6The Flipside of Feminism According to a 2007 report from the National Bureau of Economic Research, as women have gained more freedom, more education, and more power, they have become less happy.
7II Speak for Myself: American Women on Being Muslim (Edited by Ebrahimji & Suratwala) “I finally saw the difference between the cultural Islam I was raised in and the true Islam based on original texts…At last, I had achieved the inner peace that comes when you find synergy among your beliefs, logic, and relationaships.After sincerely searching and wading through the enormous pressures and conflicting perspectives of life, I finally felt comfortable in my own skin.” Hebah Ahmed
10CULTURAL FACTOR 4: View of Spirituality and Humans’ Relation to Nature From our Class:View of Spirituality – Group Sharing ExerciseFrom the First Amendment Center:Religious Liberty, Public Education, and the Future of American Democracy.
11Finding Common Ground“Knowledge about religions is not only characteristic of an educated person, but is also absolutely necessary for understanding and living in a world of diversity.”National Council for the Social Studies
12How should I teach about religion in the public school setting? The school’s approach to religion is academic, not devotional.The school strives for student awareness of religions, but does not press for student acceptance of any religion.The school informs students about various beliefs; it does not seek to conform students to any particular belief.
13How should I teach about religion in the public school setting? The school sponsors study about religion, not the practice of religion.The school may expose students to a diversity of religious views, but may not impose any particular view.The school educates about all religions; it does not promote or denigrate religion.
15Perspectives on Gender Identity The development of one’s sense of identity—the knowledge that one is separate from parents and family—begins early.A critical part of identity development, beginning at least at birth, is gender.
16Sex and Gender Identity Identification in terms of sex begins at about 18 months of age—“I am a girl,” “I am a boy.”However, while sex is a biological characteristic, gender is a social one—what it means to be a boy or girl in any given society; what the rules are.
17Gender Role Socialization The rules associated with one’s gender role may vary by race, ethnicity, social class, religion, and even by geographical region.The process of learning one’s gender role can be described in three parts, as follows:
18The child learns to distinguish between men and women, boys and girls, and to know what kinds of behavior are characteristic of each;The child learns to express appropriate gender role preferences for himself or herself;The child internalizes the “rules” and learns to behave in accordance with gender role standards.
19The Impact of Gender in the Preschool Social ComponentImplications for TeachersPlay MatesPlay SpacesPlay StylesPlay ThemesResolving ConflictsRespectOutdoor and IndoorBalanced activitiesWide variety of materialsRules and strategies
20Gender Role Socialization in the Middle Class Parents:Boys handled more roughly, girls get more verbal attentionBoys given more freedom to explore; girls kept closer to supervising parentGirls get more help in solving problems; boys told to “figure it out”Parents’ approval of “appropriate” gender behavior shapes the behavior of children
21Other Socializing Agents TelevisionChildren’s booksChildren’s toysNursery rhymes, religious storiesProverbs and sayings
22Gender as an Issue of Legal Equity in Schools Title IX, Educational Amendments (1972) “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
23Some Important Court Cases Grove City v. Bell (1984)—Supreme Court agrees that schools that do not receive direct federal funds can be excluded from Title IXCivil Rights Restoration Act (1988)—overrode Bell; required all education institutions receiving any federal funds (e.g., student loans) must comply with Title IXNumerous cases have been brought in lower courts on the question of girls’ athletics; most have affirmed Title IX.
24Other cases have been brought on issues of sexual harassment; the results have been mixed in adult-on-student cases:Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992)—petitioners may claim punitive damages under Title IX when intent to evade compliance is establishedGebser and Mccullough v. Lago Vista Independent School District (1997)—denied compensatory damages from both the teacher involved and the school district
25The first successful student-on-student harassment case was decided in 1995: Doe v. Petaluma Unified School District (1995)—plaintiff was awarded punitive damages of $250,000
26Major Studies on Gender and Schooling in the Last Decade Mid-Atlantic Equity Center and NETWORK Study (1993) found eight areas of concern related to Title IX still to be addressed in order to ensure equal educational opportunity for all students, as follows:
27Girls at risk of dropping out of school Gender bias in student–teacher interactionsParticipation and achievement of girls in math and scienceStudents enrolling and completing vocational education courses historically nontraditional to their genderGender bias in standardized testsGender differences in learning stylesTeen pregnancy and parentingSexual harassment of students by their peers
28Educating Our BoysBoys are now falling behind in reading, according to a 50-state survey released in 2011 by Center on Education Policy62% of Community College graduates are female; 57% of students earning bachelor degrees are female“Raising Cain”
29Ethical IssuesThe degree to which all students are encouraged to be open, reflective, and critical thinkersThe degree to which open inquiry may place students at odds with their families or the communityThe degree to which the role of the school is seen as one which helps all students to understand, appreciate, and negotiate differences—of gender and sexuality as well as of other characteristics