Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Romanesque Art During the 11 th and 12 th centuries thousands of ecclesiastical buildings were remodeled (even when not necessary) or newly built, an expression.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Romanesque Art During the 11 th and 12 th centuries thousands of ecclesiastical buildings were remodeled (even when not necessary) or newly built, an expression."— Presentation transcript:

1 Romanesque Art During the 11 th and 12 th centuries thousands of ecclesiastical buildings were remodeled (even when not necessary) or newly built, an expression of relief that the conclusion of the first Christian millennium in 1000 had not brought an end to the world as many had feared. Raoul Glaber, a monk, said It was as if the whole earth, having cast off the old by shaking itself were clothing itself everywhere in the white robe of the church.

2 ARCHITECTURE Romanesque Art Bay A part of a building set off by vertical elements such as columns. Buttress An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault. Campanile A bell tower of a church, usually, but not always, freestanding. Choir The space reserved for clergy and singers in the church, usually east of the transept but in some cases extending into the nave. compound pier A pier with a group of attached shafts, or responds. Crossing The area where the transept and nave cross. diaphragm arch A transverse, wall-bearing arch that divides a vault into compartments, providing a kind of firebreak. groin vault Two barrel vaults intersecting at a right angle. radiating chapel Semicircular chapels opening onto an ambulatory around the choir. rib vault A vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the masonry web between them. sexpartite vault A vault whose ribs divide the vault into six compartments. transverse arch An arch separating one vaulted bay from the next. tribune Upper gallery over the aisle opening onto the nave.

3

4 interior of Saint Etienne Vignory, France ca A common experience made the use of stone vaults so important to Romanesque builders was the threat of fire, which was common, as well as a desire to provide a suitably majestic setting for the display of relics. An advantage stone vaults had over wooden roofs was that they enhanced acoustics for the Christian liturgy and music. Ribs are supporting arches attached to vaults. The Romanesque church of Saint-Etienne at Vignory had a wooden ceiling like those found in Ottonian basilicas.

5 plan of Saint Etienne Vignory, France ca Modifications made in Romanesque churches to accommodate the large crowds: They were built at a larger scale. The length of the nave was increased. The side aisles were doubled. A transept, ambulatory, and radiating chapels were added. Three pilgrimage churches that had similar plans: Saint-Sernin at Toulouse Saint James at Santiago de Compostela Saint Martin at Tours

6

7 Saint Philbert nave vaults Tournus, France ca Two features of Romanesque interiors that illustrate the modular design of the plan: Each nave bay measures exactly one-half of the crossing square. Each aisle bay measures exactly one-quarter of the crossing square. The interior bays were marked on the exterior with buttresses.

8

9 Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca

10 Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca

11 Plan of Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca

12 Interior of Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca

13 Nave of Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca Pilgrims were the primary economic and conceptual catalyst for Romanesque art and architecture.

14 Nave of Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca

15 Model of the third abbey church ("Cluny III"), Cluny, France, Musée du Farinier, Cluny, France. Fontenay Abbey East side of the abbey: dormitory and church. Hugh of Semur was willing to pay the huge expense of building the largest church of its day (Cluny III) because the construction of beautiful churches and the dedication of luxurious reliquaries was equated with piety, and many felt a magnificent setting for the Christian liturgy was a fitting tribute to the Lord. In response, the Cistercian monks, a split-off from the Cluniac order, rejected worldly extravagance and created austere churches. Fontenay has a square east end, without ambulatory or chapels. The walls have no ornament, and even the column capitals are plain. They used pointed arches because they required less buttressing on the sides of the building. The largest Romanesque church in Europe was Cluny III

16

17 Interior of Speyer Cathedral Speyer,Germany begun 1030 nave vaults ca The main drawback of barrel vaulting was lighting. A clerestory was difficult to construct due to the great outward thrust the barrel vaults exerted along their length. The groin vault offered a solution to this problem.

18 The German cathedral of Speyer the groin vault was combined with the alternate-support system

19 Plan of Speyer Cathedral Speyer, Germany begun 1030

20

21 Aerial view of Sant Ambrogio Milan, Italy late eleventh to early twelfth century The most important Romanesque church in Lombardy Italy is SantAmbrogio in Milan. It retains the Early Christian feature of an atrium

22 Plan of Sant Ambrogio Milan, Italy late eleventh to early twelfth century The building has square bays and is vaulted with groin vaults, which create a domical effect Sant'Ambrogio's three-aisled church lacks a transept

23 Interior of Sant Ambrogio Milan, Italy late eleventh to early twelfth century

24 Aerial view of Sant Ambrogio Milan, Italy late eleventh to early twelfth century Speyer Cathedral, Speyer, Germany, begun 1030; ca Italian proportions are low and broad and remain close to those of Early Christian basilicas. German churches aim for verticality and soaring height.

25

26 West façade of Saint-Etienne Caen, France begun 1067, ca Tall towers are integrated into the west front of Saint-Étienne, Caen

27 Interior of Saint-Etienne (nave) Caen, France ca The nave of St. Étienne at Caen has a light and airy feeling. What structural features that made this possible were: Compound piers with simple engaged half- columns alternating with piers with half- columns attached to pilasters, allowing for sexpartite vaults. These vaults rise high enough to allow for a clerestory.

28 Interior of Saint-Etienne (elevation) Caen, France ca

29

30 Interior of Durham Cathedral Durham, England begun ca Two key elements of Gothic architecture were combined for the first time in the vaults of Durham Cathedral. Rib vaults. Slightly pointed arches.

31 Interior of Durham Cathedral Durham, England begun ca. 1093

32 Plan & transverse section of Durham Cathedral Durham, England begun ca. 1093

33 Exterior of Durham Cathedral Durham, England begun ca. 1093

34

35 Pisa Cathedral complex Pisa, Italy cathedral begun 1063 baptistery begun 1153 campanile begun 1174

36 Pisa Cathedral campanile Pisa, Italy begun 1174

37 Interior of Pisa Cathedral Pisa, Italy cathedral begun 1063 Three features that Pisa Cathedral shares with its Early Christian prototypes: The basic oblong basilica plan, like Old Saint Peters in Rome. The raised clerestory. It has a tall central nave and four shorter aisles. Four features that distinguish it from them: The broadly projecting transept. The dome crossing. Multiple arcaded galleries. Rich marble incrustation.

38

39 West façade San Miniato al Monte Florence, Italy 1062 and twelfth century

40 West façade San Miniato al Monte Florence, Italy 1062 and twelfth century Two Tuscan Romanesque buildings in Florence: San Giovanni San Miniato al Monte

41 Interior of San Miniato al Monte Florence, Italy 1062 and twelfth century

42 Interior of San Miniato al Monte Florence, Italy 1062 and twelfth century

43

44 SCULPTURE Apocalypse Also known as the Last Judgment, when Christ separates the Blessed from the Damned, to be sent to the heavenly city or to Hell. Benedetto Antelami Northern Italian sculptor in the last quarter of the 12 th century. His works include Parma Cathedrals pulpit, monumental marble statues of two Old Testament figures he carved for the west façade of Fidenza Cathedral in the Greco-Roman tradition (sculpture in the round). Bernard of Clairvaux Cistercian monk and abbot of the monastery he founded at Clairvaux in northern Burgundy. He became a European celebrity for his eloquence, religious fervor, and religious reforming spirit, and he intervened in ecclesiastical and secular matters. He banned figurative painting in Cistercian monasteries, extending to illustrations and even illuminated initials. Declared a saint in Giselbertus Sculptor of the tympanum of the cathedral of St. Lazare, Autun. Wilgelmus Wiligelmo was the sculptor of the frieze on the Modena Cathedral that shows the creation and temptation of Adam and Eve. William of Normandy William the Conqueror; he began the church of Saint-Etienne at Caen, France and was buried there. subordination of the figure to the frame represents a principle of Romanesque sculpture

45 A possible prototype of the stone carving of Christ in Majesty from Saint Sernin at Toulouse was a Carolingian or Ottonian book cover. Christ in Majesty from Saint Sernin at

46 Bernardus Gelduinus Christ in Majesty relief in the ambulatory of Saint-Sernin Toulouse, France ca marble 4 ft. 2 in. high

47

48 Wiligelmo Creation of Adam and Eve, frieze on the west façade, Modena Cathedral Modena, Italy ca marble approximately 3 ft. high One of the first fully developed narrative reliefs in Romanesque art appears at Modena Cathedral

49

50 Tympanum of the south portal of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France marble ca

51

52 Christ in Majesty with angels and the Twenty-Four Elders Tympanum of the south portal of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France marble ca approximately 16 ft. 6 in. wide at base Four stylistic features seen in the tympanum at Moissac: Elongated bodies of the recording angels. Cross-legged dancing pose of Saint Matthews angel. Jerky, hinged movement of the Elders heads. Romanesque sculpture in Saint-Pierre in Moissac is characterized by animated figures, elongated bodies, and stately monumentality

53 The subject of the tympanum is The Second Coming of Christ as King and Judge of the world. During the Romanesque period, the vision of Christ's Second Coming was often depicted on the tympanum

54 Christ in Majesty with angels and the Twenty-Four Elders Tympanum of the s. portal of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France marble ca approximately 16 ft. 6 in. wide at base

55 Lions and Old Testament prophet (Jeremiah or Isaiah?) From the trumeau of the south portal of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France ca marble approximately life-size Bernard of Clairvaux complained that the creatures that decorated the columns of the Moissac cloister were so plentiful and astonishing they distracted from studying the law of God; besides being absurd, they were too expensive.

56 Cloister of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France ca marble piers approximately 6 ft. high

57 Cloister of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France ca marble piers approximately 6 ft. high

58 Cloister of Saint-Pierre Moissac, France ca marble piers approximately 6 ft. high

59

60 Abbey of Notre-Dame Fontenay, Burgundy, France

61 Abbey of Notre-Dame Fontenay, Burgundy, France

62

63 Gislebertus Last Judgment (plaster cast) West tympanum of Saint-Lazare Autun, France ca marble approximately 21 wide at base The subject of the west tympanum of Saint Lazare at Autun is The Last Judgment. Purpose : To serve as a warning and to terrify the worshippers who passed beneath it.

64

65

66 Ascension of Christ and Mission of the Apostles Tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine Vézelay, France

67 Ascension of Christ and Mission of the Apostles Tympanum of the center portal of the narthex of La Madeleine Vézelay, France

68 Influence of the Crusades on the iconography of the tympanum of Vezelay Pope Urban II had intended to preach the launching of the First Crusade at Vezelay before the tympanum was carved in 1095; Bernard of Clairvaux called for the Second Crusade at Vezelay in 1174 and King Louis VII of France took up the cross there; King Richard the Lionheart of England and King Philip Augustus of France set out on the Third Crusade from Vezelay in The iconography of the tympanum, the Mission of the Apostles, reflected the Crusades, the second mission of the apostles.

69

70 Portal on the west façade of Saint-Trophime Arles, France second third of the twelfth century

71 Portal on the west façade of Saint-Trophime Arles, France second third of the twelfth century Characteristics that distinguish the style of the portal sculpture of Saint Trophime at Arles from the styles of those at Vezelay and at Autun: The figures are in high relief and emulate classical, freestanding statuary. Saints are draped in classical garb which are less agitated and show nothing of the dexterous linear play of earlier portals. The frieze above the freestanding columns resembles the sculptured fronts of Late Antique sarcophagi. Influences: The plethora of Roman ruins, art, and architecture in Provence, the Roman Province, in what was once Roman Gaul.

72

73 Benedetto Antelami, King David on the west façade of Fidenza Cathedral Fidenza, Italy ca marble approximately life-size Benedetto Antelami: Figures freed from their architectural settings, done in the round Romanesque sculptures appeared in churches constructed of ashlar masonry.

74

75 Virgin and Child ( Morgan Madonna) from Auvergne, France second half of twelfth century painted wood 2 ft. 7 in. high Throne of Wisdom It is a freestanding western European version of the Byzantine Theotokos theme of Christ in the lap of Mary. Here, Christ holds a Bible and is the embodiment of the divine wisdom contained in the scriptures. Marys lap becomes the Christ Childs throne. The Throne of Wisdom is a western European version of the Byzantine Theotokos

76 Virgin and Child ( Morgan Madonna) from Auvergne, France second half of twelfth century painted wood 2 ft. 7 in. high

77

78 Head Reliquary of Saint Alexander from Stavelot Abbey, Belgium 1145 silver repoussé, gilt bronze, gems, enamel 17 1/2 in. high Purpose: It is a reliquary (a container for relics) holding the relics of Pope Alexander II.

79

80 Christ in Majesty apse fresco from Santa María de Muir near Lérida, Spain mid-twelfth century fresco 22 x 24 ft. Stylistic features shared by the fresco of Christ in Majesty from Santa María de Mur and the Christ in Majesty from Toulouse Christ is seated frontally with one hand raised in blessing. He is haloed in an mandorla. The apse fresco at Santa María de Mur are characterized by blunt directness

81 Nave of the abbey church, Saint-Savin- sur-Gartempe, France. Painted barrel vault, ca The naves continuous barrel vault at the church of Saint-Savin-sur Gartempe is covered with paintings Subject Matter: The Pentateuch

82

83 The Vision of Hildegard of Bingen Detail of facsimile of a lost folio in the Scivias by Hildegard of Bingen from Trier or Bingen, Germany ca A German nun, eventually the abbess of Disibodenberg, who either produced or supervised the production of an illuminated manuscript containing a record of her vision of the divine order of the cosmos and of humankinds place in it. The opening page shows an author portrait of Hildegard sitting within the double monastery walls in the same pose as that of the Evangelists of the Coronation and Ebbo Gospels manuscripts. It is a picture of the nature of ancient and medieval book manufacture: individual scribes copying and recopying texts by hand. Her publication of her divine visions led kings and popes to seek her counsel. She was the most famous of all Romanesque nuns, but not the only learned woman of her age. Hildegard of Bingen's Scivias records her vision of divine order

84

85 Initial R with knight fighting dragon from the Moralia in Job from Cîteaux, France ca ink and tempera on vellum 13 3/4 x 9 1/4 in. Historiated initial A scene contained within the first letter of a chapter or letter, or merely an ornamented letter. Bernard of Clairvaux banned them along with all figural illustrations in monasteries.

86

87 Master Hugo Moses Expounding the Law folio 94 recto of the Bury Bible from Bury Saint Edmunds, England ca ink and tempera on vellum 20 x 14 in. Modifications of the Romanesque style as seen in the Bury Bible: The gestures of the figures are slower, gentler, and more dignified than the frantic movements of earlier Romanesque paintings.

88

89 12 Scenes from the Christmas Story MS folio 1 recto from Canterbury, England ca ink and tempera on vellum 40.5 x 30 cm

90 12 Scenes from the Christmas Story (detail) MS folio 1 recto from Canterbury, England ca ink and tempera on vellum 40.5 x 30 cm

91 12 Scenes from the Christmas Story (detail) MS folio 1 recto from Canterbury, England ca ink and tempera on vellum 40.5 x 30 cm

92 Cat, Mouse and Weasel Bestiary, MS 11283, folio 15, (detail) from England ca ink and tempera on vellum 30 x 180 cm

93

94 Mouth of Hell Winchester Psalter from Winchester, England ca ink and tempera on vellum 12 3/4 x 9 1/8 in.

95

96 Eadwine the Scribe(?) Eadwine the Scribe at work folio 283 verso of the Eadwine Psalter ca ink and tempera on vellum

97

98 Funeral of Edward the Confessor procession to Westminster Abbey detail of the Bayeux Tapestry From Bayeux Cathedral, Bayeux, France ca embroidered wool on linen 229 ft. 8 in. overall One of the first fully developed narrative reliefs in Romanesque art appears at Modena Cathedral

99 Depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry is the Norman defeat of the Anglo- Saxons at Hastings in Technique: Embroidery of wool sewn on linen.

100

101 Christ in Majesty (Maiestas Domini) with apostles Saint-Genis-des-Fontaines, France

102

103 Rainer of Huy Baptism of Christ Baptismal font from Notre-Dame-des-Fonts Liege, Belgium bronze 2 ft. 1 in. high The sculptor known for his classicizing treatment of oxen for King Solomon's temple was Rainer of Huy

104

105 Entombment of Christ fresco above the nave arcade, SantAngelo in Formis Near Capua, Italy ca fresco

106 The Tree of Jesse Explanatio in Isaiam from Cîteaux, France ca ink and tempera on vellum 15 x 9 in.


Download ppt "Romanesque Art During the 11 th and 12 th centuries thousands of ecclesiastical buildings were remodeled (even when not necessary) or newly built, an expression."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google