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Understanding Hearing Loss Compiled by the North Dakota School for the Deaf/ Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearings Outreach Department (3/2013)

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Hearing Loss Compiled by the North Dakota School for the Deaf/ Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearings Outreach Department (3/2013)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Understanding Hearing Loss Compiled by the North Dakota School for the Deaf/ Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearings Outreach Department (3/2013)

3 North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

4 Typical Hearing Drawing from SKI*HI North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

5 Conductive Hearing Loss An obstruction in the outer and/or middle ear blocks the transmission of sound. Medical and/or surgical treatment may reduce or eliminate this type of hearing loss. Drawing taken from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

6 Causes of Conductive Hearing Loss The ear canal is missing or occluded (obstructed). Allergies The bones in the ossicular chain are broken or calcified. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

7 Sensorineural Hearing Loss Are commonly a result of a damaged cochlea and/or auditory nerve. May improve with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Require auditory training. Drawing taken from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

8 Causes of Sensorineural Hearing Loss Diseases during pregnancy Heredity Childhood diseases (mumps, measles, chicken pox) Viral infections (meningitis, encephalitis) Prolonged high fever Physical damage to head or ear Exposure to excessive or intense noise (loud music, gunfire, etc.) North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department

9 Mixed Hearing Loss A combination of conductive and sensorineural components: Blockage in the outer or middle ear AND Damaged inner ear (cochlea) or auditory nerve North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department

10 Warning Signs for Infants Birth to 4 months: awakens or startles at loud noises? calm at the sound of a familiar voice? 9 to 15 months: babble a lot of different sounds? respond to his/her name? respond to changes in your tone of voice? say "ma-ma" or "da-da"? understand simple requests? repeat some sounds you make? use his/her voice to attract attention? 4 to 9 months: turn eyes toward source of sounds? notice rattles and other sound- making toys? cry differently for different needs? make babbling sounds? seem to understand simple word/hand motions such as "bye- bye" with a wave? months: point to familiar objects when they are named? listen to stories, songs and rhymes? follow simple commands? use several different words? point to body parts when asked? name common objects? put two or more words together? North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department

11 Warning Signs for Preschool & Older Children Does the child: need the TV volume to be excessively high? respond inappropriately to questions? fail to reply /respond when called? watch others to imitate what they are doing? have articulation problems or speech/language delays? have problems academically? complain of earaches, ear pain or head noises? have difficulty understanding what people are saying? seem to speak differently from their same age peers? North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

12 Audiologic Assessments Otoacoustic Emissions Test (OAE) Auditory Brainstem Response Test (ABR or BAER) Conventional Behavior Tests Tympanometry North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

13 Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE) Test photo from Cataract Foundation Philipines, Inc. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

14 Conventional Behavioral Hearing Tests photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

15 Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Test photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

16 Tympanometry photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

17 Drawing from Understanding Audiograms North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

18 FREQUENCY IN CYCLES PER SECOND (HZ) LOW PITCH HIGH PITCH North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department

19 HEARING LEVEL (dB HL) LOUD SOFT North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department

20 Average Loudness Levels North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department Drawing from

21 Audiogram symbols North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

22 Bone Conduction Audiogram from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

23 Degree of Hearing Loss Drawing from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

24 Amplification North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department Photo from Photo from besthearingaidsguide.info Photo from Advanced Bionics

25 Hearing Aids Amplify sounds Allow sound to travel the normal route through the ear North Dakota School for the Deaf Outreach Department

26 Hearing Aids CANNOT Restore sounds natural quality (sounds may be perceived as mechanical or tinny) -which will affect listening to music Improve hearing when background noise is present or with simultaneous conversations Amplify only what a child wants to hear North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

27 Hearings Aids Can Make soft sounds louder, make listening to speech more comfortable and easier to understand Improve hearing in social situations that were previously difficult (church, social groups, etc.) Improve hearing at high pitches (promoting an awareness of environmental sounds and increased understanding of speech) Improve comfort with social interactions and events North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

28 How a Hearing Aid works North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

29 What do Hearing Aids look like? photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

30 Cochlear Implants photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

31 What is involved with CIs? Surgery and an overnight hospital stay A healing period before the external devices are connected Numerous follow up appointments To map and program the device To receive extensive auditory training North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

32 Parts of an implant Internal part – C. Electrodes External Parts – A. Speech Processor B. Transmitting Coil Image from Cochlear, Ltd. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

33 How an implant works Taken from Photo from Cochlear, Ltd.www.ent.uci.edu North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

34 Eligibility Criteria for Cochlear Implant No benefit from hearing aids At least one year of age Family and educational support Absence of medical restrictions Cochlea and auditory nerve are present North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

35 Bone Conduction Hearing Aid photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

36 Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (Baha) Image from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

37 Vibro-tactile Aid photo from North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

38 Assistive Listening Device (ALD) A child with a hearing loss may benefit from an Assistive Listening Device (ALD). The ALD increases the childs ability to hear sounds in an auditorium or classroom by Reducing background noise. Making faraway sounds seem closer. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

39 Assistive Listening Devices Personal FM System Delivers speech from a speakers microphone to the ears of the person with a hearing loss Soundfield FM System Delivers speech from a speakers microphone to speakers placed strategically throughout the room North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

40 Educational Implications Communication Language Speech Social EmotionalBehavior Reading Academic Daily Living Career North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

41 Communication Options Auditory Oral Auditory Verbal Cued Speech Total Communication American Sign Language North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

42 Auditory-Oral Programs GOAL: To encourage speech Auditory-Oral programs combine: residual hearing, lip reading, hearing aids, cochlear implant (s) and/or other amplification devices. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

43 Auditory Verbal Programs GOAL: To teach listening and speaking using hearing aids, cochlear implant and/or other amplification devices. No use or emphasis of sign language or speech reading. Parents training: methods incorporating listening and language use within daily routines. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

44 Cued Speech GOAL: To teach speaking through the use of amplification, lip-reading and cues from the hand shape system. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

45 Total Communication GOAL: To teach speech using all modes of communication: speech, sign language, auditory training, speech reading finger spelling. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

46 American Sign Language (ASL) (Bilingual/Bicultural) GOAL: To teach a visual language Used by persons defined as culturally Deaf in the United States and Canada. Has a distinct grammar and word order. (Often English is learned as a second language). Incorporates eyes, hands, facial expressions and body movements. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

47 Accommodations NOISE CONTROL Use draperies on windows Use low, acoustically controlled ceilings Reduce noise from lights, fans, heaters, etc. Use carpeting on floors and walls to absorb sound Use auditory training equipment to enhance the childs listening LIGHTING CONTROL Use draperies to control sun glare Provide adequate ceiling lights North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

48 Accommodations SEATING ARRANGEMENTS Ensure a clear view of the speakers face – essential to following discussions and lectures Allow seating changes as activities change Seat with the better ear turned toward the speaker VISUAL AIDS Make language and information visible-Use chalkboard, overhead projector, written labels, captioned films, etc. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

49 Communication Tips Choose a quiet environment. Get the childs attention before speaking. Do not cover mouth when speaking. Look directly at communication partner. Maintain eye contact. State the topic of discussion at the beginning of the conversation. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

50 Communication Tips Speak clearly, at a normal pace. Do not shout. When spoken words are not heard Repeat statements, then Re–phrase Be patient- take time to communicate. Be aware of fatigue. North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

51 for more educational strategies… Contact the North Dakota School for the Deaf in Devils Lake 1401 College Drive N., Devils Lake, ND or (701) or one of their outreach offices listed below. Minot Memorial Building 500 W. University Avenue Minot, ND (701) Grand Forks 1401 College Drive N. Devils Lake, ND (701) Bismarck 418 East Broadway Suite 228-B Bismarck, ND (701) Fargo th Avenue N. P.O. Box 5036 Fargo, ND (701) North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department

52 Resources North Dakota School for the Deaf (NDSD) North Dakota Interagency Project for Assistive Technology (IPAT) Described and Captioned Media (DCMP) North Dakota School for the Deaf/Resource Center for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Outreach Department


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