The Flipside of Feminism According to a 2007 report from the National Bureau of Economic Research, as women have gained more freedom, more education, and more power, they have become less happy. uzanne-venkerhttp://radioboston.wbur.org/2011/03/18/s uzanne-venker
II SPEAK FOR MYSELF: AMERICAN WOMEN ON BEING MUSLIM (EDITED BY EBRAHIMJI & SURATWALA) I finally saw the difference between the cultural Islam I was raised in and the true Islam based on original texts…At last, I had achieved the inner peace that comes when you find synergy among your beliefs, logic, and relationaships.After sincerely searching and wading through the enormous pressures and conflicting perspectives of life, I finally felt comfortable in my own skin. Hebah Ahmed
CULTURAL FACTOR 4: View of Spirituality and Humans Relation to Nature From our Class: View of Spirituality – Group Sharing Exercise From the First Amendment Center: Religious Liberty, Public Education, and the Future of American Democracy.
Knowledge about religions is not only characteristic of an educated person, but is also absolutely necessary for understanding and living in a world of diversity. National Council for the Social Studies Finding Common Ground
How should I teach about religion in the public school setting? The schools approach to religion is academic, not devotional. The school strives for student awareness of religions, but does not press for student acceptance of any religion. The school informs students about various beliefs; it does not seek to conform students to any particular belief.
How should I teach about religion in the public school setting? The school sponsors study about religion, not the practice of religion. The school may expose students to a diversity of religious views, but may not impose any particular view. The school educates about all religions; it does not promote or denigrate religion.
Perspectives on Gender Identity The development of ones sense of identitythe knowledge that one is separate from parents and family begins early. A critical part of identity development, beginning at least at birth, is gender. 15
Sex and Gender Identity Identification in terms of sex begins at about 18 months of ageI am a girl, I am a boy. However, while sex is a biological characteristic, gender is a social one what it means to be a boy or girl in any given society; what the rules are. 16
Gender Role Socialization The rules associated with ones gender role may vary by race, ethnicity, social class, religion, and even by geographical region. The process of learning ones gender role can be described in three parts, as follows: 17
The child learns to distinguish between men and women, boys and girls, and to know what kinds of behavior are characteristic of each; The child learns to express appropriate gender role preferences for himself or herself; The child internalizes the rules and learns to behave in accordance with gender role standards. 18
The Impact of Gender in the Preschool Social Component Play Mates Play Spaces Play Styles Play Themes Resolving Conflicts Implications for Teachers Respect Outdoor and Indoor Balanced activities Wide variety of materials Rules and strategies
Gender Role Socialization in the Middle Class Parents: –Boys handled more roughly, girls get more verbal attention –Boys given more freedom to explore; girls kept closer to supervising parent –Girls get more help in solving problems; boys told to figure it out –Parents approval of appropriate gender behavior shapes the behavior of children 20
Other Socializing Agents Television Childrens books Childrens toys Nursery rhymes, religious stories Proverbs and sayings 21
Gender as an Issue of Legal Equity in Schools Title IX, Educational Amendments (1972) No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. 22
Some Important Court Cases Grove City v. Bell (1984)Supreme Court agrees that schools that do not receive direct federal funds can be excluded from Title IX Civil Rights Restoration Act (1988)overrode Bell; required all education institutions receiving any federal funds (e.g., student loans) must comply with Title IX Numerous cases have been brought in lower courts on the question of girls athletics; most have affirmed Title IX. 23
Other cases have been brought on issues of sexual harassment; the results have been mixed in adult-on-student cases: –Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992)petitioners may claim punitive damages under Title IX when intent to evade compliance is established –Gebser and Mccullough v. Lago Vista Independent School District (1997)denied compensatory damages from both the teacher involved and the school district 24
The first successful student-on-student harassment case was decided in 1995: –Doe v. Petaluma Unified School District (1995)plaintiff was awarded punitive damages of $250,000 25
Major Studies on Gender and Schooling in the Last Decade Mid-Atlantic Equity Center and NETWORK Study (1993) found eight areas of concern related to Title IX still to be addressed in order to ensure equal educational opportunity for all students, as follows: 26
–Girls at risk of dropping out of school –Gender bias in student–teacher interactions –Participation and achievement of girls in math and science –Students enrolling and completing vocational education courses historically nontraditional to their gender –Gender bias in standardized tests –Gender differences in learning styles –Teen pregnancy and parenting –Sexual harassment of students by their peers 27
Educating Our Boys Boys are now falling behind in reading, according to a 50-state survey released in 2011 by Center on Education Policy 62% of Community College graduates are female; 57% of students earning bachelor degrees are female Raising Cain
Ethical Issues The degree to which all students are encouraged to be open, reflective, and critical thinkers The degree to which open inquiry may place students at odds with their families or the community The degree to which the role of the school is seen as one which helps all students to understand, appreciate, and negotiate differencesof gender and sexuality as well as of other characteristics 29