Presentation on theme: "Neolithic Period (The New Stone Age)"— Presentation transcript:
1Neolithic Period (The New Stone Age) 8000bc-3000bc
2Ancient Civilizations Catal Huyuk6,500bc-5,000bcLocated in Anatolia- a large mt. plateau in south central Turkey (Northwest of Mesopotamia)
3Origin of AgricultureAbout 3,000 years after the last ice age, nomadic people stumbled across Western Europe.The warmer climate was more tolerable and produced fields of wild grains and grasses.
4CivilizationA civilization is a group of cohabitating people that demonstrate cooperation, organization, and specialization.
5Why Catal Huyuk is a Civilization… Cooperation- Trading took place between various groups of peopleOrganization- Houses and jobs were organized ie. Crop rows etc…Specialization- citizens had various jobs that contributed to society
7Housing at Catal HuyukHouses were connected and had an intricate pattern of ladders and roof access through out the homes
8Catal HomesThese homes were keep in pristine condition and were decorated with art of aesthetic and religious valueIeWall paintings, animal heads, figurines ect…
9Ceilings AccessThe opens in the ceilings allowed the residents to move from one home to another and worked as a chimney during the winter months.
10Trade at Catal HuyukArcheologist have discovered various obsidian tools with different chemical compounds suggesting C.H. was a central trade hub for the region.
11Religion at Catal Huyuk Religion was very important to the people of CT. They built over 40 shrines.The dead were given ceremonies and their bodies were buried in the plaster floors of CT.
12The Fertile CrescentThe Fertile Crescent is the land between and surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.Many early settlements started in and around this area.
13Mesopotamia- Between 2 Rivers (5300bc-539bc) Mesopotamia is located between Tigris and Euphrates RiversThe geography (mts., plains, and rivers) of the land made it very fertile.
14MesopotamiaThe people of Meso. irrigated (water canals) the farmland to prevent flooding and to provide water for crops.Food was now in surplus (more than they could use).
15Division of LaborThe division of labor (specialized jobs for each citizen of the city) allowed the city to prosper.
16City-States (1st Political Unit) City-States (the cental city and countryside surrounding it) began popping up around the Fertile Crescent.The Earliest of these civilizations was Sumer, founded in 3000bc and located in southern Mesopotamia.
17The Rise and Fall of Power As society advance and political powers arose.The leaders of these various societies began building militias and fighting over land.Rule of the land shifted between Sumer, Uruk, Ur, and Akkad.
18Gilgamesh King of Uruk Legendary figure in Sumerian literature. The Epic of Gilgamesh, the 1st epic (long poem), outline the tale of Gilgamesh and his stories of the pursuit of immortality.The tablets, written in cuneiform, are among the earliest known stories in literature.
19The Rise of the Akkadian Empire Located north of SumerThe Akkadians were of a different culture, but lived in peace for many years with the Sumerians until the 2,300’s BC
20Sargon- Akkadian Emperor Sargon built a new capital on the Euphrates near what is now Baghdad. He was the first ruler to maintain a permanent Army. He declared war on all his neighbors and brought the entire northern Mesopotamia area under his rule. This became the World’s first empire- land with different territories and people under a single rule.
21Ur- Regains Sumerian Control The Sumerian city-state of Ur regained political control of the Mesopotamian area a century after Sargon’s death.The city of Ur was the most advanced of its time.
22Religion of SumerReligion was the most important component of shaping society.Sumerians practiced polytheism- the worship of many gods. They believed success in life depended on pleasing these gods.
23Priests Led religious ceremonies and had great status in the community They interpreted the wishes of the gods and made offerings in giant temples during religious ceremonies
24Social Hierarchy 1st Kings- chosen by gods to rule 2nd Priest- interpreted wishes of gods and made offerings3rd craftspeople, merchants and traders- travelled and brought in goods4th farmers and laborers- made up the large working class5th slaves- were at the bottom of the social order
25Men and Women of SumerMen- held political power, made laws and were educated.Women- raised children, only a few wealthy women were educated.Enheduanna- Sargon’s daughter, was educated and is believed to be the 1st female writer in history.
26Sumerian Advances and Inventions The wheelCartsClay spinning wheelThe plowThe water powered clockSewer systemsBronze weaponsMakeup and jewelery
27Other AchievementsDeveloped 60 digit math system, 360 degree circle, 12 month year, and calculated areasMade medicines, medical journals, and treated systems and body partsThey were the 1st to build ziggurats- large pyramid temples
28Later People of the Fertile Crescent By 2000BC, Ur lay in ruins and waves of invaders fought to take control of the area.Babylonians was one of these groups.
29Babylonian EmpireBy 1800BC, Babylon had a powerful government and King in Hammurabi.Babylon’s second chance was built to succeed because of his rule.
30Hammurabi’s CodeHammurabi was a brilliant leader. He won on the battle field, used tax dollars to build the city and irrigate its land, but most importantly created a list of 282 laws to govern the empire.The empire fell after his death.
31HittitesHittites were masterful fighters and ironworkers, mastering the technique of fighting from a chariot- a wheeled horse drawn cart.Hittites ruled Babylon for a short while, until the Kassites took the reign for the next 400 years.
32AssyriansThe Assyrians briefly ruled Babylon in 1200BC and for a longer term 300 years later in 900BC.During the second term the rulers were more fierce, feared and demanding of the citizens.
33Chaldeans The Assyrians self- destructed and fought internally. The Chaldeans attacked and destroyed the Nineveh and Assyrian Empires.Nebuchadnezzar rebuild Babylon beautifully, featuring the famous hanging gardens.
34PhoeniciansLocated west of the Fertile Crescent rose the nation of Phoenicia, now Lebanon.The master craftsmen and sailors revolutionized the trade industry. They became very wealthy and powerful.They also created the 1st alphabet