Presentation on theme: "Early Renaissance in Italy: 15 th C. 1400-1500 Italian city-states: Ferrara, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Rome, Venice."— Presentation transcript:
Early Renaissance in Italy: 15 th C Italian city-states: Ferrara, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Rome, Venice
Key Ideas Fine arts is impacted by the revitalization of literature, history, and philosophy. Renaissance courts are impacted by humanism and secularism. Artists create realistic 3-D paintings based on new theories of linear perspective. Italian Renaissance sculpture is marked by a greater understanding of human anatomy. Revival of large scale nude works. Architecture emphasizes open light spaces, balance, and symmetry.
Historical Background Wealthy families ruled the Italian city-states, controlling politics, economics, and directing art. All of the cutting edge artist movements were coming from Italy- artists were commissioned for paintings, to build great architectural feats, etc. Humanism- exploring the human aspect of life (specifically, studying the classic ideas from Greek and Roman philosophy, like law, logic, natural philosophy, medicine, etc.) Exploration of the world becomes a European theme, introducing new themes in science, materials, and the arts.
Patronage and Artistic Life Wealthy families typically paid to have private chapels built in local churches for their own personal use (decorated lavishly, of course). Paintings are often identified by the patrons chapels (Ex: Masaccio painted Tribute Money for the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine)
Innovations in Architecture Greatest Technological Achievement of the period: The Florence Cathedral Dome, by Brunelleschi – Waited over 100 years for the technology to be developed. – Ogival arch that revolves into a dome – 2 domes, one within the other, to maximize strength and stability (interior dome supports, exterior dome is pretty) – A lantern on top anchors the domes together
Characteristics of 15 th C. Italian Architecture Focus is on order, clarity, and light (as opposed to Gothic cathedrals and their dark, mysterious, and creepy vibe) Wide open window spaces (not stained glass) and vivid wall paintings. Stress geometric designs and Ideal proportions (thank you, Romans) Unvaulted naves, coffered ceilings Crossing is 2X the size of nave bays, nave 2X the width of side aisles, arches and columns make up 2/3 the height of the nave, etc.
Dome of Florence Cathedral Filippo Brunelleschi Florence
Palazzo Rucellai Leon Battista Alberti Florence
Sant Andrea Leon Battista Alberti 1470 Mantua, Italy
Innovations in Painting and Sculpture Development most characteristic of Italian Renaissance painting- linear perspective – Credit goes to Brunelleschi for bringing it back! Object and people are draw proportionate to each other (medieval art depicted people dominating objects on the page) Perspective is also used to fool the eye (tromp loeil technique) and is used in sculpture for relief castings and carving.
Characteristics of Early Renaissance Italian Painting Religious paintings during early 15 th C., then portrait and mythological scenes (reflecting humanism) Nudes become common again
Adoration of the Magi Gentile da Fabriano 1423 Tempera on panel Uffizi, Florence, Italy
Detail of Adoration of the Magi
Holy Trinity Masaccio 1427 Fresco Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Detail of Holy Trinity
Tribute Money Masaccio 1425 Fresco Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence
Battle of San Romano Paolo Uccello 1455 Tempera on wood
The Last Supper Andrea del Castagno 1447 Sant Apollonia, Florence
Battle of Ten Naked Men Antonio del Pollaiuolo engraving
Room of the Newlyweds Andrea Mantegna Fresco Ducal Palace, Mantua, Italy
Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter Pietro Perugino 1482 Fresco Sistine Chapel, Rome
Birth of Venus Sandra Botticelli 1485 Tempera on canvas Uffizi, Florence
Spring Sandro Botticelli 1482 Tempera on wood Uffizi, Florence
Characteristics of Early Renaissance Italian Sculpture Interest in humanism leads to a rebirth of classic Greek and Roman sculptures. Nudity – Revival or large scale nude sculptures (starting with Donatellos David) – Increased study of human anatomy – heroic bodies – Often depict intense physical interaction (twisting forms, straining muscles- similar to Hellenistic Greek sculpture.
Sacrifice of Isaac Lorenzo Ghiberti Gilt bronze
Sacrifice of Isaac Filippo Brunelleschi bronze
Gates of Paradise Lorenzo Ghiberti Gilt bronze
Four Crowned Saints Nanni di Banco Marble Or San Michele, Florence
David Donatello Bronze 1420s-1460s
Mary Magdalene Donatello Wood
Madonna and Child Luca della Robbia Terra cotta Or San Michele, Florence