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Tip of the Elaine Iceberg Napoleons aspirations to royalty did not set well with the rest of Europe. Left: A British cartoon making fun of Napoleons.

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Presentation on theme: "Tip of the Elaine Iceberg Napoleons aspirations to royalty did not set well with the rest of Europe. Left: A British cartoon making fun of Napoleons."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Tip of the Elaine Iceberg

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4 Napoleons aspirations to royalty did not set well with the rest of Europe. Left: A British cartoon making fun of Napoleons lowly birth status. ~16 Min

5 The fear that Napoleon's imperial crown was part of a plan to rule all of Europe triggered the war of the Third Coalition of Austria, Britain, and Russia against France and Spain (1803-1807).

6 Once again, Napoleon was faced with his old nemesis, Britain, that "nation of shopkeepers" (to quote Adam Smith) whose navy shielded them from his military might. If only the British navy could be removed, Napoleon could slip across the Channel with his army and bring Britain to its knees. His plan for removing the British fleet was to lure it to the West Indies with the combined French and Spanish fleets. This would leave the Channel open for the French to cross. Below: a British cartoon making fun of the French invasion as a coffin expedition

7 Invading Britain. Napoleon planned to invade Britain using a fleet of over 2000 gunboats without keels, which were cheaper to build, but unable to withstand the harsh conditions of the English Channel. The ideas of digging a tunnel under the channel or transporting an army by hot air balloon were so far-fetched that even Napoleon didnt consider them. Napoleons invasion fleet cost France & its subject states a ton of money, largely due to corruption, officials claiming they had 2343 boats, when there were only 1730, of which only 672 were actually seaworthy.

8 The French plan was for the French & Spanish fleets under Villeneuve to lure Nelsons British fleet to the Caribbean & then double back to escort Napoleons army across the Channel to invade Britain. However, Nelson caught on to the trick and trapped Villeneuve in the Spanish port of Cadiz.

9 Different ratings for warships at the time

10 Naval Warfare in the Age of Napoleon

11 Although the essential nature of naval warfare (i.e., sailing ships delivering broadsides of cannon fire against one another) had remained largely unchanged since 1600, incremental improvements had taken place. Frame-first construction based on blueprints was now used, producing faster and more streamlined hulls. Sails and rigging had become progressively more sophisticated, and artillery was increasingly more powerful and deadly.

12 The Spanish ship, Santissima Trinidad, was probably the finest warship of its day. This was largely because Spains empire gave it access to mahogany, which was stronger than the oak other nations used for their ships.

13 A first rate ship such as the Santissima Trinidad might require as many as 5,000 trees to build, with each tree yielding 800 board feet.

14 It weighed 1400 tons and had a two-foot thick hull that stood as high as a five-story building. It also had four gun decks, and 144 guns, 30 of which could hurl a 32-pound cannon ball through a three-foot thick hull at a range of 1.5 miles.

15 A cross-section of a British warship

16 In the middle of the ship, below the waterline and as removed as far as possible from enemy fire (and fire in general) is the powder magazine. Much of the crew was involved in running individual charges from there up to the gun decks. Notice the woman involved in this. Nelson's flagship alone had 70 foreigners, one of them French and, despite regulations, numerous women, several of whom helped man the guns at Trafalgar.

17 Terms of service In the British fleet, discipline and living conditions were harsh, while pay and provisioning were irregular. Large crews were necessary just because most work had to be done by hand. Stores, ammo, provisions and cannons had to be loaded on ships by hand. There were dozens of sails to furl and unfurl, pumps to keep bilge water at a safe level, and extra pumps during battle to put out fires and wash blood off the decks.

18 Since the powder magazine was located in the middle of the ship removed as far as possible from enemy fire (and fire in general), much of the crew was involved in running individual charges from there up to the gun decks.

19 As a result of these labor needs (900 people on Lord Nelsons flagship, the HMS Victory), many sailors were pressed into service from foreign ships, which was a leading cause of the War of 1812) and an undeclared war between France and the U.S. (1798-1800). Adding to Frances problems was the fact that many of its best naval personnel had left during the Revolution.

20 Along those lines, there would be several ships boys aboard some serving as powder monkeys while others were on career tracks and advancing to junior officer positions at a very young age.

21 The Face of Battle at Sea Fighting on the gun deck of a warship was probably as close to Hell on earth as one could get back then.

22 As opposing fleets approached, sailors withdrew their guns into the ships for firing. To maximize their effect, cannonballs were heated red hot and had to be loaded with hand tools. The guns, which got extremely hot after several shots, also had to be manhandled back into position.

23 The combined effects of a broadside were devastating, even for those firing the cannons. Since the gun decks were only 6 high, the tremendous crash of the guns firing often led to permanent deafness, while the acrid smoke from the black powder quickly filled the confined space.

24 For those on the receiving end, things were much worse. A single volley of 32-calibre cannon could obliterate a hull and clear a deck of its gunners, tear cannons loose, and send 100's of deadly splinters flying through the air, each one a lethal weapon in its own right

25 Guns blasted loose from their moorings would roll over and crush sailors blinded by the smoke. Floors made slippery with blood and filled with frightfully cut up bodies further complicated any efforts to continue, while the screams of the wounded were added to the already deafening roar of cannons.

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30 The middle orlop deck was the safest place on the ship, but also the most ghastly, since that was where the surgeon's facilities were located. Typically it was painted white to reflect what little light there was, but the floor was red to hide the river of blood flowing from the surgeon's table. On the ceiling of a Spanish ship there was a crucifix, the last thing many sailors ever saw. The horrible nature of the wounds often left the ships surgeon with little to do except amputate limbs or turn the patients over to a priest for last rights. The low ceilings forced surgeons to work on their knees at makeshift tables.

31 Tactics The French and Spanish, still thinking of ships as fighting platforms, packed them with marines, which often created confusion between soldiers and sailors. Along those lines, they usually fired at masts and rigging to slow enemy ships for boarding. The British, in contrast, fired at hulls to sink enemy ships and kill their personnel. British crews were also trained to lie down until ready to fire. The British used the flintlock more due to the heavier rolling of their ships.

32 Without radios and the ability to move quickly between ships to transmit orders, communication and coordination were limited to signaling by code with semaphore flags. Below is Lord Nelsons final message to his fleet before the battle of Trafalgar.

33 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

34 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

35 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

36 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

37 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

38 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

39 Breaking the line at Trafalgar For over two centuries, the standard way of fighting naval battles was to line up two fleets parallel to one another and slug it out with broadsides. Poor communications and the inability to closely coordinate movement of ships prevented much variation from this pattern.

40 However, at Trafalgar, the British admiral Nelson had his ships sail between the French and Spanish ships. This had several advantages. First, his ships advancing perpendicular to the enemy line of fire presented smaller targets for them to hit at more oblique angles. Secondly as each ship passed between the prow of one ship and stern (back) of another, it could fire cannons from both sides of the ship against a largely undefended part of the enemy ships. Finally, an entire line of British ships doing this at point blank range, one after the other, would totally devastate the respective sterns and prows of the enemy ships.

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44 At the same time, the French did not have the means to coordinate any reaction to this new tactic, leaving them helplessly and hopelessly stuck in a static position with no effective way to react.

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49 The new British tactic of breaking the line proved decisive at Trafalgar, with the French and Spanish losing 19 ships and the British losing none. After this, Britain had undisputed mastery of the seas.

50 Victory came at a heavy cost for Britain, as its great admiral, Lord Nelson was killed by a sniper firing from the ratlines of an enemy ship. Therefore, news of this great victory was met with very mixed emotions in Britain. One of the major centers in London is still named Trafalgar Square in honor of this battle. However, Trafalgar decided Britains mastery of the seas for the next century.

51 Austerlitz Seeing his failure at sea, Napoleon marched his army eastward where he met the much larger combined armies of Austria and Russia at Austerlitz. Concentrating his forces in the center, he drove through and split the Russian and Austrian armies, winning possibly the most brilliant victory of his career (1805).

52 Icebreakers. During the Battle of Austerlitz, as Russian and Austrian troops were retreating over an ice-covered marsh Napoleon had his artillery fire to break the ice and drown the fleeing soldiers.

53 Taking his lumps. No one got beaten up more by Napoleon than Francis I of Austria (1792-1835). Having lost two wars in Italy to the Little Corporal, he lost big-time again at Austerlitz and had to surrender lands containing another 3,000,000 of his subjects. Before it was all over, he would lose another war and more land to Napoleon, then get dragged in on the wrong side of the invasion of Russia in 1812. In addition Napoleon declared the Holy Roman Empire defunct. However, seeing something like this coming, Francis had created a separate imperial crown for the Hapsburgs, so the Hapsburg Empire could limp along for another century.

54 Napoleon also used this opportunity to create the Confederation of the Rhine out of the states of the German princes grateful to him for the lands he had given them before. The Confederation consisted of about half of Germany and formed a large buffer zone on France's eastern border.

55 The indecisive Frederick-William III of Prussia refrained from joining Austria and Russia against France until after Napoleon had defeated them at Austerlitz and formed the Confederation of the Rhine, which also infringed on some Prussian territories. By then, with Austria knocked out of the war and Russia in retreat, Napoleon had no trouble shattering Prussias forces with his blitzkrieg as quickly as they entered the war, (1806). Below: The French general, Murat, leads a cavalry charge at Jena

56 The indecisive Frederick-William III of Prussia refrained from joining Austria and Russia against France until after Napoleon had defeated them at Austerlitz and formed the Confederation of the Rhine, which also infringed on some Prussian territories. By then, with Austria knocked out of the war and Russia in retreat, Napoleon had no trouble crushing Prussias forces. Frederick-Williams wife, Louise of Mecklenburg, who showed much sterner resolve than her husband during this crisis, was called by Napoleon, the only man in Prussia.

57 This left the Russians, whom Napoleon met at Eylau, a bloody slugfest fought in subzero temperatures and blinding snow. Left: General Murats cavalry charges into the center of the Russian army to plug a gap in Napoleons lines.

58 While Napoleon claimed a glorious victory at Eylau with only 7600 casualties, it was at best a bloody draw. More likely there were 25,000 French killed & wounded as opposed to 15,000 Russians. Video at http://napoleonistyka.atspace.com/Heilsberg_battle.htm

59 While Napoleon claimed a glorious victory at Eylau with only 7600 casualties, it was at best a bloody draw. More likely there were 25,000 French killed & wounded as opposed to 15,000 Russians. Marshal Augereaus corps alone, when caught in the flank by the devastating fire of 70 Russian cannons, lost over 12,000 of its 14,000 men in a matter of minutes. Video at http://napoleonistyka.atspace.com/Heilsberg_battle.htm

60 While Napoleon claimed a glorious victory at Eylau with only 7600 casualties, it was at best a bloody draw. More likely there were 25,000 French killed & wounded as opposed to 15,000 Russians. Marshal Augereaus corps alone, when caught in the flank by the devastating fire of 70 Russian cannons, lost over 12,000 of its 14,000 men in a matter of minutes. To replenish his ranks for a new campaign in 1807, Napoleon called up not just the class of 1807, but also 80,000 boys from the class of 1808, a disturbing trend that would continue. Video at http://napoleonistyka.atspace.com/Heilsberg_battle.htm

61 While Napoleon claimed a glorious victory at Eylau with only 7600 casualties, it was at best a bloody draw. More likely there were 25,000 French killed & wounded as opposed to 15,000 Russians. Marshal Augereaus corps alone, when caught in the flank by the devastating fire of 70 Russian cannons, lost over 12,000 of its 14,000 men in a matter of minutes. To replenish his ranks for a new campaign in 1807, Napoleon called up not just the class of 1807, but also 80,000 boys from the class of 1808, a disturbing trend that would continue. After Eylau, French soldiers no longer spontaneously yelled out Vive lempereur As one French commander put it: What a massacre! And for no outcome. Video at http://napoleonistyka.atspace.com/Heilsberg_battle.htm

62 Six months later at the Battle of Friedland (June, 1807) Napoleon finally defeated Russia and brought it to terms

63 Negotiations between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I were conducted on a raft in the middle of the Nieman River while Frederick William III of Prussia had to await his fate along the shore. The settlement for Prussia was not kind, taking nearly half of its land and population to help carve out the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, a revived Poland that owed its existence and lasting loyalty to Napoleon. Tsar Alexander I (1800-25) whom Napoleon rightly figured he could charm into becoming his ally.

64 Negotiations between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I were conducted on a raft in the middle of the Nieman River while Frederick William III of Prussia had to await his fate along the shore. The settlement for Prussia was not kind, taking nearly half of its land and population to help carve out the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, a revived Poland that owed its existence and lasting loyalty to Napoleon. France and Russia recognized each other's spheres of influence, but France certainly emerged as the dominant power in Europe. Tsar Alexander I (1800-25) whom Napoleon rightly figured he could charm into becoming his ally.

65 Returning heroes being welcomed home to France (1807). This is the last recorded instance of babies being thrown into the air en masse. As a result, population soared in the 19 th century.

66 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia) Subject peoples also want natlism & liberalism (FC.108) Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom a French empire in 1810 Under direct rule by Napoleon Ruled by Napoleons relatives Dependent states States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine)

67 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia) Subject peoples also want natlism & liberalism (FC.108) Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom a French empire in 1810 Under direct rule by Napoleon Ruled by Napoleons relatives Dependent states States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine)

68 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia) Subject peoples also want natlism & liberalism (FC.108) Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom a French empire in 1810 Under direct rule by Napoleon Ruled by Napoleons relatives Dependent states

69 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia) Subject peoples also want natlism & liberalism (FC.108) Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom a French empire in 1810 Under direct rule by Napoleon Ruled by Napoleons relatives Dependent states

70 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia) Subject peoples also want natlism & liberalism (FC.108) Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom a French empire in 1810 Under direct rule by Napoleon Ruled by Napoleons relatives Dependent states

71 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Nap. uses (& spreads) ideas of Fr. Rev. to rule Eur. : Liberalism: belief in social & political equality Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia)

72 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Nap. uses (& spreads) ideas of Fr. Rev. to rule Eur. : Liberalism: belief in social & political equality Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia)

73 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Nap. uses (& spreads) ideas of Fr. Rev. to rule Eur. : Liberalism: belief in social & political equality Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia)

74 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Other rulers (e.g., Prussia) adopt Fr. & mil. reforms (FC.107) Nap. uses (& spreads) ideas of Fr. Rev. to rule Eur. : Liberalism: belief in social & political equality Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia)

75 FC.106B THE HEIGHT OF NAPOLEONS POWER AND HIS FALL (1804-15) Other rulers wont accept Nap. as emperor esp after he replaces the Italian Republic w/the Kgd of Italy under his brother (FC.106A) War of the Third Coalition (1805-8) consisting of Britain, Austria, & Russia when Napoleon turns Italian Republic into Kingdom of Italy ruled by his brother Lord Nelson foils Naps plan to invade Br. By defeating Fr & Sp fleets at Trafalgar (10/1805) Nap. crushes combined Austrian & Russian Armies at Austerlitz (12/2/1805) Aust. surrenders Nap. declares HREmp defunct & forms Confed. of Rhine (1806) Prussia declares war & loses Nap. defeats Russia-> Tr. of Tilsit (1807) dividing Eur. b/w Fr. & Rus. Spheres of influence Subject peoples also want natlism & liberalism (FC.108) Other rulers (e.g., Prussia) adopt Fr. & mil. reforms (FC.107) Nap. uses (& spreads) ideas of Fr. Rev. to rule Eur. : Liberalism: belief in social & political equality Nationalism: belief in each nations rights & freedom Napoleons empire at its height included most of continental Europe west of Russia under varying degrees of control: States under direct Fr. admin. (Holland & some Ital. States) States ruled by Naps relatives (Naples, Spain, N. Italy) States dependant on Fr. (Gr. Duchy of Warsaw, Conf. Of Rhine) Allies expected to follow Napoleon in war (Austria & Prussia)

76 French empire in 1810 Under direct rule by Napoleon Ruled by Napoleons relatives Dependent states


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