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Supply, Demand, and the Price System
Quick Review – the following information should be in your notes already.
Elasticity – a measure of responsiveness to price.
Elastic demand – consumers are very sensitive to price changes.
Inelastic Demand – consumers show a relatively small response to price changes.
Unit elastic – consumers show a proportional response to price changes.
Determinants of demand elasticity. Urgent? Amount of income required Are there substitutes?
Determinant of Supply Elasticity How fast can suppliers respond?
Supply Shifters Cost of inputs Taxes and Subsidies Productivity Technology Number of Suppliers
Government Regulations Expectations
Change / Shift in Supply P Q S1 S2
Change in quantity supplied P1 P2 Q1 Q2 S
Change In Demand P Q D1 D2
Demand Shifters Consumer Tastes Consumer Income Consumer Expectations Number of Consumers Expectations Substitutes / Complements
Change in Quantity Demanded P1 P2 D Q2Q1
Market Clearing Price
Supply is equal to demand
Surplus S D P1 QsQd
Shortage S D P Qs Qd
Two Types of Price Controls Price Ceilings Price Floors
Price ceilings and price floors distort market outcomes.
Price ceiling – rent control
If a price ceiling is lower than the natural market clearing price, a shortage occurs.
Shortage S D P $1200 QsQd
If a price floor is higher than the market clearing price, a surplus will occur.
Surplus of Labor S D P $10.00 QsQd
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