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Concept Development and Early Childhood Assessment Bruce A. Bracken, Ph.D.

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1 Concept Development and Early Childhood Assessment Bruce A. Bracken, Ph.D.

2 Author Bruce A. Bracken, Ph.D. Professor College of William & Mary School of Education P.O. Box 8795 Williamsburg, VA 23185 Office:757-221-1712 Email:babrac@wm.edu Web:http://babrac.people.wm.edu/http://babrac.people.wm.edu/ Early childhood state standards: http://faculty.wm.edu/babrac/Standards.xls

3 Presentation Outline Introduction Challenging Assumptions about Basic Concepts Historical Perspective Importance of Basic Concepts BBCS Features, Subtests, Composites, Forms Limitations of Preschool Tests Goals for the BBCS Administration, Scoring, Interpretation Technical Characteristics Principles of Concept Instruction Case Study

4 Challenging Assumptions About Basic Concepts All children enter school already knowing important basic concepts. Young children do not understand basic concepts commonly used in classroom directions and discussion (Boehm, Classon, & Kelly, 1986) Preschool intelligence test directions are replete with basic concepts children fail to understand (Bracken, 1986; Flanagan, Alfonso, & Kaminer, 1995; Kaufman, 1978) Early childhood achievement test directions are replete with basic concepts children do not comprehend (Cummings & Nelson, 1980)

5 Challenging Assumptions About Basic Concepts Parents and teachers can identify all of the important concepts children need to master. There is no source beyond the BBCS that identifies the universe of basic concepts related to what children need to know to describe and discuss their world or to follow others directions Parents often teach only easily recognized concepts prior to their children attending school (e.g., colors, numbers/letters) Parents and teachers often have misperceptions about the taxonomical nature of concept domains and subdomains (e.g., primary colors, secondary colors, tertiary colors, absolutes)

6 Challenging Assumptions About Basic Concepts Schools systematically teach basic concepts to children in early childhood grades. None of the 50 states early-childhood educational standards include most of the BBCS concepts (Bracken & Crawford, 2006) Schools do not follow a systematic conceptual map or proven pedagogy for teaching basic concepts (Bracken, 1986, 2006) Basic concepts are usually taught with little consideration for the scope and sequence of concept development Teachers often fail to take advantage of teachable moments when concept instruction could be combined with core subjects

7 Challenging Assumptions About Basic Concepts All children begin school on an equal conceptual footing. Children of poverty know fewer basic concepts than more economically advanced students ELL/ESL students know far fewer basic concepts (in English) than native English speakers Children with speech/language, hearing, vision, and cognitive related disabilities know fewer basic concepts than nondisabled students Teachers and school materials (e.g., tests) assume with dire consequences for some children that all children understand these ubiquitous concepts

8 Importance of Basic Concepts: Triangulated Assessment Psychological Correlations with Intelligence Tests.91 Binet IV (Bracken & Howell, 1991).80 DAS (McIntosh et al., 1995).85 WPPSI-R (Panter, 2000).57 K-ABC (Laughlin, 1995) School Readiness Correlations with Achievement Tests.64 K-ABC Ach. (Zucker &Riordan, 1990 ).50 to.60 WRAT (Sterner & McCallum, 1988).65 WJ-Ach. (Bracken & Walker, 1997).67 to.81 MRT (Panter, 2002) BBCS As Part of a Multiple Source Assessment Speech/Language/Hearing Correlations with Speech Tests.78 to.88 BTBC (Bracken & Cato, 1986).67 to.88 PPVT (multiple authors).61 to.77 PLS-4 (Bracken, 2006).68 Token Test (Bracken & Cato, 1986)

9 Limitations of Preschool Tests Lack of social sensitivity / cultural awareness Limited floors, ceilings and item gradients Poor reliabilities Limited norm sample sizes and representation Lack of clinical utility / prediction Complex test directions Require active motor and verbal expressive abilities from onset Lack of meaningful demonstration and sample items Limited color and stimulating artwork Often downward extensions of child, adolescent, or adult tests Bracken, B. A. (1987). Limitations of preschool instruments and standards for minimal levels of technical adequacy. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. 5, 313-326.

10 Multiple Tests: Multiple Purposes

11 BBCS-3:R Description Brief Description Receptive measure of concept knowledge Ages 3-0 to 7-0 10 Subtests (same as Bracken Expressive) 282 basic concepts assessed English/Spanish forms Administration time 10 – 15 minutes SRC 30 - 35 minutes Total Test Aligns well with all 50 states early childhood educational standards Scoring Assistant software with link to BCDP

12 BBCS-3:R Features Assesses 282 foundational and functionally relevant concepts Use of SRC as an independent school readiness screener Aligns with early-childhood educational standards in all 50 states Colorful, stimulating, and developmentally appropriate artwork Receptive item format requires no verbal response Consistent item format, appearance, and style throughout Strong ceilings, floors, and item gradients for ages served State-of-the-art multinational Spanish translation and validation Inclusive, non-stereotyping, non-biased artwork and test items Scoring Assistant software that scores BBCS and links to BCDP

13 BBCS-3:R Unique Applications Early Childhood States Standards The BBCS exceeds early childhood concept standards in all 50 states. Spanish Language Assessments The BBCS multi-national Spanish translation allows for direct comparison of the students concept mastery in English and Spanish. Receptive/Expressive Language Assessment The BBCS-3:R and Bracken Expressive identify discrepancies between students receptive and expressive language abilities. Functional, Curriculum-Based Assessment, RTI Assessments With the Bracken Concept Development Program, the BBCS provides multi-tiered CBA or RTI intervention-linked assessment.

14 Powerful Research Tool Harlem Project: Intervention study with low SES, primarily Black children in Harlem, NY; featured in New York Times. Joint Center for Poverty Research: Intervention study investigating mothers education on their young childrens academic success and school readiness. Millennium Project: Longitudinal study including more than 17,000 children throughout the United Kingdom. NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development: Longitudinal study of early childhood development including more than 1300 families. Project Clarion (Department of EducationGrant): Concept-oriented science intervention study including more than 2000 children.

15 BBCS Receptive and Expressive Forms BBCS-3: Receptive BBCS Expressive

16 English / Spanish Forms English Receptive/ExpressiveSpanish Receptive/Expressive

17 Parent/Teacher Conference Form XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX English/Spanish Conference Form

18 Subtests and Composites School Readiness Composite (Subtests 1 – 5) 1.Colors – 10 items 2.Letters – 15 items 3.Numbers/Counting – 18 items 4.Sizes/Comparisons – 22 items 5.Shapes – 20 items SRC total – 85 items SRC Mean = 10, SD = 3 SRC Composite Mean = 100, SD = 15

19 Subtests and Composites Receptive Total Composite (Subtests 1 – 10) 6.Direction/Position – 62 items 7.Self-/Social Awareness – 33 items 8.Texture/Material – 29 items 9.Quantity – 43 items 10.Time/Sequence – 30 items BBCS total = 282 items Receptive Total Composite Mean = 100, SD = 15

20 Conceptual Universe and Developmental Sequence

21 Universal Colors Sub-domain Primary Colors Secondary Colors Combination of two primary colors Absolutes Tertiary Colors Combination of a primary color and a secondary color Concept Examples Red, Yellow, Blue Orange, Green, Purple White, Black Violet, Heather BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess all primary, secondary, and absolute colors

22 Colors Minnesota State Standards Sorts objects into subgroups by one or two characteristics, identifies and/or describes objects by physical characteristics (PreK); Uses words to describe location, size, color, shape and direction, sorts objects in a set by one attribute such as size, shape, color or thickness (K); Uses descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events, sorts, classifies, and compares objects in a set in more than one way, describes objects in terms of color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility and attraction to magnets (1st); Understands the elements of visual art, including color, line, shape, form, texture, and space (K-3) Show me which color is… purple

23 Pre-literacy Knowledge Pre-Literacy Skill Recognition Upper-case Lower-case Naming Upper-case Lower-case Letter Sounds Letter Blend Sounds Concept Examples Recognition Point to M, B, S, D Point to u, v, c, b Naming Name this letter, W, P, R, E Name this letter, a, e, g, k What sound does b make? What sound does ch make? BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess letter identification, naming, and early phonemic awareness skills

24 Letters Minnesota State Standards Recognizes and names some letters of the alphabet, especially those in own name, begins to associate sounds with letters (PreK); Identifies and names upper-case and lower-case letters of the alphabet, identifies beginning consonant sounds and ending sounds in single-syllable words (K); Identifies letters, words and sentences, sees, hears, says and writes the letters (1st) Show me … g Show me … K

25 Numerical Literacy Math Literacy Skill Rote Counting Place Counting Number Identification 0-9 Double Digits Triple Digits Number Naming 0-9 Double Digits Triple Digits Concept Examples Counting without place value Counting with one-to-one correspondence Number Identification Point to the 1, 5, 8, 0 Point to the 22, 58, 95 Point to 138, 395, 783 Number Naming What is this number? 2, 6, 9 What is this number? 44, 78 What is this number? 234, 783 BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess number identification, naming, and one-to-one correspondence

26 Numbers/Counting Minnesota State Standards Demonstrates increasing interest in and awareness of numbers and counting, demonstrates ability to count in sequence, demonstrates understanding of one-to-one correspondence between objects and number (PreK); Correctly writes the numbers 0 through 9, counts forward to 31, backward from 10, counts the number of objects in a set and identifies the quantity (K); Reads, writes numerals for, compares, and orders numbers to 120, counts by 2s to 30 and by 5s to 120, counts backwards from 30 (1st) Show me… the ninety-five Show me… three flowers

27 Relative Size Dimensions and Size Three-Dimensional Size Two-Dimensional Size Vertical Horizontal Comparative Sizes Concept Examples Big, Large, Small, Little Tall, Short Long, Short Similar, Same, Different BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess identification and naming of common two- and three-dimensional shapes and comparatives

28 Sizes/Comparisons Minnesota State Standards Sorts objects into subgroups by one or two characteristics, identifies and/or describes objects by physical characteristics (PreK); Uses words to describe location, size, color, shape and direction, sorts objects in a set by one attribute such as size, shape, color or thickness, compares and order objects by length, weight, volume, temperature or size and uses appropriate vocabulary such as longer than, holds more, smaller (K); Uses descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events, sorts, classifies, and compares objects in a set in more than one way, describes objects in terms of color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility and attraction to magnets (1st) Show me… which fence is tall Show me… which animal is big

29 Sizes/Comparisons Minnesota State Standards Makes comparisons between at least two groups of objects, recognizes and appreciates similarities and differences between self and others from diverse backgrounds (PreK); Compares and orders objects by length, weight, volume, temperature or size and use appropriate vocabulary such as longer than, holds more, smaller, compares and contrasts living and nonliving things (K); Observes describes, measures, compares, and contrasts common objects (1st); Compares family life in his or her community from earlier times and today, compares different kinds of historical sources and describes the different sorts of information the sources provide, identifies the difference between basic needs and wants (K-3) Show me… which boats are alike

30 Dimensions of Shape Shapes Linear (vertical/horizontal) Curvilinear Line Diagonal Line Angular Line Two-Dimensional Shapes Three-Dimensional Shapes Concept Examples Line, Straight Curve Diagonal Angle Circle, Square, Triangle Sphere, Cube, Pyramid BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess one-, two, and three-dimensional shapes

31 Shapes Minnesota State Standards Sorts objects into subgroups by one or two characteristics, identifies and names common shapes (PreK); Uses words to describe location, size, color, shape, and direction, sorts objects in a set by one attribute such as size, shape, color or thickness (K); Sorts 2- and 3-Dimensional shapes according to their geometrical attributes (K-1); Uses descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events, sorts, classifies, and compares objects in a set in more than one way, describes objects in terms of color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility and attraction to magnets (1st); Show me… the star Show me… the curve

32 Shapes Minnesota State Standards Sorts objects into subgroups by one or two characteristics, identifies and names common shapes (PreK); Uses words to describe location, size, color, shape, and direction, sorts objects in a set by one attribute such as size, shape, color or thickness (K); Sorts 2- and 3-Dimensional shapes according to their geometrical attributes (K-1); Uses descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events, sorts, classifies, and compares objects in a set in more than one way, describes objects in terms of color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility and attraction to magnets (1st); Creates characterizations of animals, objects, or shapes (K-3) Show me… which children are in a line Show me… the pyramid

33 Relational Concepts Direction and Position Three-dimensional Internal/External Relative Proximity Self/Other Perspective Front/Rear Specific Locations Concept Examples Under, Over, Right, Left Inside, Outside, Around Near, Far, Beside My Right, My Left, Your In Front of, Behind Edge, Corner BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess universe of basic relational concepts

34 Direction/Position Minnesota State Standards Uses words that show understanding of order and position of objects (PreK); Uses words to describe location, size, color, shape and direction, locates and describes placement of objects with terms such as on, inside, outside, above, below, over, under, beside, between, in front of, behind, next to, top, bottom (K); Describes the location of people, places and things by using positional words, names and uses directional words to describe locations of places in the school and community, uses cardinal and intermediate directions to locate places (K-3) Show me… which clown is up-side-down Show me… which child is behind the chair

35 Self and Society Personal and Cultural Affective Feeling Health/Physical Gender Familial Relationships Age Mores Conceptual Examples Happy, Sad, Excited Healthy, Sick, Tired Boy, Girl, Woman, Man Mother, Father, Sister Old, Young Right, Wrong, Correct BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess childrens understanding of the social world in which they live

36 Self- Social Awareness Minnesota State Standards Understands various family roles, jobs, rules, and relationships, recognizes and appreciates similarities and differences between self and others from diverse backgrounds, develops an awareness of self as having certain abilities, characteristics, and preferences (PreK); Uses words to describe and name people, places, and things (K); Uses descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events, communicates needs, feelings, and ideas to peers and adults in complete sentences, describes ways in which many plants and animals closely resemble but are not identical to their parents (1st) Show me… which child is wrong Show me… which person is sad

37 Environmental Awareness Environmental Conditions States of Matter Textures Materials Material Characteristics Temperatures Concept Examples Solid, Liquid, Gas Rough, Smooth, Sharp Cloth, Wood, Metal Wet, Dry, Shiny, Dull Hot, Cold BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess childrens understanding of the natural world in which they live

38 Texture/Material Minnesota State Standards Sorts objects into subgroups by one or two characteristics, identifies and/or describes objects by physical characteristics (PreK); Uses words to describe and name people, places, and things, sorts objects in a set by one attribute such as size, shape, color or thickness, compares and orders objects by length, weight, volume, temperature, or size (K); Uses descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events, sorts, classifies, and compares objects in a set in more than one way, observes describes, measures, compares and contrasts common objects, describes objects in terms of color, size, shape, weight, texture, flexibility and attraction to magnets (1st); Understands the elements of visual art, including color, line, shape, form, texture, and space (K-3) Show me… which rock is smooth Show me… which one is a gas

39 Quantity Quantitative Characteristics Part/Whole Relations Relative Quantity Volume Multiples Comparatives/Superlatives Fractions Math Signs/Symbols Concept Examples Whole, Part, Piece Lots, Few, Some, None Full, Empty Pair, Double, Triple, Dozen More, Less, Most, Least Half, One-Third +, -, x BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess childrens understanding of the quantitative features of their world

40 Quantity Minnesota State Standards Recognizes objects can be measured by height, length, weight, and time, identifies and/or describes objects by physical characteristics (PreK); Given a number, identifies one more or one less, compares and orders objects by length, weight, volume, temperature, or size and uses appropriate vocabulary such as longer than, holds more, smaller, recognizes the following coins: penny, nickel, dime and quarter (K); Identifies one-half of a set of concrete objects, combines pennies, nickels or dimes to equal one dollar, observes describes, measures, compares and contrasts common objects, using simple tools, including but not limited to ruler, thermometer and balance (1st) Show me… where neither child has a balloon Show me… which tree has many apples

41 Temporal Concepts Relative Time Mathematical Seriation Frequency Natural Occurring Events Temporal Absolutes Temporal Order Speed Relative Age Scheduling Larger Temporal Periods Concept Examples First, Second, Third Once, Twice Morning, Daytime, Before, After Never, Always Early, Late, Next, Arriving Fast, Slow New, Old, Young, Old Nearly, Just, Waiting Days, Weeks, Months, Seasons BBCS-3:R/Expressive systematically assess childrens understanding of short and long periods of time and naturally occurring temporal events

42 Time/Sequence Minnesota State Standards Uses words that show understanding of order and position of objects, orders or sequences several objects on the basis of one characteristic, recognizes objects can be measured by height, length, weight, and time (PreK); Compares and orders events based on time and uses appropriate vocabulary such as yesterday, today or tomorrow to describe relative time, describes daily and seasonal changes in weather (K); Retells familiar stories using beginning, middle and end (K-1); Identifies and describes main characters setting and sequences of story events, alphabetizes by first letter, observes, records and describes characteristics in daily weather and seasonal cycles (1st); Places events in chronological order and constructs timelines, creates and performs sequences of movement with a beginning, middle, and end (K-3) Show me… which child is waiting Show me… which person has quit working

43 Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

44 Bracken Expressive Brief Description Expressive measure of concept knowledge Ages 3-0 to 7-0 10 Subtests (same as BBCS-3:R) 155 basic concepts assessed English/Spanish forms Administration time 10 – 15 minutes SRC 20 – 25 minutes Total Test Aligns well with all 50 states early childhood educational standards Scoring Assistant software with link to BCDP

45 Bracken Expressive This rope is loose, this rope is … This child is sad, This child is …

46 Bracken School Readiness Assessment Brief Description Stand alone school readiness measure Ages 3-0 to 7-0 5 Subtests 85 basic concepts assessed English/Spanish forms Administration time 10 – 15 minutes Aligns well with all 50 states early childhood educational standards

47 Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

48 BBCS-3:R Administration Trial Item 1: I am going to ask you to point to some things. For example, if I asked you to point to your shoe, where would you point? Thats right, you pointed to your shoe. You would point right here, wouldnt you? Trial Item 2: Lets do another one. Show me your hair. Thats right, you pointed to your hair. You would point right here, wouldnt you? Trial Item 3 Now show me the floor. Good you pointed to the floor. You would point right here, wouldnt you? Ask similar questions until child understands the task.

49 BBCS-3:R Administration Trial Item 4 Now, I am going to show you some pictures. I will read something to you, and I want you to point to the picture that shows what I say. Look at each of these pictures. Look at this picture, this picture, this one, and this one. Show me the ball. Good, you looked at all the pictures and pointed to the ball.

50 BBCS-3:R Administration Trial Item 4 Now, I am going to show you some pictures. I will read something to you, and I want you to point to the picture that shows what I say. Look at each of these pictures. Look at this picture, this picture, this one, and this one. Show me the ball. Good, you looked at all the pictures and pointed to the ball. If child does not point to the ball, use the other three objects as practice items.

51 BBCS-3:R Administration SRC Administration Start with Item #1 for each subtest Administer items in consecutive order Discontinue each subtest after lowest set of 3 consecutive failed items Sum the number of items correct Look up Scaled/Composite Scores in Norm Table Enter SRC raw score into Table 2.2 to determine Start Points for subtests # 6 - 10 9

52 Establishing a Starting Point 8 9 9 12 14 52

53 Administering Subtests 6 - 10 Begin at established Starting Point. Establish a basal of three consecutive items passed Discontinue after lowest set of three consecutive items are failed Raw score equals all items from Item 1 to the basal, the three items within the basal, and all items passed between the basal and the discontinue point (i.e., 12)

54 Convenient Norm Tables Normative Scores Scaled Scores Percentile Ranks Normative Classifications Very Advanced Advanced Average Delayed Very Delayed Confidence Intervals 90% confidence 95% confidence

55 BBCS-3:R Score Reporting 52 8 1 7 9 25 16 37 Ave 4-6 32 9 1 8 10 37 25 50 Ave 4-8 15 6 1 5 7 9 5 16 Delayed 3-6 18 10 1 9 11 50 37 63 Ave 5-1 16 8 1 7 9 25 16 37 Ave 4-1 13 9 1 8 10 37 25 50 Ave 4-10 50 146 90 87 94 25 19 34 Ave4-5 52 90 4 86 94 25 18 34 Ave 4-6 Completed Record Form Showing Subtest and Composite: - Raw Scores - Scaled Scores - SEM - Confidence Intervals - Score Percentile Ranks - CI Percentile Ranks - Descriptive Classifications

56 Bracken Expressive Administration Trial Item 1 I am going to ask you to name some things. For example, if I ask you to name what this is (point to your nose), what would you say? If child says nose, say, Thats right you said nose. If the child does not say nose, model the behavior by pointing to the childs nose and say, You would say nose, wouldnt you? Trial Items 2 Now tell me what this is (point to your ear). Good, you said ear If the child does not say ear, You would say ear, wouldnt you? Similar trial items can be used to ensure the child understands the labeling task.

57 Bracken Expressive Administration Trial Item 3 (Item 4 is similarly administered) Now I am going to show you some pictures and say some things about them. I want you to help me by finishing some of the things I say. Lets try one. Look at these pictures. This book is open, this book is… If child responds correctly, say Thats right. If the child responds incorrectly, say, This book is closed, isnt it. Repeat the item if the child responded incorrectly. Repeat items 3 and 4 as many times as needed until the child completes the task of finishing the sentence

58 Bracken Expressive Administration Begin administration each SRC subtest with item #1 Continue administering items until the child fails four consecutive items

59 Determining a Starting Point 5634656346 24

60 Administering Subtests 6 - 10 Begin at established Starting Point. Establish a basal of three consecutive items passed Discontinue after lowest set of four consecutive items are failed Raw score equals all items from Item 1 to the basal, the three items within the basal, and all items passed between the basal and the discontinue point (i.e., 5)

61 Bracken Expressive Score Reporting 24 5 1 4 6 5 2 9 Delayed 3-7 13 7 2 5 9 16 5 37 Delayed 3-0 7 6 2 4 8 9 2 25 Delayed 3-4 6 8 2 6 10 25 9 50 Average 4-3 2 6 2 4 8 9 2 25 Delayed 3-4 5 7 2 5 9 16 5 37 Delayed 4-0 39 57 78 75 83 8 5 14 Delayed 3-9 24 75 4 71 79 5 3 8 Delayed 3-7 Completed Record Form Showing Subtest and Composite: - Raw Scores - Scaled Scores - SEM - Confidence Intervals - Score Percentile Ranks - CI Percentile Ranks - Descriptive Classifications

62 Determining Receptive - Expressive Skill Differences

63 Technical Adequacy

64 BBCS-3:R Internal Consistency: Matched Language Samples

65 Bracken Expressive Internal Consistency: Matched Language Samples

66 BBCS-3:R Total Sample Reliability

67 Bracken Expressive Total Sample Reliability

68 BBCS-3:R Reliability by Gender

69 BBCS-3:R Reliability by Race/Ethnicity

70 BBCS-3:R Reliability by Clinical Samples

71 BBCS-3:R Stability

72 BBCS-3:R Validity with PLS-4

73 BBCS-3:R With Language Impaired

74 BBCS-3:R Historical Validity Psychological Assessments BBCS Correlations with Intelligence Tests.91 Binet IV (Bracken & Howell, 1991).80 DAS (McIntosh et al., 1995).85 WPPSI-R (Panter, 2000).57 K-ABC (Laughlin, 1995) Speech/Language/Hearing Assessments BBCS Correlations with Speech Tests.78 to.88 BTBC (Bracken & Cato, 1986).67 to.88 PPVT (multiple authors).61 to.77 PLS-4 (Bracken, 2006.68 Token Test (Bracken & Cato, 1986) School Readiness Assessments BBCS Correlations with Achievement Tests.64 K-ABC Ach. (Zucker &Riordan, 1990).50 to.60 WRAT (Sterner & McCallum, 1988).65 WJ-Ach. (Bracken & Walker, 1997).67 to.81 MRT (Panter, 2002)

75 Linked with the Bracken Concept Development Program

76 Professionals Guide (308 pages) Scope and sequence organization Units/Lessons Recommendations for parents/teachers Instructional principles for teaching basic concepts 5 large full-color posters for large group instruction 40 full-color concept cards for small group instruction 81 complete lesson plans 153 black line worksheets

77 1. Instruction should be guided by state educational standards 2. Teach concepts in pairs and continua (e.g., long-short; hot-warm-cold) 3.Instructional language/examples should less complex than concepts being taught and mnemonic guides should be used as much as possible 4. Begin with obvious examples and proceed toward less obvious examples 5. Highlight most salient conceptual characteristics 6. Begin instruction with polar positives 7. Use conceptual term for polar positive, use not for polar negative (e.g., long - not long) 8.Introduce polar negative term (e.g., short) 9. Combine polar positive and negative (e.g., if it is not long, it is short) 10. Address developmental acquisition sequence (e.g., primary, secondary, absolutes, tertiary colors). 20 Principles for Concept Instruction

78 11. Provide parents/teachers with conceptual list - - mastered/non mastered concepts 12. Elicit active, multisensory, vocal participation 13. Teach concepts to point of over-learning 14. Keep lessons brief as developmentally appropriate 15. Review previously acquired concepts at beginning of each new session 16. Teach to childs level of success 17. Ensure identifiable instructional beginnings and end points (i.e., structure and closure) 18. Teach concepts in familiar and naturalistic settings and situations to maximize generalizations 19. Create conceptual combinations (e.g., Please hand me the big, round, red chip on the corner of the table). 20. Intentionally use concepts naturally in daily language; intentionally use conceptually rich language. 20 Principles for Concept Instruction

79 Bracken Concept Development Program Instructional units, lessons, objectives, and worksheets

80 Concept Cards for Small Group Instruction Bracken Concept Development Program

81 1. Assess child with BBCS-3:R / Bracken Expressive /BSRA 2. Make norm-referenced interpretations for each form of the test separately (i.e., receptive/expressive) 3. Compare childs receptive and expressive concept knowledge levels 4. Complete Parent/Teacher Conference form for distribution 5. Calculate childs percent mastery to identify I.E.P. goals 6. Identify lessons and materials in BCDP that teach non-mastered concepts 7. Plan to teach concepts in large and small groups and/or individually as needed 8. Assess students daily progress with BCDP worksheets 9. Reassess students longer-term progress with BBCS-3:R and/or Bracken Expressive 10. Modify instruction as needed to enhance students rate of conceptual development CBM or RTI Intervention

82 BBCS/BCDP Assessment/Instruction Validation Group Pretest Post-test SRC M SD M SD d Control Group (N = 19) 87.7518.2289.4217.011.67 BBCS/BCDP (N = 17) 87.7114.75101.1216.5413.41 BBCS/BCDP/Home (N=18) 98.8915.55109.3315.2010.44 Group Pretest Post-test Total Test M SD M SD d Control Group (N = 19) 84.5512.2286.9511.502.40 BBCS/BCDP (N = 17) 83.479.8698.9411.7815.47 BBCS/BCDP/Home (N=18) 91.1614.28108.5617.5017.40 Wilson, P. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the Bracken Concept Development Program and the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised With Head Start Students. Psychology in the Schools, 41(3), 301-311.

83 Case Study Darren S. Age 5-2 Referred due to Language Delay and Autistic Spectrum related behaviors

84 Darren Bracken Expressive 24 5 1 4 6 5 2 9 Delayed 3-7 13 7 2 5 9 16 5 37 Delayed 3-0 7 6 2 4 8 9 2 25 Delayed 3-4 6 8 2 6 10 25 9 50 Average 4-3 2 6 2 4 8 9 2 25 Delayed 3-4 5 7 2 5 9 16 5 37 Delayed 4-0 39 57 78 75 83 8 5 14 Delayed 3-9 24 75 4 71 79 5 3 8 Delayed 3-7 School Readiness Composite Use Raw Score to Determine Receptive Total Composite Use Sum of Scaled Scores Raw Scores are used to determine Concept Age Equivalents

85 Receptive/Expressive Discrepancy? 90 78 12 6 Yes 8.1% 90 75 15 7 Yes 5.3% 90 78 12 6 Yes 8.1% 90 75 15 7 Yes 5.3%

86 Darren Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test 18 7 7 7 10 10 11 11 7 7 7 7 18 17 14 22 35 X

87 Darren Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test X 18 94 34 88 102 Average 17 91 27 85 99 Average 14 82 12 76 92 Low Averg 21 103 58 96 110 Average 35 91 27 86 98 Average Symbolic < Nonsymbolic (p <.05)

88 Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) Autistic Spectrum SymptomsAverage Level Cognitive/Adaptive Functioning

89 CAB Critical Behaviors Autistic related behaviors

90 Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB)

91 Darren Scruggs Summary BBCS-3:R SRC = 90 (Average receptive knowledge of school readiness concepts) TRC = 90 (Average receptive knowledge of full universe of basic language concepts) UNIT FSIQ = 91 (Average & Consistent with BBCS-3:R) Symbolic Quotient = 82 < Average Nonsymbolic Quotient = 103 Average Memory Quotient (94) = Average Reasoning Quotient (91) Bracken Expressive SRC = 75 (Delayed expressive knowledge of school readiness concepts) TRC = 78 (Delayed expressive knowledge of full universe of basic language concepts) Significant difference between forms (Receptive > Expressive)

92 Darren Scruggs Summary Clinical Assessment of Behavior Behaviors consistent with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Autistic Spectrum Cluster: Significant Clinical Risk Social Skills Scale: Mild Adaptive Weakness Critical Behaviors: Significant Clinical Risk Relatively high functioning behaviors Competence Scale: Normal Range Adaptive Behavior Scale: Normal Range Executive Function Cluster: Normal Range Emotional Disturbance Scales: Emotional Disturbance = Mild Clinical Risk Social Maladjustment = Normal Range

93 Conclusions Darren demonstrates cognitive, language, and behavioral characteristics of higher functioning autistic spectrum disorder (e.g., Aspergers): Stronger receptive than expressive language skills (i.e., average receptive concept development, delayed expressive concept development) Average range nonverbal intelligence, with nonsymbolic processing higher than symbolic Behaviors consistent with autistic disorder (e.g., diminished social skills, autistic-like critical behaviors, high score on autism scale)


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