Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Economic Efficiency Principles of Microeconomics 2023 Boris Nikolaev.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Economic Efficiency Principles of Microeconomics 2023 Boris Nikolaev."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economic Efficiency Principles of Microeconomics 2023 Boris Nikolaev

2 The Water-Diamond Paradox

3

4 Another look at the demand curve… P Q D = MB We can think of the demand curve as The marginal (additional) benefit from consuming one more unit of good.

5 Consumer Surplus P Q D = MB Difference between what consumers are willing to pay and what they actually pay.

6 "The price which a person pays for a thing can never exceed, and seldom comes up to that which he would be willing to pay rather than go without it: so that the satisfaction which he gets from its purchase generally exceeds that which he gives up in paying away its price; and he thus derives from the purchase a surplus of satisfaction. The excess of price which he would be willing to pay rather than go without the thing, over that which he actually does pay, is the economic measure of this surplus satisfaction. It may be called consumers surplus. A. Marshall

7 Producers Surplus P Q S=MC Difference between what producers are willing to sell their product at and what they actually receive for it.

8 Efficiency gains from trade In Just Go With It [watch here]watch here

9 Efficiency (in a free market) P* Q* S D

10 Welfare (deadweight) loss (underproduction) P* Q* S=MC D=MB

11 Welfare (deadweight) loss (overproduction) P* Q* S D

12 Do you support welfare programs?

13 The American Class System Who controls the past, controls the future. And those who control the present control the past. George Orwell

14 Government Price-Fixing Price floors (e.g. the minimum wage law) Price ceilings (e.g. rent control) Price support (dairy subsidies)

15 Price Floor (e.g. minimum wage) P* Q* P S labor D labor min. wage

16 Price Floor (e.g. minimum wage) P* Q* P S labor D labor min. wage

17 Economic Effects of a min. wage

18 Price Ceiling (e.g. rent control) P* Q* P S D rent ceiling

19 Price Ceiling (e.g. rent control) P* Q* P S D rent ceiling

20 Economic effects of rent control

21 Price Support (dairy price support) P* Q* S D P support price

22 Price Support (dairy price support) P* Q* S D P support price

23 Economic Effects of price support

24 Should we legalize the market … … for human organs?

25 Currently… P* Qs*Qs* S D P Notice that the supply curve is vertical. We will call such curve perfectly inelastic. QdQd 0 cost is $0 (donations) shortage of organs (89K waiting list die every year) <

26 What if we had a free market? P* Q* S D

27 What about prostitution?


Download ppt "Economic Efficiency Principles of Microeconomics 2023 Boris Nikolaev."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google