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Early Renaissance in Italy: 15th C.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Renaissance in Italy: 15th C."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Renaissance in Italy: 15th C.
Italian city-states: Ferrara, Florence, Mantua, Naples, Rome, Venice

2 Key Ideas Fine arts is impacted by the revitalization of literature, history, and philosophy. Renaissance courts are impacted by humanism and secularism. Artists create realistic 3-D paintings based on new theories of linear perspective. Italian Renaissance sculpture is marked by a greater understanding of human anatomy. Revival of large scale nude works. Architecture emphasizes open light spaces, balance, and symmetry.

3 Linear perspective

4 Historical Background
Wealthy families ruled the Italian city-states, controlling politics, economics, and directing art. All of the cutting edge artist movements were coming from Italy- artists were commissioned for paintings, to build great architectural feats, etc. Humanism- exploring the human aspect of life (specifically, studying the classic ideas from Greek and Roman philosophy, like law, logic, natural philosophy, medicine, etc.) Exploration of the world becomes a European theme, introducing new themes in science, materials, and the arts.

5 Patronage and Artistic Life
Wealthy families typically paid to have private chapels built in local churches for their own personal use (decorated lavishly, of course). Paintings are often identified by the patron’s chapels (Ex: Masaccio painted Tribute Money for the Brancacci Chapel in Santa Maria del Carmine)

6 Innovations in Architecture
Greatest Technological Achievement of the period: The Florence Cathedral Dome, by Brunelleschi Waited over 100 years for the technology to be developed. Ogival arch that revolves into a dome 2 domes, one within the other, to maximize strength and stability (interior dome supports, exterior dome is pretty) A lantern on top anchors the domes together

7 Characteristics of 15th C. Italian Architecture
Focus is on order, clarity, and light (as opposed to Gothic cathedrals and their dark, mysterious, and creepy vibe) Wide open window spaces (not stained glass) and vivid wall paintings. Stress geometric designs and Ideal proportions (thank you, Romans) Unvaulted naves, coffered ceilings Crossing is 2X the size of nave bays, nave 2X the width of side aisles, arches and columns make up 2/3 the height of the nave, etc.

8 Dome of Florence Cathedral
Filippo Brunelleschi Florence

9 Pazzi Chapel Filippo Brunelleschi 1423 (designed) 1442-1465 (built)

10 Palazzo Medici-Riccardi
Michelozzo 1444 Florence

11 Palazzo Rucellai Leon Battista Alberti Florence

12 Sant’ Andrea Leon Battista Alberti 1470 Mantua, Italy

13 Innovations in Painting and Sculpture
Development most characteristic of Italian Renaissance painting- linear perspective Credit goes to Brunelleschi for bringing it back! Object and people are draw proportionate to each other (medieval art depicted people dominating objects on the page) Perspective is also used to fool the eye (tromp l’oeil technique) and is used in sculpture for relief castings and carving.

14 Characteristics of Early Renaissance Italian Painting
Religious paintings during early 15th C., then portrait and mythological scenes (reflecting humanism) Nudes become common again

15 Adoration of the Magi Gentile da Fabriano 1423 Tempera on panel
Uffizi, Florence, Italy

16 Detail of Adoration of the Magi

17 Holy Trinity Masaccio 1427 Fresco Santa Maria Novella, Florence

18 Detail of Holy Trinity

19 Tribute Money Masaccio 1425 Fresco Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

20 Battle of San Romano Paolo Uccello 1455 Tempera on wood

21 The Last Supper Andrea del Castagno 1447 Sant’ Apollonia, Florence

22 Battle of Ten Naked Men Antonio del Pollaiuolo engraving

23 Room of the Newlyweds Andrea Mantegna 1465-1474 Fresco
Ducal Palace, Mantua, Italy


25 Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter
Pietro Perugino 1482 Fresco Sistine Chapel, Rome

26 Birth of Venus Sandra Botticelli 1485 Tempera on canvas
Uffizi, Florence


28 Spring Sandro Botticelli 1482 Tempera on wood Uffizi, Florence

29 Damned Cast into Hell Luca Signorelli 1499-1504 Fresco
Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy

30 Characteristics of Early Renaissance Italian Sculpture
Interest in humanism leads to a rebirth of classic Greek and Roman sculptures. Nudity Revival or large scale nude sculptures (starting with Donatello’s David) Increased study of human anatomy “heroic” bodies Often depict intense physical interaction (twisting forms, straining muscles- similar to Hellenistic Greek sculpture.

31 Sacrifice of Isaac Lorenzo Ghiberti Gilt bronze

32 Sacrifice of Isaac Filippo Brunelleschi bronze

33 Gates of Paradise Lorenzo Ghiberti Gilt bronze

34 Four Crowned Saints Nanni di Banco 1409-1417 Marble
Or San Michele, Florence

35 David Donatello Bronze 1420’s-1460’s

36 Mary Magdalene Donatello Wood

37 Madonna and Child Luca della Robbia 1455-1460 Terra cotta
Or San Michele, Florence

38 Colleoni Andrea del Verrocchio bronze

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