Presentation on theme: "MEDIUM-TERM BUDGETING LESSONS FROM OTHER REGIONS The World Bank Pacific Department www.wordbank.org/pi 1."— Presentation transcript:
MEDIUM-TERM BUDGETING LESSONS FROM OTHER REGIONS The World Bank Pacific Department 1
Key Messages Medium Term Budgeting does not have to mean complex technical processes Medium Term Budgeting is widely used and often leads to improved outcomes Medium Term Budgeting requires certain enabling conditions Medium Term Budgeting approaches should be tailored to the context 2
Why have countries pursued MTB? 3 Achieving fiscal discipline and managing upcoming cost pressures Achieving greater efficiency in resource use Better linking expenditure to policy priorities Estimating sector resource needs for the achievement of policy outcomes
Medium Term Budgeting does not have to mean complex technical processes 4 StageDescription Medium-Term Fiscal Framework (MTFF) Forward aggregate expenditure ceilings informed by estimates of future resource availability. Indicators: macro-fiscal strategy, fiscal forecasts, DSA, IMF program details. Medium-Term Budget Framework (MTBF) Agency and program expenditure ceilings informed by combination of top-down resource availability and bottom-up resourcing need. Indicators: budget or other reports detailing medium-term allocations to ministries or programs and showing a medium- term strategic focus Medium-Term Performance Framework (MTPF) Focus on outputs and performance. Indicators: program or ministry strategies including output targets and results. Evidence of a performance focus.
Medium Term Budgeting does not have to mean complex technical processes 5 Good Practice for a Medium-Term Fiscal Framework Debt and deficit targets are established using model-based debt sustainability analysis, taking into account constraints imposed by policy rules. Revenue forecasts are based on revenue department or other tax and non-tax receipt models. Independent macroeconomic forecasts are used, and fiscal forecasts are subject to scrutiny by an audit office, fiscal council or similar consultative body. Aid commitments are covered by debt sustainability analysis and/or revenue forecasts. Medium-term macro-fiscal objectives are described in a background paper included as part of the budget documentation.
Medium Term Budgeting is widely used and often leads to improved outcomes 6 MTB
Medium Term Budgeting is widely used and often leads to improved outcomes 7
8 Some reviews and case studies suggested that MTB had not lived up to expectations Insufficient focus on macro-resources Overly-sophisticated and not used Recent empirical work has shown some benefits MTB improve fiscal discipline as measured by overall fiscal balance MTB improve allocative efficiency as measured by share of budget allocated to health But aggregate results obscure very different country experiences
9 The fiscal balance tends to improve following the introduction of MTB Health expenditure tends to increases following introduction of MTB Medium Term Budgeting is widely used and often leads to improved outcomes Correlation is not causality: MTB is not a panacea!
Medium Term Budgeting requires certain enabling conditions 10 Effective MTB Political commitment Adequate budget coverage Adequate budget systems Institutions and processes linking annual budget to MTB Adequate planning processes Predictable donor flows
Medium Term Budgeting requires certain enabling conditions 11 MTB is not a technical fix to all expenditure management problems Political commitment: Whatever the technical details, MTB will only lead to improved outcomes if the framework is followed by decision-makers If not, MTB becomes a potentially costly distraction (Ghana) Budget coverage Usefulness of MTB undermined by substantial off- budget expenditure (broader African experience)
Medium Term Budgeting requires certain enabling conditions 12 Institutions and processes to allow close integration with annual budget MoF leadership Annual budgets tightly linked to MTB framework MTB integrated/consistent with NDP Adequate budget systems Expenditure control Cash management Execution performance (realistic budgets)
13 Medium Term Budgeting requires certain enabling conditions Using the budget as planning tool requires a realistic budget How realistic is your budget? Country A: Variations by Economic Classification Country B: Average Variation for all line items by Ministry
Medium Term Budgeting requires certain enabling conditions 14 Adequate planning processes MTB is ultimately about giving effect to policy plans Predictability of donor flows Vital for bottom-up and top-down processes Commitment to MTB can lead to the emergence of necessary conditions MTB can provide a tool for progressing broader reforms in context of strong political commitment. But some level of budget functionality is necessary in advance.
Medium Term Budgeting should be tailored to the context 15 Ambition of MTB approach should be calibrated to existing PFM systems The MTB model should reflect what existing systems and capacity can support Poor record with big bang reforms in developing countries Doing everything at once does not work Take care when combining the introduction of MTB with broader reforms Capacity constraints necessitate a step-by-step approach to reform What will work depends on context
Key considerations for PICs 16 Opportunity costs can be high MTB to achieve an objective – not as an end in itself Capacity constraints have been an important consideration worldwide Budget units already stretched thin Basic MTB (MTFF) need not be effort intensive Capacity supplementation can create opportunities if political commitment exists Adequacy of basic budget systems is key MTB is of little use if annual budgeting is not credible or cash management is weak Basic level of functionality in annual budgeting is probably a prerequisite PICs may face unique challenges in regards to extent of reliance on donor financing Introduces additional uncertainty
17 Thank you This presentation draws heavily on the following papers: World Bank (2011) Review of Experience with Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks, World Bank Ilona Castro and Bill Dorotinsky (2006) Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks – demystifying and unbundling the concept, OECD Journal of Budgeting Le Houerou, Philippe and Robert Taliercio, (2002) Medium-term Expenditure Frameworks: From Concept to Practice, Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 28.