battle lasted 5 days This battle lasted 5 days Both sides lost half of their aircraft Both sides lost half of their aircraft 1 US carrier sunk, another bad damaged 1 US carrier sunk, another bad damaged 1 Japanese carrier sunk, 1 put out of action and a third lost all its planes 1 Japanese carrier sunk, 1 put out of action and a third lost all its planes Militarily a draw, prevented the Japanese from establishing a base in Australia Militarily a draw, prevented the Japanese from establishing a base in Australia

25 Midway

26 Pacific Theater

27 America in World War II Pacific Campaign Guadalcanal – horrifically bloody battle to protect the lifeline from America to Australia An early naval defeat inflicted by the Japanese shortened American supplies dangerously After several desperate sea battles for naval control, the Japanese troops evacuated Guadalcanal in February 1943 Japanese losses were 20,000, compared to 1,700 for the Americans That casualty ratio of more than ten to one, Japanese to American, persisted throughout the Pacific war The US seizes Guam which now allows US aircraft to conduct round-trip bombing raids on Japanese home islands Things become so desperate for the Japanese that Kamikaze pilots begin their assault Japanese begin to use civilians as decoys and cover Japanese civilians commit suicide by the thousands in Saipan Suicide Cliff

28 Saipan

29 Leyte Gulf

30 America in World War II European Campaign After the Battle of Britain and until 1943 Hitlers greatest opportunity to defeat Britain was with German U-Boats destroying allied shipping Instead of opening up a second front in France, Britain and the US attack Hitlers forces in North Africa and Italy US first taste of the war in North Africa was a slaughter in Morocco The allies were not ready or mobilized for an invasion in France until 1944 and any invasion earlier than that could have been a major disaster The British were also fearful of becoming bogged down in a ground war in France reminiscent of WWII Roosevelt and Churchill agreed that nothing short of Germanys unconditional surrender would be accepted They felt this was the only way that Germany could be totally reconstructed after the war

31 America in World War II North Africa British General Montgomery holds the Suez canal Rommel was commanding the German forces Mostly tank warfare The US came on the opposite flank and forced Rommel to retreat through Sicily and then Italy Soft Underbelly Campaign Mussolini is overthrown and Italy surrenders Mussolini later found in hiding with his mistress – they are shot, bayoneted and their bodies displayed in Milan Italys surrender allowed D-Day to be delayed and the Soviet Union to push the Germans back out of the USSR The Soviets wanted a second front in France in 1941 – They felt that the delay until 1944 was a deliberate strategy to weaken the USSR Cold War rivalry is already developing

32 America in World War II European Theatre Teheran Conference – plans were made for the opening of a second front in France Dwight D. Eisenhower was the Supreme Allied Commander D-Day, June 6 th, 1944 Months of preparation led to the invasion – soldiers were quarantined once the plan was announced Weeks of decoy operations had been run to throw off the Germans Fake army in Dover led by Patton Paratroopers (82 nd & 101 st ) were to be dropped in the night before in order to take out artillery, MG-42 nests, seize bridges and outflank the enemy in the morning Nearly every drop was a disaster At dusk the Allies would land on five different Normandy beaches assisted by tanks Utah, Omaha (bloodiest), Gold, Juno, Sword Tanks never made it – weather was horrible Saving Private Ryan

33 D-Day: June 6, 1944 Just after midnight… Just after midnight… Operation Overlord begins Operation Overlord begins On this day, the largest landing by sea in the history of the world will commence On this day, the largest landing by sea in the history of the world will commence 4,600 invasion craft make their way from England to the Normandy coast 4,600 invasion craft make their way from England to the Normandy coast

34 Throughout the Night… 1,000 RAF (Royal Air Force) bombers pound the Normandy beaches and German strongholds 1,000 RAF (Royal Air Force) bombers pound the Normandy beaches and German strongholds Meanwhile, 23,000 American and British paratroopers are dropped behind enemy lines (paradummies; Rupert!) Meanwhile, 23,000 American and British paratroopers are dropped behind enemy lines (paradummies; Rupert!)

35 Calais

36 Omaha and Utah Beach On Omaha beach, there will be 2,000 American casualties alone On Omaha beach, there will be 2,000 American casualties alone Within a week, 500,000 Allied troops will be in France Within a week, 500,000 Allied troops will be in France By July, there will be 2,000,000 By July, there will be 2,000,000

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39 America in World War II The Election of 1944 It was a forgone conclusion that FDR would win the election because the war was now going so well The real concern was who was going to be his VP FDR releases his three term VP Henry Wallace for Senator Harry S. Truman Battle of the Bulge Hitlers last ditch effort to swing the tide of the war Last major German Offensive Rupert Killroy was here

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41 The Nazis Defeated cont. The Air War Germany under constant bombing Raids on Dresden – Feb. 1945 – 135,000 casualties

42 The Nazis Defeated cont. On to Berlin March 1945 – Allies crossed Rhine River into Western Germany, Red Army closed in on Berlin from the East April 1945 – Mussolini captured – executed, Hitler committed suicide

43 The Nazis Defeated cont. May 7 th, 1945 – Germany surrendered, May 8 th is VE day – Victory in Europe Potsdam Conference – A conference to decide how to rebuild Europe Also issued a warning to Japan to surrender or face utter and complete annihilation The unconditional surrender policy toward Japan was finally modified by guaranteeing that defeated Japan would be treated decently by American occupiers

44 Defeat of Japan Invasion vs. the Bomb Invasion of Japan might cost a million or more casualties on both sides development of the atomic bomb (the Manhattan Project)

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46 Defeat of Japan July 1945 – 1 st successful test in New Mexico

47 III. Defeat of Japan Hiroshima Aug 6 th, 1945 – A-bomb dropped on Hiroshima – flattened 4 square miles, instantly killed 76,000 people Aug 8 th, 1945 – USSR declared war on Japan, invaded Manchuria Japan refused to surrender, 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki on Aug 9 th

48 Little Boy and the Enola Gay

49 Hiroshima

50 Nagasaki

51 Defeat of Japan cont. Sept. 2 nd – formal surrender signed in Tokyo Bay on the USS Missouri

52 Defeat of Japan Why use bomb? Truman – only other option was to invade Japan, costing enormous losses Truman may have hoped the bomb would impress the Soviets with American Power During WWII the Americans: Were a group of highly effective military and political leaders An enormous effort in producing weapons and supplies Caused a higher percentage of military casualties than any other allied nation Maintained and reaffirmed the strength of American Democracy


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