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Presentation on theme: "Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume 07-51 TRAINING Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety Click anywhere on page to view show."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TRAINING Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety FIRE MEDICS PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 Quiz EVOLUTIONS 2000 Kramer vs. Kramer Program Quiz Answers FIRELINE Off-Campus Residence Fire FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building FireFINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire Discussion Questions HANDS-ON Firefighter Survival Skills: Self-Rescue, Pt. 1Firefighter Survival Skills: Self-Rescue, Pt. 1 Quiz AERT Atmospheres Class QuizAERT Atmospheres Class Quiz Working Fire Training 07-5 Training Materials

2 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TRAINING Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety Click anywhere on page to view show in its entirety Working Fire Training 07-5 Training Materials All training methods and procedures presented in this Working Fire Training (WFT) video program and training materials are based on IFSTA, NFPA, NIOSH, OSHA and all other relevant industry regulations and standards and are presented as a part of generally accepted and acknowledged practices in the U.S. Fire Service. WFT should be used under the supervision of certified trainers in conjunction with national, state, and local training standards and protocols, and the standard operating guides and procedures of the Subscriber. WFT is intended to be an ancillary source of training information and should not be used as the sole source of training for any emergency service organization. WFT accepts no responsibility for how the Subscriber implements or integrates this program into the Subscribers own training program, nor does the use of this program by the Subscriber imply that WFT approves or endorses any specific training methods presented by the Subscriber to its own organization. WFT accepts no responsibility for the correct understanding or application of its training methods and procedures by emergency service personnel who view this program; nor for any performance or lack of performance by emergency service personnel who may view this program and use or apply these training methods and procedures incorrectly; nor does it accept any liability for injuries or deaths of emergency service personnel who may view this program and use or apply such training methods and procedures incorrectly. By presenting this program for viewing to its organizations members, the Subscriber, and by viewing or reading materials presented by WFT, the members and students of the Subscriber, agree to hold harmless WFT, the University of Cincinnati, VFIS, and any persons or organizations who participate in the creation and/or presentation of this training material from any legal action which might result from any line-of-duty injuries or deaths of the Subscribers members or any other emergency service personnel who view this program and who may use or apply such training methods and procedures incorrectly. LEGAL DISCLAIMER

3 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume DISPATCH/SIZE-UP A pre-dawn fire was reported in a unit at the rear of a three-story apartment building occupied by several Boston University students Class 3 ordinary construction, wood frame with brick veneer. The building was an occupied multiple dwelling with students from nearby universities. Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire 07-5 Training Materials

4 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume DISPATCH/SIZE-UP Upon arrival, the fire was moving rear-to-front on floors 2 and 3. There was good access to the building on three sides. There were reports of people trapped on the third floor. Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire 07-5 Training Materials

5 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STRATEGY/TACTICS Initially, four companies were committed to floors 2 and 3. –Two companies for fire suppression and maintenance of the stairwell –Two companies for search & rescue and fire suppression on floor 3. Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire 07-5 Training Materials

6 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INCIDENT COMMAND An engine company deployed an attack line to hold the fire in check while a ladder company conducted a search. I.C. committed additional resources to the third floor to expand the search. Mutual aid departments responded from City of Boston, Cambridge, and Newton Fire. Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire 07-5 Training Materials

7 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INCIDENT COMMAND Vertical ventilation by opening the roof. Set up a runner system to back up faulty communications channel. –This was done on a timely basis. Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire 07-5 Training Materials

8 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EVENTS Crews entered simultaneously, conducting fire suppression and search & rescue. Volume of fire was a major obstacle to occupants once it burst into the living areas. Vertical ventilation through the roof allowed location of victim. The fire was under control in an hour. Cause of the fire was a charcoal grill left unattended on a wooden porch Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

9 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EVENTS In this jurisdiction it was prohibited by law to barbeque on combustible surfaces like a wooden porch Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

10 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume REMARKS Some smoke detectors were in place and operating A few ABC extinguishers were on-premise. First-in companies encountered heavy fire conditions, zero and visibility. Second communications channel encountered poor reception and wasnt reliable. Relied on a runner system for relaying messages. Victims death may have been alcohol-related. Lack of responsibility is a problem in off-campus housing Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

11 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STATISTICS Sixty-five percent of 17 million college students live off-campus. 2,000 on-/off-campus fires occur annually. 80% of student fire fatalities occur off-campus. An average of 70 students are injured every year. On average, 15 college students a year died in fires in this decade Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

12 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OFF-CAMPUS HOUSING Off-campus housing tends to be older and not as well- maintained as residence halls. Off-campus housing typically has fewer life-safety features than on-campus residence halls, such as fire alarms, sprinklers, adequate egress, etc. Often there are no restrictions on the use of candles, smoking, halogen lamps or other ignition sources Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

13 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OFF-CAMPUS HOUSING Electrical service is often overloaded with computers and peripherals, sound and video systems, etc. Without on-campus residence supervision, parties and alcohol consumption are more likely Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

14 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume CAUSES OF ON-/OFF-CAMPUS FIRES Faulty electronics/frayed electrical cords/ open flames 34% Suspicious fires 29% Cooking 15% Unknown 11% 07-5 Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

15 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED Outreach program for students is needed. Information for students: –Be aware of your surroundings and where exits are –Because of prank false alarms, students often disregard fire alarms. –Always take alarms seriously Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

16 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED Always train on the basics, including: –strong knowledge of ladder operations –proper way to run hose lines –interior coordination Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

17 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED Getting sufficient help there on a timely basis is of ultimate importance. –The Brookline Fire Department has always maintained a minimum of one officer and three firefighters in every company. Firefighters should remember that their observations can be the key to help determine a fires cause Training Materials Fireline Incident: Off-Campus Residence Fire

18 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume DISPATCH/SIZE-UP Crews were dispatched to an abandoned bank building over 20 stories tall. The building was in the process of being dismantled. Fire was out of control on the 17th floor. No sprinklers were in operation. The building standpipe was inoperable. Sources said that only one of two construction elevators was working. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

19 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume STRATEGY/TACTICS Hoses had to be pulled up from the street using ropes and haul systems. Hose crews attacked the fire. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

20 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INCIDENT COMMAND A pre-fire plan had been written for the building but was found later. It recommended regular inspections of the building. 275 firefighters responded to the 7-alarm blaze. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

21 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume EVENTS The building had been undergoing a floor-by- floor dismantling. –It was also involved in asbestos abatement, resulting in a heavy, toxic, flammable fire load. The two firefighter fatalities occurred on the 14th floor: Joseph Graffagnino and Robert Beddia, while working a hoseline. According to a news source, following a Mayday they were overcome by smoke, the oxygen in their tanks having been depleted. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

22 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume REMARKS There is no working system for the fire department to be notified of a building being constructed or demolished. –Inspectors must recognize them by sight as they drive around. The cause of the fire is still being investigated, but may have been linked to a deconstruction crew working at the site before the fire broke out. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

23 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INSPECTIONS Codes in New York City call for inspections of buildings under demolition every 15 days. This was not being done. Sources say that fire department management had to have known that the inspections were not being done. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

24 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume INSPECTIONS The explanation was that the inspections were stopped because of concerns of contaminants in the building and the safety of inspectors. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

25 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SPRINKLERS Codes also require working sprinkler systems that can be shut off one floor at a time as workers begin to work on a floor. A fire department official said the sprinklers broke during the 2001 terrorist attacks and were never repaired, while a spokesman for the building's owner said regulators shut the sprinklers off after 9/11 because pumps driving the water were contaminated. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

26 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED FDNY has yet to come out with recommendations regarding future actions resulting from this incident. But some issues can be addressed from what is known: –Large, abandoned structures are dangerous because of their potential to kill. –All structures need an up-to-date and accessible preplan. See NFPA 1620, Recommended Practice for Pre-Incident Planning. –Building owners should be charged with: maintaining sprinklers, or at least charged hoselines, where construction work with open flames is going on. maintaining access to the building through functioning elevators, etc. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

27 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LESSONS LEARNED But some issues can be addressed from what is known (cont.): –Inspections must be conducted regularly with inspectors wearing SCBA or other appropriate breathing apparatus. –The fire department should look into retired or off-duty firefighters to handle these inspections, paid for by the building owner and/or demolition contractor. –A review of NFPA 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations; NFPA 1452, Guide for Training Fire Service Personnel to Conduct Dwelling Fire Safety Surveys; and NFPA 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work should be a part of any future recommendations. Fireline Incident: FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire 07-5 Training Materials

28 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Fireline Incident Discussion The departments involved in this months training and WFT pose some discussion questions that you can use as discussion-starters in your own departments training sessions. How will your department handle these scenarios? 07-5 Training Materials

29 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Off-Campus Residence Fire / Brookline, MA Deputy Chief Keith Flaherty, Brookline (MA) Fire Department Deputy Chief/Investigator Steve Sweeney, Brookline (MA) Fire Department If you have colleges/universities in your jurisdiction, you have off-campus student housing. Do you make any special provision for these residences in the way of extra or more frequent inspections? Meet with school officials/building owners and see if you can get their support for a fire safety program geared to both on- and off-campus housing. If you have a fire in student housing, accountability of residents is a high priority. Because of the comings and goings of residents, getting an accurate reading of whos at home is difficult, especially during parties. Encourage students to maintain fire extinguishers and instruct them on their use. Also encourage them to call 911 EARLY in the event of an incident. Fireline Incident Discussion 07-5 Training Materials

30 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FINAL REPORT: Deutsche Bank Building Fire / New York, NY This incident points up a number of glaring deficiencies in city/ municipal systems: –What are the policies on the inspection and operation of buildings under deconstruction in your jurisdiction? Are they followed? If not, address the reasons why not. –Dont let politics or finger-pointing put firefighter lives in jeopardy! –Does your city or jurisdiction have a system to notify the fire department about buildings under construction or deconstruction? See NFPA 241. –What should be the responsibility of building owners and/or contractors regarding maintaining a safe working environment for workers, or if need be, for firefighters? –Think about writing special preplans for buildings under construction and/or deconstruction. They pose specific hazards that should be dealt with in advance. This will involve updating these preplans regularly based on building inspections. See NFPA Fireline Incident Discussion 07-5 Training Materials

31 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: how to perform a self-rescue from a basement using a variety of methods. CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Programs. Department SOGs on in-service limits of rescue ropes. Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt Training Materials

32 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume PURPOSE OF TRAINING A firefighter in another department was severely burned after she fell into a basement. –This highlighted the need for developing training props which would help keep firefighter safe. A simulated basement wall with a window was constructed. –Several techniques were developed on how to self-rescue ourselves if we get trapped Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

33 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume PURPOSE OF TRAINING Firefighters should train yearly or more often on these techniques. –If you train regularly on something often enough, it will become second nature. –It's important for firefighters to develop confidence that they can rescue themselves if they get caught in an unusual situation. –This confidence can be reinforced by frequent use of the training prop Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

34 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume BASEMENT WINDOW SIMULATION The training facility has a basement window buck at the 8-foot level. –Both seven- and nine-foot ceilings exist in our district. This offers a good compromise. With TGI floor joists and the way floor systems are constructed now, floor failure is more likely and firefighters have a greater chance of ending up in the basement Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

35 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing & window bail-up Preparation: –Firefighters are encouraged to carry extra tools with them which would include a length of webbing. – For this technique, youll need a short length of webbing and a Halligan bar Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

36 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing & window bail-up Procedure –This move is basically a window bail-out in reverse. Actually, its a window bail-up. –First, using a Halligan bar, take a short length of webbing and tie a girth hitch about halfway down the shaft from the head. –Break the glass in the basement window if its still there. –Reach up and placed the Halligan vertically on the outside of the window frame. Pull it tight with the webbing so it will hold in place Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

37 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing & window bail-up Procedure (cont.) –Make a loop by tying a knot in the free end of the webbing. The loop can be used as a step. –Remove your helmet, reach up, and place it outside the window. –Insert your foot into the webbing. Dont step up yet Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

38 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing & window bail-up Procedure (cont.) –Remove your SCBA and place it on the window sill. Be sure and keep your hand on it. If there is a drop-off on the outside of the window, do not let it fall to the ground outside! If no drop-off, slide to the ground outside. –Step up using the loop as a step. –Slide your SCBA to the ground outside. Again, if there is a drop-off on outside, you must hang onto your SCBA as you climb through! –Pull your body up and through the window Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

39 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing & window bail-up Tips –As you remove your air pack in preparation for sliding out the window, hold onto your mask and keep the supply line side of your air pack on your shoulder until you remove it to slide it through the window. –Some firefighters will remove the air pack from both shoulders and slide it through. Thats may not be a good idea. Should there be a drop-off on the other side, and you lose control of your air pack, your mask will be ripped off your face, leaving you in the basement without your air pack. Always maintain control of your air pack! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

40 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing & window bail-up Tips –This is very similar to the low-profile move you would do in a breaching scenario where you must remove your pack in order to slide between joists Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

41 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing step created by handhold Procedure –Prepare your Halligan bar and webbing as you did before but use a longer piece of webbing. –Reach up and place the Halligan outside the corner of the window frame, just beyond the edge of the frame. –Stretch the webbing out with one of your hands and at about knee level, place your foot on the webbing, pulling the webbing up around your foot. This will form a loop around your foot you can use as a step Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

42 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Webbing step created by handhold Procedure (cont.) –Grab the webbing in your hand and the webbing coming down from the window together and hold both at a level high enough to adjust the height of the loop/step. –Put your foot in the loop and step up. –Pull yourself up and slide your upper body through the window as before Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

43 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Halligan used as a step Procedure Place the point of your Halligan on the floor, leaning it against the wall below the window. –Most concrete floors will have some roughness to hold it, but you will still need to place a foot against the base of the Halligan as a support so it won't slide out Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

44 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Halligan used as a step Procedure (cont.) Take your other foot and step up on the head of the Halligan, using it as a step. As you do this, slide your bottom foot up the Halligan, applying pressure as you go. This will keep the Halligan from sliding out as you step up on it Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

45 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume HALLIGAN BAR ESCAPE -- Halligan used as a step Procedure (cont.) If the floor is slippery, use the pick end of the Halligan and chisel or hammer a purchase point in the concrete which will give your Halligan point a foothold. Then proceed as before Training Materials Hands-On: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

46 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ 1. True or False: The Halligan tool might just save your life. 2. True or False: As long as your mask is attached to your face, its okay to lose control of your air pack. 3. True or False: Theres bound to be someone outside the basement window who can help you Training Materials Quiz: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

47 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 4. Which procedure order is correct? a. Placed the Halligan outside the window frame – Tie a knot making a loop to use as a step – Step up – Place SCBA on window sill – Slide SCBA out – Pull yourself up and out. b. Placed the Halligan outside the window frame – Tie a knot making a loop to use as a step – Place SCBA on window sill – Step up – Slide SCBA out – Pull yourself up and out. c. Tie a knot making a loop to use as a step – Place the Halligan outside the window frame – Step up – Place SCBA on window sill – Slide SCBA out – Pull yourself up and out Training Materials Quiz: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1

48 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. Which procedure order is correct? a. Slide bottom foot up Halligan as you step on Halligan head with the other – Create a purchase point for Halligan, if necessary – Brace base of Halligan with one foot – Slide SCBA out – Pull yourself out. b. Brace base of Halligan with one foot – Create a purchase point for Halligan, if necessary – Slide bottom foot up Halligan as you step on Halligan head with the other – Slide SCBA out – Pull yourself out. c. Create a purchase point for Halligan, if necessary – Brace base of Halligan with one foot – Slide bottom foot up Halligan as you step on Halligan head with the other – Slide SCBA out – Pull yourself out Training Materials Quiz: Firefighter Survival Skills/Self-Rescue, Pt. 1 (Answers on Slide 112)

49 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: the nature of gases how to calibrate an air monitor and its importance how to test for oxygen, flammability ranges, and toxicity. CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS OSHA 29 CFR , Permit-Required Confined Spaces ANSI Z , Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class 07-5 Training Materials

50 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TRAINING PARTNER: AERT (American Emergency Rescue Training)American Emergency Rescue Training AERT provides emergency response training to emergency teams across the United States with mobile "live" fire and Confined Space Rescue training units. Training is also provided at fixed site facilities outside Mobile, Alabama and in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. All AERT programs meet and/or exceed OSHA and NFPA required training regulations and standards Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

51 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume MONITORING COMPETENCY Using your monitoring equipment, you should be as comfortable checking manhole or confined space as you would checking a storage tank. ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING Consider all confined space atmospheres as hazardous. Know how to use your monitor Test the atmosphere correctly –First, test for oxygen, then flammability and finally, toxicity Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

52 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING Oxygen should be checked first because the monitor requires a specific amount of oxygen to work correctly. If the oxygen concentration is not correct, then the meter gives a false flammability rating. What is the normal percentage of oxygen in the air? 20.9%! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

53 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING OSHA Limits –Oxygen deficient atmosphere is below 19.5%. –Oxygen enriched atmosphere is over 23.5% Within that range you may work in that atmosphere or confined space. If your monitor is not reading 20.9, the operator should find out why it's not. –You should find out the source of the oxygen deficiency or enrichment Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

54 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ATMOSPHERIC MONITORING In a typical room, the atmosphere is 20.9% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% of other gases. –We breathe approximately 3 times more nitrogen than oxygen in every breath we take. Suppose we take a reading in a room and the oxygen level is 17.9%. What has happened to the other 3%? –There is no 3% vacuum floating around in that space. –Some unknown gas has taken the place of 3% of the oxygen. –Its important to find out what gas that is Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

55 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume MONITORING DATA Monitoring: –Is used to assess the health risk to rescuers –leads to the selection of proper PPE and breathing apparatus –may be the determination between rescue or recovery –helps maintain a safe atmosphere. If you respond to a rescue, re-check the atmosphere with your own equipment. –Don't take the word of the plant manager, contractor or contact on scene or trust their equipment! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

56 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume MONITORING DATA When performing a rescue, don't follow normal confined space procedures for monitoring atmospheres by checking every five minutes. You should be continuously monitoring while rescuers are in the space. –You want to know instantly if anything changes Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

57 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume AIR MONITORING PROCEDURES First, check that the oxygen level is between 19.5% and 23.5%. Second, determine if any flammable/explosive gases are present. Finally, check for any toxic gases Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

58 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FLAMMABILITY Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) –The minimum amount of a gas or vapor in the air that will explode/burn when exposed to an ignition source –This minimum level is expressed as a percentage –This percentage is the amount that is actually present. –Each flammable gas LEL is different. –Not all gases have an LEL -- only flammable gases do Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

59 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FLAMMABILITY Flammability Range –The minimum/maximum amount of a gas or vapor in the air that will explode/burn when exposed to an ignition source. –The flammable range is a sweet spot in between which the gas/vapor will burn. –All flammable ranges are not the same! Some gases burn at 2% concentration; some take 50% before they will burn Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

60 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FLAMMABILITY Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) –The maximum amount of a gas or vapor in the air over which the gas or vapor will not explode/burn when exposed to an ignition source. –Over this level the gas/vapor is too rich to burn. –Example: Youre monitoring a space and the monitor reads a very high level and then shuts off. What has happened? The monitor has switched into Safe Mode Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

61 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FLAMMABILITY Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) –Monitors won't read past the point of the UEL. When gas concentrations get too high, they go into Safe Mode so they wont burn themselves up Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

62 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FLAMMABILITY Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) –Even though the level of gas is too rich to burn, as we begin to ventilate the space, the gas level will come down into the flammable range. –That can be very dangerous if we have people in the space. Be aware of this! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

63 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume COMBUSTIBLE GAS INDICATOR (CGI) A CGI measures the concentration of a flammable vapor or gas in the air. –The reading is given as a percentage of LEL. –In other words, it's a percentage of a percentage. As an example, if you are measuring methane, which has an LEL of 5%, and the CGI measures 50% of the LEL, then what we really have is a measure of 2.5% of methane, by volume, in the space Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

64 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume COMBUSTIBLE GAS INDICATOR (CGI) The reading does NOT mean that half of our space is occupied by the methane! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

65 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume VARIOUS GAS EXAMPLES Pentane 1.4% LEL 8% UEL Flammable Range: 6.6% spread –Over the full range of pentane's gas concentration, it is only flammable in this narrow 6.6% range. –The bulk of the gas concentration is too rich to burn. In fact, it would be difficult to get the appropriate concentration of pentane in air in order to achieve ignition. –Pentanes LEL at 1.4% is pretty low, but its flammable range is similar to about 32 other common gases that are around us every day. –But its low LEL is why we use pentane as a calibration gas Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

66 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume VARIOUS GAS EXAMPLES Xylene.9% LEL 7% UEL Flammable Range: 6.1% spread Methane 5% LEL 10% UEL Flammable Range: 10% spread –Any gas with a flammable range wider than 10% is listed as a Highly Flammable Gas. Hydrogen 4% LEL 74% UEL Flammable Range: 70% spread –Another Highly Flammable Gas! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

67 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume VARIOUS GAS EXAMPLES Acetylene.7% LEL 100% UEL Flammable Range: 99.3% spread –Its never too rich to burn. –The old story about sucking a flame back into the acetylene cylinder CAN happen! –Acetylene is a very common gas found at every construction site and plant. Be watching for it! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

68 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TOXICITY Common Toxins –Hydrogen sulfide H 2 S Present with rotting vegetation; sewer gases. It has an identifying odor, but then it seems to pass away. Yet the meter still reads a high concentration of H2S. The gas is still present, but olfactory fatigue has made it odorless. Don't trust your nose -- trust the meter! TLV (Threshold Limit Value) – 10 ppm IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) – 100 ppm LEL – 4%; Air Density – 1.2 (Air = 1.0) Characteristic Smell – Rotten Eggs Special Hazard – Olfactory Fatigue 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

69 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TOXICITY Common Toxins –Carbon monoxide (CO) Present where vehicles are running; dewatering the space with a gasoline-powered pump, etc. Carbon monoxide does more than just displace oxygen. If that were the case, people exposed to CO would turn purple, not pink. The human body has an attraction to CO that is 600 times greater than that of oxygen. Upon intake, CO blocks oxygen absorption, yet the body can't do anything with it. TLV (Threshold Limit Value) – 25 ppm IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) – 1200 ppm 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

70 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TOXICITY Common Toxins –Carbon monoxide (CO) (cont.) LEL – 12.5% Air Density – 1.0 (Air = 1.0) Characteristic Smell – None Special Hazard – The bodys natural attraction to CO is 600 times greater than that for oxygen! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

71 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TOXICITY Common Toxins –Carbon dioxide CO 2 Present in fire suppression systems in electrical vaults underground. These should be locked out before we commit personnel to these spaces! Dont forget Lock-Out/Tag-Out! How bad can CO 2 be? Our body breathes it out with every exhale. It wants to displace oxygen and leave no room for it in our bodies. This is why asphyxiation can result from too much CO2. TLV (Threshold Limit Value) – 5000 ppm IDLH (Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health) – 40,000 ppm 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

72 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume TOXICITY Common Toxins –Carbon dioxide CO 2 (cont.) LEL – Non-combustible Air Density – 1.5 (Air = 1.0) Characteristic Smell – None Special Hazard – Displaces oxygen, feels cold 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

73 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume CALIBRATION For an instrument to function properly in the field, it must be calibrated. Calibration involves the instrument being zeroed to a known concentration of a specific test gas. The most common gas used for calibration is pentane Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

74 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume CALIBRATION One thing that seems to go wrong on a regular basis with air monitors is the oxygen sensor. They need to be replaced often. –One suggestion would be to see if local industry near your fire District uses air monitors that are compatible with yours. –If so, suggest a program of rotation with industry so that they can perform regular calibrations on your units as they cycle them through. –Many industries would be willing to cooperate on this basis Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

75 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume AIR MONITORING TECHNIQUES What monitor do you have? Have you been trained on it? Has the monitor been calibrated lately and to what gas? Are you sampling correctly? Have you allowed time for the sample to be taken? What are you sampling? Is the gas a floater or a sinker? Has the air changed since your last sample? 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

76 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume AIR MONITORING TECHNIQUES Sample at all levels! –If you know what gas you are sampling for, you might know its relative weight and whether it's a floater or a sinker, and therefore, know at what level you might find it. Carbon Monoxide tends to mix with air so youll find it somewhere in the middle. –Most of the time you won't know what you are sampling for, so you must sample at all levels Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

77 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume AIR MONITORING TECHNIQUES Know how long it takes for your monitor to read a sample. –During calibration, take a stopwatch and time how long the monitor reads the sample. –Then when you're in the field, you will know how long to sample at each level. Then leave a little extra time for a safety factor. –The amount of time it takes your monitor to read a sample might be affected by how fresh its batteries are, so leave a little extra time. The time may also vary depending on whether you are using a telescoping probe or flexible tubing Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

78 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume AIR MONITORING TECHNIQUES Turn your monitor on in a clean atmosphere –Be in clean air to start. –Have no combustion engines running nearby. –The monitor thinks that the first breath of air it reads contains a good sample of oxygen; it's very trusting that way. If you forget and turn the monitor on after you've lowered it into the space where the oxygen level is 5%, it will monitor that sample as 20.9% oxygen! 07-5 Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

79 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume MONITORING PROCEDURES Turn the monitor on in fresh air. Let the monitor calibrate itself. Lower the test hose/probe into the space. Stop at high, medium, and low levels. Give it time to sample. Continuously monitor the space. Record and report your findings to the IC Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

80 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume WHAT DOES IT ALL MEAN? Monitoring the atmosphere before entry could save your life. Know how to operate the brand of monitor that is provided. Oxygen levels should be checked first. Toxicity should be checked after oxygen and LEL. Continuously monitor throughout the confined space event in case the atmosphere changes Training Materials Hands-On: AERT Atmospheres Class

81 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 1. True or False: Atmospheres always read the same at all levels. 2. True or False: Its okay to work in an 18.5 oxygen atmosphere. 3. True or False: During a rescue, checking the atmosphere every 5 minutes as specified by code, is sufficient Training Materials Quiz: AERT Atmospheres Class

82 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Fill in the blanks: 4. Regarding CGI readings: a. if a gas has an LEL of 5%, and the CGI measures 20% of the LEL, then there is __% of the gas, by volume, in the space. b. if a gas has an LEL of 10%, and the CGI measures 50% of the LEL, then there is __% of the gas, by volume, in the space. c. if a gas has an LEL of 8%, and the CGI measures 10% of the LEL, then there is __% of the gas, by volume, in the space. d. if a gas has an LEL of 40%, and the CGI measures 30% of the LEL, then there is __% of the gas, by volume, in the space Training Materials Quiz: AERT Atmospheres Class

83 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. Which is correct? a. Turn the monitor on anywhere. -- Let the monitor calibrate itself. – Lower the test hose/probe into the space. --- Stop at high, medium, and low levels. -- Continuously monitor the space. b. Turn the monitor on in fresh air. -- Let the monitor calibrate itself. – Lower the test hose/probe into the space. --- Stop at high, medium, and low levels. -- Continuously monitor the space. c. Turn the monitor on in fresh air. -- Lower the test hose/probe into the space. -- Let the monitor calibrate itself. --- Stop at high, medium, and low levels. -- Continuously monitor the space. (Answers on Slide 112) 07-5 Training Materials Quiz: AERT Atmospheres Class

84 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After watching this segment, the student shall understand: the forces at work in vehicle crashes. how certain impacts cause certain injuries how certain injuries can be anticipated/expected from certain crashes. CODES, STANDARDS & REGULATIONS Pre-hospital Trauma Life Support Training, National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians and the American College of Surgeons. Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt Training Materials

85 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume MECHANISM OF INJURY What can we learn by looking at the vehicle and the patient? What could be damaged based on what we are seeing? This information can be very helpful, especially if we cannot talk to the patient Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

86 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ENERGY DISTRIBUTION Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion mass (weight) X velocity (speed) 2 2 OR ½ mv 2 2 Velocity has a bigger impact on collisions than mass Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 KE =

87 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ENERGY DISTRIBUTION We don't create or destroy it, but energy gets transferred around. Newton's first Law: A body at rest stays at rest and a body in motion stays in motion until acted upon by another force Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

88 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ENERGY DISTRIBUTION In terms of vehicle accidents and collisions, we have three collisions: –The vehicle striking an object –The driver continues moving forward until he/she hits something –The drivers innards keep moving until they hit something. Organs, both hollow and solid, can be compressed within the body Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

89 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ENERGY TRANSFER = INDEX OF SUSPICION The more damage to the vehicle, the more damage to the occupant. –But not always. Sometimes the vehicle is a wreck, but the occupant is untouched. –Conversely, sometimes the vehicle is barely scratched and the occupant is dead. It all depends as to whether the vehicle or the occupant absorbs the energy Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

90 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume COMPRESSION INJURIES Watch for this: the steering wheel is bent, and then you see a red mark across the abdomen -- which has not yet become a bruise. SHEAR INJURIES These injuries are caught more now than they used to be. We need to examine the stresses and forces from the accident and anticipate where the injuries will occur Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

91 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SHEAR INJURIES Cardiac: –Remember your heart hangs inside your chest like a pendulum, held in place by a ligament which comes down from the aortic arch. –That ligament can be pulled and create a tear in the aortic arch. –Previously, patients with this injury were conscious, had good vitals, stabilized blood pressure, exhibited no external symptoms, and x-rays showed no broken bones. By the next morning theyd be dead Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

92 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SHEAR INJURIES Cardiac –Cause of death was an aneurism due to the continued tearing of the aortic arch. –Now, a CT scan or MRI can reveal this injury Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

93 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SHEAR INJURIES Cracked windshield –Based on whether the windshield is pushed in or out will tell you from which direction the force occurred. –Perhaps something external caused the damage if the windshield is pushed in. –If you see no blood, skin, or hair on the windshield, the crack may be due from an external force Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

94 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SHEAR INJURIES Cracks or breaks in windshields could be caused by: –the impact of the head and neck –airbags –a loose object in the vehicle –torquing or twisting of the vehicle on impact. Head & Neck Injury –Injuries to: bones, ligaments, soft tissues, brain, spinal cord –Any time a patient has a head injury, we assume there is also a neck injury until proven otherwise Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

95 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume SHEAR INJURIES Torso Injury –Injuries to: ribs, heart and lungs, abdominal organs, pelvic area, major vessels, long bones (femur) –For example, a kidney injury: one suspect might be the artery leading to a kidney. Extremities –Injuries to: bones, ligaments, soft tissues, blood vessels. –Twisting injuries to extremities such as feet and ankles might result from rapid braking or de-acceleration Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

96 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume VEHICLE CRASHES - DIFFERENT IMPACTS 07-5 Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 Frontal Impact – the vehicle runs into something.

97 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 VEHICLE CRASHES - DIFFERENT IMPACTS Rear Impact – the vehicle is struck from behind.

98 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 VEHICLE CRASHES - DIFFERENT IMPACTS Lateral Impact – the vehicle is struck from the side. Also called a T-Bone

99 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 VEHICLE CRASHES - DIFFERENT IMPACTS Rotational impact – the vehicle spins on its horizontal axis.

100 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 VEHICLE CRASHES - DIFFERENT IMPACTS Rollover – The vehicle spins side- over-side.

101 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FRONTAL IMPACT – UP & OVER 07-5 Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 Up & Over Path – The body is launched over the steering wheel and column.

102 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FRONTAL IMPACT – DOWN & UNDER 07-5 Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1 Down & Under Path – The body slides under the steering wheel and column.

103 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume FRONTAL IMPACT - EXPECTED INJURIES Injuries are similar in both Up & Over and Down & Under crashes: –Head injuries –Spine injuries –Chest injuries –Abdominal injuries –Fractured pelvis, hip REAR IMPACT - EXPECTED INJURIES Neck injuries, whiplash Possible concussion 07-5 Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

104 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LATERAL IMPACT - EXPECTED INJURIES Chest/abdomen Pelvis and hips –These are dangerous injuries because of the direction of energy force. Neck/shoulder –The head and neck was not made to rotate side to side so paramedics should be very careful about C-spine involvement. –In such an accident be watchful to see if the patient is self- splinting", where she lifts her shoulders up against her neck for support Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

105 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume LATERAL IMPACT – EXPECTED INJURIES Neck/shoulder (cont.) –This is a definite sign of a lateral impact injury and they are difficult to immobilize with a cervical collar Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

106 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ROTATIONAL IMPACT - EXPECTED INJURIES Mostly all of the above because of the variety of energy forces involved, tossing the occupants in different directions. Airbags may protect against the initial impact, but because they deflate so quickly, they give no protection against subsequent hits. ROLLOVER IMPACT - EXPECTED INJURIES primarily head and neck resulting from repeated lateral forces and movement, forcing the head and neck from side to side Training Materials Fire Medics: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

107 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 1. True or False: Its not possible to predict injuries based on the accident. 2. True or False: Speed is a greater dynamic force in a crash than weight. 3. True or False: During a collision incident, there are really four collisions taking place Training Materials Quiz: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

108 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 4. Based on the evidence, circle the type of crash: a. Aortic arch tear: shear, frontal, rotational, rear impact b. Twisted ankle: extremities, rapid braking, torquing, frontal c. Head injury: up & over, twisting, spine, rollover d. Windshield pushed in: frontal impact, shear, tree limb, side 07-5 Training Materials Quiz: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

109 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Date___________ Firefighter/PM____________________ Chief/T.O.___________________ Education Credits _____ Select the best answer: 5. Which does not belong? a. Bent steering wheel b. Down & Under c. Frontal Impact d. Bruised ear e. None of the above (Answers on Slide 112) 07-5 Training Materials Quiz: PHTLS Training 1: Kinematics of Trauma, Pt. 1

110 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume How advisable is it for fire departments to inspect buildings under demolition on a frequent basis (for example, every two weeks)? 2. How practical is it for fire departments to inspect buildings under demolition on a frequent basis (for example, every two weeks)? 3. How would you make this policy a reality in YOUR fire department? If youre enrolled in the Open Learning Fire Science Program at the University of Cincinnati, complete written responses to the following three essay questions to earn one college credit hour for watching Working Fire Training. Kramer vs. Kramer Buildings Under Demolition - Inspection Policy 07-5 Training Materials Evolutions 2000 – Continuing Education

111 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume ENROLLMENT INFORMATION: For more information on enrolling in the Open Learning program to gain college credit, call Working Fire Training at for a brochure or, to register directly, call the University of Cincinnati at Associates and Bachelors programs are available. Call to have your transcripts evaluated. Send your responses to: Professor Bill Kramer University of Cincinnati College of Applied Science 2220 Victory Parkway, ML #103 Cincinnati, Ohio Training Materials Evolutions 2000 – Continuing Education

112 Emergency Services, LLC / Copyright 2007 / Volume Thanks so much for viewing Working Fire Training! See you next month – stay safe! Answers: Hands-On – Firefighter Survival Skills: Self-Rescue, Pt. 1: Quiz on Slides 46-48: 1. True 2. False 3. False 4. b 5. c AERT Atmospheres Class: Quiz on Slides 81-83; 1. False 2. False 3. False 4. 1%, 5%,.8%, 12% 5. b Fire Medics – PHTLS Training 1: Quiz on Slides : 1. False 2. True 3. False 4. shear, rapid braking, up & over, tree limb 5. d TRAINING Working Fire Training 07-5 Training Materials


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