Presentation on theme: "8000bc-3000bc. Catal Huyuk 6,500bc-5,000bc Located in Anatolia- a large mt. plateau in south central Turkey (Northwest of Mesopotamia)"— Presentation transcript:
Catal Huyuk 6,500bc-5,000bc Located in Anatolia- a large mt. plateau in south central Turkey (Northwest of Mesopotamia)
About 3,000 years after the last ice age, nomadic people stumbled across Western Europe. The warmer climate was more tolerable and produced fields of wild grains and grasses.
A civilization is a group of cohabitating people that demonstrate cooperation, organization, and specialization.
Cooperation- Trading took place between various groups of people Organization- Houses and jobs were organized ie. Crop rows etc… Specialization- citizens had various jobs that contributed to society
32 acres 1000 houses 5,000-6,000 residents
Houses were connected and had an intricate pattern of ladders and roof access through out the homes
These homes were keep in pristine condition and were decorated with art of aesthetic and religious value Ie Wall paintings, animal heads, figurines ect…
The opens in the ceilings allowed the residents to move from one home to another and worked as a chimney during the winter months.
Archeologist have discovered various obsidian tools with different chemical compounds suggesting C.H. was a central trade hub for the region.
Religion was very important to the people of CT. They built over 40 shrines. The dead were given ceremonies and their bodies were buried in the plaster floors of CT.
The Fertile Crescent is the land between and surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Many early settlements started in and around this area.
Mesopotamia is located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers The geography (mts., plains, and rivers) of the land made it very fertile.
The people of Meso. irrigated (water canals) the farmland to prevent flooding and to provide water for crops. Food was now in surplus (more than they could use).
The division of labor (specialized jobs for each citizen of the city) allowed the city to prosper.
City-States (the cental city and countryside surrounding it) began popping up around the Fertile Crescent. The Earliest of these civilizations was Sumer, founded in 3000bc and located in southern Mesopotamia.
As society advance and political powers arose. The leaders of these various societies began building militias and fighting over land. Rule of the land shifted between Sumer, Uruk, Ur, and Akkad.
Legendary figure in Sumerian literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh, the 1 st epic (long poem), outline the tale of Gilgamesh and his stories of the pursuit of immortality. The tablets, written in cuneiform, are among the earliest known stories in literature.
Located north of Sumer The Akkadians were of a different culture, but lived in peace for many years with the Sumerians until the 2,300s BC
Sargon built a new capital on the Euphrates near what is now Baghdad. He was the first ruler to maintain a permanent Army. He declared war on all his neighbors and brought the entire northern Mesopotamia area under his rule. This became the Worlds first empire- land with different territories and people under a single rule.
The Sumerian city-state of Ur regained political control of the Mesopotamian area a century after Sargons death. The city of Ur was the most advanced of its time.
Religion was the most important component of shaping society. Sumerians practiced polytheism- the worship of many gods. They believed success in life depended on pleasing these gods.
Led religious ceremonies and had great status in the community They interpreted the wishes of the gods and made offerings in giant temples during religious ceremonies
1 st Kings- chosen by gods to rule 2 nd Priest- interpreted wishes of gods and made offerings 3 rd craftspeople, merchants and traders- travelled and brought in goods 4 th farmers and laborers- made up the large working class 5 th slaves- were at the bottom of the social order
Men- held political power, made laws and were educated. Women- raised children, only a few wealthy women were educated. Enheduanna- Sargons daughter, was educated and is believed to be the 1 st female writer in history.
The wheel Carts Clay spinning wheel The plow The water powered clock Sewer systems Bronze weapons Makeup and jewelery
Developed 60 digit math system, 360 degree circle, 12 month year, and calculated areas Made medicines, medical journals, and treated systems and body parts They were the 1 st to build ziggurats- large pyramid temples
By 2000BC, Ur lay in ruins and waves of invaders fought to take control of the area. Babylonians was one of these groups.
By 1800BC, Babylon had a powerful government and King in Hammurabi. Babylons second chance was built to succeed because of his rule.
Hammurabi was a brilliant leader. He won on the battle field, used tax dollars to build the city and irrigate its land, but most importantly created a list of 282 laws to govern the empire. The empire fell after his death.
Hittites were masterful fighters and ironworkers, mastering the technique of fighting from a chariot- a wheeled horse drawn cart. Hittites ruled Babylon for a short while, until the Kassites took the reign for the next 400 years.
The Assyrians briefly ruled Babylon in 1200BC and for a longer term 300 years later in 900BC. During the second term the rulers were more fierce, feared and demanding of the citizens.
The Assyrians self- destructed and fought internally. The Chaldeans attacked and destroyed the Nineveh and Assyrian Empires. Nebuchadnezzar rebuild Babylon beautifully, featuring the famous hanging gardens.
Located west of the Fertile Crescent rose the nation of Phoenicia, now Lebanon. The master craftsmen and sailors revolutionized the trade industry. They became very wealthy and powerful. They also created the 1 st alphabet