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Romanesque 3: What is Romanesque Style? continued.

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1 Romanesque 3: What is Romanesque Style? continued

2 Benedictine Abbey at Vézelay (Cluniac ), choir, transept, narthex, nave First large-scale church in France with groin vaults throughout III. Romanesque Burgundyalternative thin wall construction Benedictine Abbey at Vézelay (Cluniac ), choir, transept, narthex, nave

3 First large-scale church in France with groin vaults throughout III. Romanesque Burgundyalternative thin wall construction Vézelay – groin-vaulted nave with generous clerestory windows groin or cross vaults

4 Vézelay – narthex with sculpted portal going into the navecoming out into the narthex III. Romanesque Burgundynarthex portals

5 Benedictine abbey at Moissac, France (Cluniac from 1048), south portal III. Romanesque Burgundynarrative sculpture on portals + in cloisters

6 III. Romanesque Burgundynarrative sculpture on portals + in cloisters cloister walk cloister garden Cloister of Moissac abbey church, Earliest historiated capitals in a cloister

7 South portal of Moissac abbey church, trumeau trumeau – prophet Jeremiah III. Romanesque Burgundynarrative sculpture on portals + in cloisters

8 1073 Benedictine monk Robert of Molesme joins hermits in the forest of Collan 1098 Robert, Alberic, and Stephen Harding settle in the forest of Cîteau, found the New Monastery III. Romanesque Burgundy: the Cistercian challenge

9 What remains of the abbey at Cîteaux 1113 Nobleman Bernard of Fontaine (a.k.a. Bernard of Clairvaux) arrives at Cîteaux Bernard: One learns more in the woods than in books. The trees and the rocks will teach you things you will not hear elsewhere. Cîteaux = Cisteaux = Cistercian III. Romanesque Burgundy: Cistercian challenge

10 Bernard founds the new of daughter house of the monks at Ciairvaux in 1115 and Fontenay in 1118 Clairvaux today III. Romanesque Burgundy: Cistercian challenge Fontenay Abbey, France, construction

11 Fontenay Abbey III. Romanesque Burgundy: Cistercian challenge

12 Benedictine abbey at ClunyCistercian abbey of Fontenay cloister(s),refectory,chapter house,dormitory,workroom and forge,fountain III. Romanesque Burgundy: Cistercian challengeWork ethos = functional buildings

13 dormitoryforge Fontenay III. Romanesque Burgundy: Cistercian challengeWork ethos = functional buildings

14 Cistercian abbey of Fontenay clear geometric shapes (massing) ?Distinctive formal characteristics of the Romanesque

15 Cistercian abbey church of Fontenay exterior/interior masses and volumes correspondDistinctive formal characteristics of the Romanesque east end facing east toward chancel

16 Cistercian abbey church of Fontenay exterior/interior masses and volumes correspondDistinctive formal characteristics of the Romanesque east endtransept with chancel and chapels

17 Cistercian abbey of Fontenay Plan of a Cistercian church from French master-builder Villard de Honnecourts sketchbook (1230s) III. Romanesque Burgundy: Theorythe Cistercian model

18 III. Romanesque Burgundy: Theorythe Cistercian model Cistercian abbey church of Fontenay

19 Fontenays cloister cloister walk cloister garden III. Romanesque Burgundy: Cistercian challengethe cloister

20 Le Thoronet Cistercian abbey, France (Provence), 1135

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22 Network of Cluniac monasteries III. Romanesque Burgundy: the Cistercian challenge Network of Cistercian monasteries

23 Speyer Cathedral, Germany, ; St. Michaels, Hildesheim, Germany, (Ottonian) IV. Romanesque basilicas and structure – looking up (wall to ceiling)Implications for articulation of wall and parts?

24 Speyer Cathedral, Germany, (wood ceiling)St. Michaels, Hildesheim, Germany, (Ottonian) Implications for articulation of wall and parts?IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)

25 Germany (wood ceiling)Central Italy (Tuscany) – wood ceiling Implications for articulation of wall and parts? Speyer Cathedral, Pisa Cathedral, IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)

26 wood ceilings

27 Normandy: implications for wall and parts? Speyer Cathedral, GermanyNormandy Abbey church at Jumièges (Normandy) France, , wood roofed nave IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)

28 IV. Romanesque basilicas with wood roofs Speyer Cathedral, Germany Normandy wood roof and double bays Jumièges (Normandy) France, Normandy: implications for wall and parts?

29 Germany groin vaulted nave and double bays Normandy wood roof and double bays Jumièges (Normandy) France, Speyer Cathedral, IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)Germanys vaults: implications for wall and parts?

30 Abbey of St.-Étienne, Caen, France, 11 th -12 th century ( , vaults 1120) Normandy: implications for wall and parts?IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)

31 Normandy: wood ceiling and thick wall construction St.-Étienne at Caen with timber ceiling, double bays, and clerestory passage, IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)

32 Germany (wood ceiling)Anglo-Norman wood ceiling Speyer Cathedral, Ely Cathedral, IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling) England: wood ceiling and thick wall construction

33 rib vaults in choir aisle ( ) skeletal frame alone bears the load IV. Romanesque basilicas and structurerib vaults Durham Cathedral, Durham, England, Durhams choir aisle vaults, earliest known rib vaults, 1093

34 Durham Cathedral – rib vaults in choir aisle skeletal frame alone bears the load IV. Romanesque basilicas and structurerib vaults

35 mobile centering one bay at a time planking and wattle to support webbing during construction ribs of a rib vault Soissons Cathedral, France left in place in Lincoln Cathedral IV. Romanesque basilicas and structurerib vaults

36 IV. Romanesque basilicas and structureabout Durham Durham Cathedral, Durham, England, regular clergy (monastic clergy) = monastic layout

37 Durham Cathedral – thick wall and double bay system IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)Durham: rib vaults, thick wall, double bay

38 Durham Cathedral – surface decoration on archivolts and cylindrical piers Earls Barton, Anglo-Saxon church tower with linear surface decoration IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)Durham: rib vaults, thick wall, double bay

39 IV. Romanesque basilicas and structurerib vaults Durham nave rib vaults,

40 St.-Étienne with timber ceiling, St.-Étienne with rib vaults added 1120 IV. Romanesque basilicas and structurerib vaults

41 St.-Étienne with rib vaults added 1120 – thick-wall, double-bay system IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)Normandy: rib vaults, thick wall, double bay

42 St.-Étienne at Caen (Normandy) with sexpartite rib vaults and double-bay system Speyer Cathedral (Rhineland, Germany) with groin vaults and double-bay system IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)Different vaults and double bay systems

43 S. Ambrogio in Milan with quadripartite rib vaults on double-bay system, complete by 1117 St.-Étienne in Caen with rib vaults added in 1120 IV. Romanesque basilicas – looking up (wall to ceiling)Other rib vaults and double bay systems

44 Durham Cathedral with paired quadripartite rib vaults and pointed transverse arches IV. Romanesque basilicas and structure St.-Étienne with sexpartite rib vaults and all round arches Durham: first pointed rib

45 IV. Romanesque basilicas and structure Pointed arches and vaults – already seen in Burgundy (Cluny III) but not combined with rib technique Durham: first pointed rib Cluny III: load-bearing pointed barrel vault with pointed transverse arches Durham: pointed rib (the transverse arches only)

46 + Gothic architecture V. Romanesque structural technologybuilding blocks of Gothic architecture available

47 Roger Stalley, Early Medieval Architecture, 1999

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