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Increases and Decrease in Demand Higher demand leads to higher equilibrium price and higher equilibrium quantity supplied Lower demand leads to lower.

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Presentation on theme: "Increases and Decrease in Demand Higher demand leads to higher equilibrium price and higher equilibrium quantity supplied Lower demand leads to lower."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Increases and Decrease in Demand Higher demand leads to higher equilibrium price and higher equilibrium quantity supplied Lower demand leads to lower equilibrium price and lower equilibrium quantity supplied

3 Increases and Decreases in Supply Higher supply leads to lower equilibrium price and higher equilibrium quantity demanded Lower supply leads to higher equilibrium price and lower equilibrium quantity demanded

4 Supply and Demand Model Practice Answer the following on a separate sheet of paper Suppose we are analyzing the market for hot chocolate. a)Winter starts and the weather turns sharply colder, consumers prefer hot chocolate. b)The price of cocoa beans, an ingredient in making hot chocolate, decreases. c)The Surgeon General of the United States announces that hot chocolate causes acne. d)Protesting farmers stop producing millions of gallons of milk, causing the price of milk, an ingredient in hot chocolate to rise. S D

5 Plot the schedule below, which represents the demand for water after a hurricane. PriceQDQS $6060 51050 42040 330 24020 1500 Activator Chapter 6 3.00 4.00 5.00 2.00 1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 6.00 D S Price Ceiling

6 Price Ceilings Price Ceiling – government imposed, legal maximum price that can be legally charged for a good/service New York introduced rent control in the early 1940s as a way to provide affordable housing Price ceiling causes a shortage in the amount of the product

7 Input Costs P S S1 $7.25 x 40 hours = $290 $290 x 4 weeks = $1160 $1160 x 5 workers = $5800 $5800 x 12 months = $69,600 $9.00 x 40 hours = $360 $360 x 4 weeks = $1440 $1160 x 5 workers = $7200 $5800 x 12 months = $86,400

8 Plot the schedule below, which represents the demand for laborers in the market. PriceQDQS $7.25060 6.251050 5.252040 4.2530 2.254020 1500 Activator Chapter 6 4.25 5.25 6.25 2.25 1.25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 7.25 D S Price Floor

9 Price Floor – government imposed, legal minimum price at which a good can be sold Minimum wage is a well-known price floor Minimum wage can cause a surplus of workers

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11 Price ceilings Equilibrium Price ceiling D Quantity Price 3 2 200 4 S 100 D Quantity Price 3 2 200 800 4 S 100 Price Ceiling Shortage 800

12 Price Ceilings in Apartments

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14 Price controls: price floors EquilibriumPrice floor D Quantity of icecreams Price 3 2 200 4 S 100 D Quantity of icecreams Price 3 2 200 600 4 S 100 Price Floor 600 Surplus

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16 Minimum Wage Videos Stossel 2012 (dvd) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZUZ8oJ9rfQ&list=PL68F7227FEB 0AD808&index=2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZUZ8oJ9rfQ&list=PL68F7227FEB 0AD808&index=2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ct1Moeaa- W8&list=PL68F7227FEB0AD808&index=20 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ct1Moeaa- W8&list=PL68F7227FEB0AD808&index=20 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwFVx4SG4Co&list=PL68F7227FE B0AD808&index=10 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwFVx4SG4Co&list=PL68F7227FE B0AD808&index=10

17 Application – Price Ceiling Price of Ice Cream Cones Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones 0 Demand Supply Price ceiling Equilibrium point Quantity demanded Quantity supplied Shortage of 50 cones Scenario: the government places a price ceiling on ice cream cones as a result of complaints and lobbying from the Ice-Cream Eaters of America. The price ceiling is at $2.00 a cone. Graph the following schedule based on the price points and qs/qd. Price of Ice Cream Cones Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied $3100 212575 2 $3 75 100 125 The government imposes a price ceiling of $2. Because the price ceiling is below the equilibrium price of $3, the market price equals $2. At this price, 125 cones are demanded and only 75 are supplied, so there is a shortage of 50 cones.

18 Application – Price Floor Price of Ice Cream Cones Quantity of Ice-Cream Cones 0 Demand Supply Price floor Equilibrium point Quantity demanded Quantity supplied Surplus of 40 ce Cream Cones Scenario: the government places a price floor on ice cream cones as a result of complaints and lobbying from the National Organization of Ice-Cream Makers. The price floor is at $4.00 a cone. Graph the following schedule based on the price points and qs/qd. Price of Ice Cream Cones Quantity Demanded Quantity Supplied $480120 3100 $4 3 80 100 120 The government imposes a price floor of $4, which is above the equilibrium price of $3. Therefore, the market price equals $4. Because 120 cones are supplied at this price and only 80 are demanded, there is a surplus of 40 cones.

19 18 A store sells cheddar cheese by the pound. The schedule reflects the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied for the different prices the cheese could be sold. Answer the following question: a.What is the market price? _________ b.What is the quantity demanded at the market price? _______ c.What is the quantity supplied at the market price? _________ On your graph, draw a line across your graph at the price of $4.00. a.If the government were to set a price no higher than $4.00, this would be called a __________________________ b.Use your answer in (a) to label the line on your graph at the price of $4.00. c.At a price of $4.00, the quantity demanded would be __________ d.At a price of $4.00, the quantity supplied would be __________ e.Is there a surplus or shortage of cheese? _____________ On your graph, draw a line across your graph at the price of $5.50. a.If the government were to set a price no lower than $5.50, this would be called a _________________ b.Use your answer in (a) to label the line on your graph at the price of $5.50. c.At a price of $5.50, the quantity demanded would be _____________ d.At a price of $5.50, the quantity supplied would be _____________ e.Is there a surplus or shortage of cheese? _____________________ 4.50 280 price ceiling 300 240 shortage price floor 240 360 surplus 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 1 2 3 4 5 $6

20 Teacher Pay and Price Ceilings

21 Non-Binding Price Ceiling Non- Binding Price Ceiling – price ceiling is above equilibrium and thus has no effect on the equilibrium

22 Non-Binding Price Floor Non- Binding Price Floor – price floor is below equilibrium and thus has no effect on the equilibrium

23 Activator – Chapter 5 Elasticity and its Application 1.List an item that you would buy less of if the price increased 2.List an item that you would buy more of if the price decreased 3.List an item that you would continue to buy, even if the increased

24 Elasticity Elasticity – measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded or quantity supplied to a change in price Price elasticity of demand – measures how consumers will cut back or increase their quantity demanded for a product when prices rise or fall Measures the extent to which changes in price causes changes in quantity demanded. Helps determine how much a price change will influence the qd of any given product

25 Elastic Demand Elastic – quantity demanded changes drastically when a price rises or falls A consumer is very responsive to price changes

26 Inelastic Demand Inelastic - changes in price cause a relatively small change in quantity demanded Consumers continue to purchase regardless of a price change

27 Slope of the Curve 0 P QD D P2 P1 0 P QD D P2 P1

28 Elastic Demand Curve 0 P QD D 80,000 40,000 10,000 10100

29 Inelastic Demand Curve 0 P QD D $3.00 1.50.50 2 3

30 Determinants of Demand Elasticity 1.Availability of Close Substitutes Pepsi/Coke, Butter/Margarine 2.Necessities versus Luxuries Medicine versus a luxury automobile 3. Definition of the Market Food – broad category (inelastic) Ice Cream – narrower (more elastic) Vanilla Ice Cream – very narrow category (very elastic) 4. Time Horizon Longer time horizon – more elastic Gas in the short run is inelastic, but over time elastic

31 Elastic Supply Elastic – suppliers can easily increase or decrease their quantity supplied in the short run

32 Inelastic Supply Inelastic – suppliers have difficulty changing the quantity supplied

33 Elastic Supply Curve 0 P QS S 10 1 520

34 Inelastic Supply Curve 0 P QD D $3.00 1.50.50 2 3

35 Elasticity of Supply Price per painting Quantity of paintings S 1 P3 P2 P1 D1 D2 D3

36 Elasticity of Supply Price per ticket Quantity of seats S D1 D2 D3 $1000 $500 $100 80,000

37 Computing the Price Elasticity of Demand Price elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in price Value is less than 1, it is considered inelastic. Inelastic – Demand is < 1 Value is greater than one, demand is elastic. Elastic – Demand is > than 1 Value is equal to one, demand is unitary elastic. Unitary Elastic – Demand is = 1 Value is equal to 0, demand is perfectly inelastic. Perfectly Inelastic – Demand is = 0 Value is equal to infinity, demand is perfectly elastic Perfectly Elastic – Demand is = infinity

38 Computing the Price Elasticity of Demand Price elasticity of demand = Percentage change in quantity demanded Percentage change in price Percentage Change in QD – 25% Percentage Change in Price – 15% Percentage Change in QD – 10% Percentage Change in Price – 15% Percentage Change in QD – 15% Percentage Change in Price – 15%.25_.15 = 1.67 Elastic.10_.15 =.67 Inelastic.15_.15 = 1 Unitary Elastic

39 Application – Elasticity of Ice Cream Cones The Midpoint Method Price 3.00 5.00 6.00 $7.00 2.00 1.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Quantity Demanded of Ice-Cream Cones per week 4.00 $1___ $3.5.67_.29 =.29 = 2.3 _10___ 15 =.67 Elastic Price Elasticity = (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2] (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2] % change in qd % change in price Horizontal is more elastic E

40 The Midpoint Method Price Elasticity = Price 8.00 $10.00 0 810 Quantity 10 – 8_ 9 22% =.22 = 1 $10 – 8_ $9 =.22 Unitary Elastic A B B A 10 – 8__ 9.22 =.22 = 1 $10 – 8 9 Unitary Elastic A B =.22 (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2]

41 Application – Elasticity of Table Salt Price 3.00 5.00 6.00 $7.00 2.00 1.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Quantity Demanded of Table Salt 4.00 $4___ $4.40 1 = 1 =.4 5 ___ 12.5 =.40 Inelastic Price Elasticity = (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2] (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2] % change in qd % change in price Vertical is more elastic I

42 Use the formula to show how you determine elasticity of demand for the graph. Q2 _______ - Q1_______ = ______ / Q2 ______+ Q1 _______ / 2 = _______ = ________ P2 _______ - P1_______ = ______ / P2 ______+ P1 _______ / 2 = _______ = ________ - Elasticity QD______ /______P = ________ Did the price change cause an elastic or inelastic response in the QD for ice cream cones? ________________________________________________.67. 50 20 Elasticity Application 1 Elastic (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2] 5 10 201015.67 32534.50 1.34

43 .46 1.46 Elasticity Application 2 Use the formula to show how you determine elasticity of demand for the graph. Q2 _______ - Q1_______ = ______ / Q2 ______+ Q1 _______ / 2 = _______ = ________ P2 _______ - P1_______ = ______ / P2 ______+ P1 _______ / 2 = _______ = ________ - Elasticity QD______ /______P = ________ Did the price change cause an elastic or inelastic response in the QD for insulin? ________________________________________________ 8 5 3 8 5 6.5.46 Inelastic 6 2 4 6 2 4 1 (Q2 – Q1) / [(Q2+Q1) / 2] (P2 – P1) / [(P2 + P1) / 2]

44 Total Revenue Total Revenue – the total amount paid by buyers and received by sellers of a good; total amount of money generated by the firm through sales Price of the goods x quantity demanded = Total Revenue Price of a slice of pizzaQuantity Demanded Per day Total Revenue $.50300150 $1.00250 $1.50200300 $2.00135270 $2.50100250 $3.0050150

45 Elasticity Application 3 Scenario: The Apple store in St. Johns Mall made the decision to drop the price of their Ipod Nano from $150 to $125. As a result, the sale of Nanos increased from 200 a week to 250. - Create a Demand Schedule and Curve based on the above information. Price of Nanos QD per week Price Per Ipod Nano QD0 2. Did the price change cause an elastic or inelastic response in the QD for Nanos? ___________________ 3. If the firm drops their price by _________%, they will see an increase in sales of __________% 4. To determine if this is a good decision for the firm, calculate the total revenue of each price: - Multiply the first price of the Nano by the first QD – $______ x _______ = ___________________ - Multiply the second price of the Nano by the second QD – $ ______ x _______ = __________________ 5. Which price point generates the most total revenue? ______________________ 150 125 200 250 Elastic 18 22 150 200 $30,000 125 250 $31250 125 150 125 200 250 Use the formula to show how you determine elasticity of demand for the graph. Q2 _______ - Q1_______ = ______ / Q2 ______+ Q1 _______ / 2 = _______ = ________ P2 _______ - P1_______ = ______ / P2 ______+ P1 _______ / 2 = _______ = ________ - Elasticity QD______ P______P = ________ Did the price change cause an elastic or inelastic response in the QD for Nanos? ________________________________________________ 250 200 50 250 200 225.22.22.18 1.22 Elastic 150 125 25 150 125 137.5.18

46 What is the price elasticity of demand when the price changes from $1 to $2? _________ *Use the midpoint method formula to determine the answer to #1* Q2 – Q1__ ________ (Q2 + Q1)/2 = ________________ = ___________ P2 – P1__ ________ (P2 + P1)/2 20 170 1 1.5.12.67.18 Based on the above result, demand for Moonbucks coffee at this price range is (elastic/unit elastic/inelastic)

47 What is the price elasticity of demand when the price changes from $5 to $6? _________ *Use the midpoint method formula to determine the answer to #1* Q2 – Q1__ ________ (Q2 + Q1)/2 = ________________ = ___________ P2 – P1__ ________ (P2 + P1)/2 20 90 1 5.5.22.18 1.22 Based on the above result, demand for Moonbucks coffee at this price range is (elastic/unit elastic/inelastic)

48 The Flaw in Point Elasticity of Demand Percentage Change from the Original Elasticity = Percentage change in Quantity Demanded/Percentage change in Price Price 8.00 $10.00 0 810 Quantity 10 – 8 X 100 10.20_ -.25 =.20 = -.8 $8 – 10 X100 $8 = -.25 Inelastic A B B A 8 – 10 X 100 8 -.25_.20 = -.25 = -1.25 $10 – 8 X100 $10 Elastic A B =.20 % Q % P

49 Due Wednesday 1. Determinants of Supply Video 2. Supply and Demand Practice 3. Supply and Demand Application 4. Supply and Demand Review 5. Tennis Ball Simulation 6. SQ3R Prices & Supply and Demand 7. Crossword Puzzle 8. Study Guide 9. Terms 10. Essential Questions 11. Standards Sheet & Test Corrections 12. Notes 13. Daily Tens

50 Due Wednesday 1.Demand Curve Assignment 2.Chapter 4 Application Worksheet 3.Supply and Demand Model Practice 4.Video supply and demand chart 5.Supply and demand review 6.Supply and Demand Application 7.Elasticity of demand 8.Daily tens 9.Notes (4-6) 10. Terms

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