Presentation on theme: "Native Americans In the U.S. Marine Corps. World War II marked a watershed in American history. The immediate challenge of defeating the enemy directly."— Presentation transcript:
Native Americans In the U.S. Marine Corps
World War II marked a watershed in American history. The immediate challenge of defeating the enemy directly affected thousands of men and women, while the new world the war created had ramifications for millions of people.
In Europe…Europe In the Pacific…Pacific
Americans strongly supported the war, but from the beginning Allied leaders had differences. In particular, difficulties arose over how the Americans and the English would carry the war into Europe.
This meeting managed to ease the strain and renew relations between the allies.
The second- front offensive began with the Allied landings at Normandy in June Less than a year later, Germany surrendered.
At first the war in the Pacific, largely the responsibility of the United States, did not go well.
The Japanese enjoyed early successes, but the Battle of Midway in June 1942 was the turning point in the war. Battle of Midway
Facing intense fighting, American forces island- hopped across the Pacific, bypassing a number of strongly held Japanese islands. The Japanese and Americans engaged in especially bloody combat on Iwo Jima and Okinawa.Iwo Jima Okinawa
The Japanese surrendered after the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan.two atomic bombs
A variety of military, scientific, and political reasons motivated the U.S. Military (casualty estimates) Scientific (Hiroshima was relatively undamaged) Political (hurry up and make Japan surrender before the USSR got too involved)
To control inflation, this agency was given the power to fix price ceilings on commodities and control rents in defense areas.
The WPB succeeded in turning the civilian manufacturing economy into a powerhouse of military industrial might. The WMC recruited workers for the nations factories.WPB WMC
Wartime policy encouraged the growth of big business. Government paid for retooling Allowed pricing for built in profits Antitrust Exemptions Tax Writeoffs Contracts totalling $175 billion went out 2/3 went to the top 100 largest corporations
Universities benefited from government grants to aid the war effort. MIT got $117 million alone $2 billion went to the...
Despite a no-strike agreement with the government, some workers staged walkouts during the war. Congress responded with a bill designed to place limits on labor.
Agriculture mechanized to replace workers.
The American economy expanded dramatically during the war. The national government also experienced remarkable growth.
Americans faced the stress of combat and struggled to cope.
Many men and women in the armed forces who had a same- sex orientation found the freedom to act on their feelings However.... However....
The interaction of people from all over the U.S. facilitated an exchange of ideas. Soldiers returned home with new skills, and many took advantage of the GI Bill of Rights. GI Bill of Rights
Many in the U.S. saw the war against Japan as a struggle against the Japanese race. Despite anti-Japanese sentiment, Japanese-Americans fought valiantly for the United States as evidenced by the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.
The camps were bleak and demoralizing.
Almost a million African Americans served in the armed forces and distinguished themselves on the battlefield. However, there were a number of racist incidents during the war.
Blacks, more militant and more willing to protest, waged a Double V campaign. CORE, which advocated nonviolent direct action, was founded.
When the government prohibited discrimination in defense jobs, thousands of blacks migrated to the North and West to find work.
Racial tensions began to develop in the North. Racial warfare broke out in Detroit in June 1943.
The United States turned to Mexican laborers during the war. Thezoot-suit riot in Los Angeles in 1943 involved attacks on young Mexican Americans.zoot-suit riot
Women participated in war production on an unprecedented scale. unprecedented
Wartime needs made millions of jobs available, and many women went to work for the first time. They found that discrimination often characterized the workplace.
The government became involved in childcare as a result of wartime pressures. Children contributed to the war effort by buying war bonds. Many also dropped out of school to go to work.
During the war, the number of marriages, births, and divorces, rose markedly. The new social dynamic had long-term consequences for women.
As conservatives worked to limit or dismantle the New Deal, Republicans made gains in the election of However, in his Economic Bill of Rights Roosevelt pledged to provide jobs, food, shelter, clothing, and financial security to every American.Economic Bill of Rights
The President chose a loyal New Deal trooper to aid him in his re- election.
In apparent ill health, Roosevelt defeated Thomas Dewey for a fourth term in Roosevelt died in April 1945, and Vice President Harry Truman became president.
The Allies shared a commitment to defeating the enemy, but they also had a number of differences. The fate of Eastern Europe posed the greatest problem.
In 1944, diplomats established the framework for the United Nations.
Six million Jews died in concentration camps during the war, but the Allies took few steps to stop the killings.
The U.S. did too little, too late, to greatly affect the Holocaust...
The Yalta Conference of February 1945 shaped the postwar world. As the meeting convened, each of the Allies had its own agenda. Russia wanted a friendly Poland to serve as a buffer state. The Allies agreed to accept a coalition government in Poland and to resolve disputed borders at a later date.
At Potsdam, Truman, who knew the United States had achieved atomic capability, showed less deference to Stalin than had Roosevelt.Potsdam