Presentation on theme: "2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 1 UPA Package 2, Module 6 LAND REFORM."— Presentation transcript:
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 1 UPA Package 2, Module 6 LAND REFORM
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 2 Land Reform in other countries India The mixed impact of tenancy reform legislation India is characterized not only by a diverse history of land rights arrangements that show significant variation across states who have the responsibility for land-related legislation. The far-reaching impact of different assignment of property rights under the zamindari and ryotwari revenue settlement with the British has been widely noted in the literature.
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 3 Land Reform in other countries India The mixed impact of tenancy reform legislation Land reform comprises three elements, namely (i) the abolition of intermediary interests shortly after independence; (ii) different measures of tenancy reform and regulation of the land lease market; and (iii) the legislation of land ownership ceilings. As the first of this measures is widely judged to have been highly successful, we focus on the two remaining items.
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 4 Land Reform in other countries Colombia Implementation of market assisted land reform In Colombia, land reform has been a long-standing concern to correct an extremely inequitable distribution of land, to increase the productivity and environmental sustainability of agricultural production, and to reduce widespread rural violence. Maldistribution of land in rural areas, while dating back to colonial encomiendas, has been reinforced and exacerbated in more recent times by four policy related factors,
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 5 Land Reform in other countries Colombia Implementation of market assisted land reform (i) tax incentives for agriculture which caused rich individuals to acquire land to offset taxes on non-agricultural enterprises; (ii) legal impediments to the smooth functioning of the land rental and sales markets; (iii) Credit and interest rate subsidies plus disproportionate protection of the livestock subsector provided incentives for agricultural cultivation with very low labor intensity; and (iv) the use of land to launder money that had been acquired by drug lords.
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 6 Land Reform in other countries Brazil Land-based poverty alleviation With a land distribution among the most unequal in the world, the situation in Brazil is characterized by a large extent of landlessness and a politically very vocal demand for land reform To help the Government accomplish the goal of poverty reduction, the Bank has been building on they highly successful experience of community- driven projects in the countrys Northeast, to develop a program of community based land reform that is complementary to the existing approach which, from 1995 through the end of 1999, has resettled approximately 372,500 families.
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 7 Land Reform in other countries Brazil Land-based poverty alleviation Under the community-based scheme, eligible beneficiary groups (community organizations) receive assistance to identify and acquire land and to make complementary productive investments in order to be able to make productive use of this land. The pilot has been implemented faster than originally expected, benefiting about 15,000 households thus far.
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 8 Land Reform in China Three phrases of land reform in China : before 1949 --- phase I 1949~1978 --- II phrase Replacement of private property rights by the socialist hierarchy since 1978 --- III phrase a new reform program
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 9 Urban Land Institutions in China since 1978 Main Instruments in the Urban Land Use Reform: Land taxation Separation of land-use rights from ownership Dual-track land system
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 10 Urban Land Institutions in China since 1978 Major Aspects of the Reform: Chinas Urban Land Property Right System Urban Land Disposition Mechanism
2.6.2 Urban Land Reform in China 11 Urban Land Institutions in China since 1978 Problems in the System of Distribution of Urban Land Benefits : The system of land tax and charge is not reasonable The structure of the distribution of urban land benefits is not reasonable