1Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – 2nd Ed. Bahar MansurSeton Hall University
2Vineland-II: At a Glance Purpose: To measure personal and social skills needed for everyday living from birth to adulthood.Publisher: PearsonAge Range: Birth to 90 yearsTime to Administer: 20 – 60 minutesQualification Level: Graduate/post-graduate qualificationPrice: $ for the Complete Starter KitBecause adaptive behavior refers to an individual's typical performance of the day-to-day activities required for personal and social sufficiency, these scales assess what a person actually does, rather than what he or she is able to do. Psychologists and other professionals continue to depend on it to identify individuals who have Intellectual andDevelopmental Disabilities, developmental delays, autism spectrum disorders, and other impairments.Not only does Vineland aid in diagnosis, but it gives you valuable information for developing educational and treatment plans.
3Vineland-II: Forms 4 Forms: Survey Interview Form Semi-structured interview formatParent/Caregiver Rating FormExpanded Interview FormTeacher Rating FormIt is also most closely related to the original VABS which is another version of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale
4Vineland-II: Domains Adaptive Behavior Composite An overall assessment of an individual’s level of adaptive behaviorCommunication DomainHow an individual speaks, understands others,and uses written languageMotor Skills DomainHow the individual uses arms, legs,hands, and fingers for movement,coordination, and to manipulate objectsDaily Living Skills DomainThe practical skillsand behaviors that are neededto take care of oneselfand for use in free-time activitiesneeded to get along with othersThe skills and behaviors that areSocialization Domainthat may interfere with adaptive behaviorsMeasure of undesirable behaviorsMaladaptive Behavior Domain
5Vineland-II: Subdomains CommunicationReceptiveExpressiveWrittenDaily Living SkillsPersonalDomesticCommunitySocializationInterpersonal RelationshipsPlay and Leisure TimeCoping SkillsMotor SkillsFineGrossMaladaptive Behavior(Optional)InternalizingExternalizingOtherWithin each subdomain there are other target areas that allow the interviewer to guide the interview so that it flows more easily
6Vineland-II: Validity & Reliability Test Content:Theoretically and empirically linked to target behaviors defining skills needed for adaptive behaviorMeasurement Bias:Mean scores very similar across age, gender, ethnic groups, etcConcurrent Validity:Highly correlated with VABSModerately to Highly correlated with the BASC-IIInternal Consistency Coefficients range from .80 to .90Test-Retest Coefficients range between .86 to .92
7Vineland-II: Norms & Standardization A nationally representative sample of 3,687 individuals that were assessed across 44 states20 age groups: Evenly split between males and femalesAges ranged from birth to 90 yearsPopulation based on the 2001 U.S censusGender, SES, Community Size, Ethnicity, Geographic RegionClinical Populations proportionally represented based on Congressional ReportADHD, Speech and Language impaired, LD, etc.
8Vineland-II: Format Survey Interview Form: Lists items by sub-domains Total of 433 itemsGeneral Administration:Start Point determined by chronological ageDo not read items verbatim to respondent, ask broad to specific interview questionsMaladaptive Section does not require general questionsJust describe the behavior and ask whether the individual always, sometimes, or never engages in the behaviorStart point may be lowered if there is a suspected developmental delayItems record booklet is 30 pages, Total of 433 items for the 4 domains and optional maladaptive domainAdministration:Purpose: Learning about ________’s adaptive behavior will help us to gain a total picture of him. You are an important person to give us information about _________. Adaptive behaviors are the day-to-day activities that are necessary for individuals to get along with others and take care of themselves. These activities change as a person grows older and becomes less dependent on the help or others. But at every age, certain skills are required at home, at school, and in the community.Describe each domain: Adaptive behaviors fall into four general areas . The first deals with communication, or how ________ speaks and understands others. The second area deals with daily living skills that ________ uses for eating, dressing, and taking care of personal needs. The third area involves the skills that ______ uses to get along with others, called socialization skills, as well as his or her play activities and use of leisure time. The last area deals with important physical skills, called motor skills.
9Vineland-II: Scoring Item Scores: Basal & Ceiling Rules: 2 = Usually or habitually occurs without help1 = Performed sometimes without help or reminders0 = Never performed without helpBasal & Ceiling Rules:Basal = 4 consecutive scores of 2Basal Item = Highest item # in the set of 4 scores of 2Ceiling = 4 consecutive scores of 0Ceiling Item = Lowest item # in the set of 4 scores of 0Computing Subdomain Raw Scores:
10Vineland-II: Interpretation Scoring Interpretation:Raw scoresV-scale scores for sub-domainsStandard scores for domains and ABCConfidence IntervalsPercentile RanksAge EquivalentsStrengths & WeaknessesInterpretive Steps:Describe General Adaptive FunctioningDescribe performance in all domains and sub- domainsInterpret the pattern of domain standard scores to identify strengths and weaknessesGenerate hypotheses about profile fluctuationsVineland-II also provides 5 clinical profile comparisons to guide in interpretations:Profile Comparison 1: High Functioning Autism and Asperger SyndromeProfile Comparison 2: Autism and Mental RetardationProfile Comparison 3: Normal Development and ADHDProfile Comparison 4: Normal Development and Hearing ImpairedProfile Comparison 5: Nonspecific Mental Retardation and Down Syndrome
11Vineland-II: Critical Reviews Mental Measurement YearbookVineland-II reflect the greater cultural expectations for adaptive behaviorThe theoretical model is well described and well supported by previous and current research.Users should be cognizant of the inherent limitations of any instrument that relies solely on indirect measures of behavior such as ratings or interviews of third-party respondents
12Vineland-II: Adaptive Level Descriptions and Profile Comparisons SD from the MeanStandard Score Rangev-Scale score rangesPercentile Rank RangeHigh2.0 or above130 and above21 and above98 and aboveModerately High1.0 – 2.0115 – 12918 – 2084 – 97Adequate-1.0 – 1.086 – 11413 – 1718 – 83Moderately Low-2.0 – -1.071 – 8510 – 123 – 17Low-2.0 or below70 and below9 and below2 and belowVineland-II: Profile ComparisonsHigh Functioning Autism and Asperger SyndromeAutism and Mental RetardationNormal Development and ADHDNormal Development and Hearing ImpairedNonspecific Mental Retardation and Down Syndrome
13Case Study: Anthony Respondent: Background Information: Age: 3-5 Lives in a home in northern New JerseyLives with mother, father, older brother, and younger sisterDescribed as very lively and energeticRespondent:Mother
14Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Pre-conventional MoralityStage 1: Obedience and PunishmentThe earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children.At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.Stage 2: Individualism and ExchangeAt this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.
15Domain Standard Scores Adaptive Behavior Composite = 90 Case Study: ResultsDomain Standard ScoresSubdomain v-ScoresCommunication = 100StrengthAdequateReceptive = 16Expressive = 15Written = 14Daily Living Skills= 93Personal = 14Domestic = 14Community = 14Socialization = 85Moderately LowInterpersonal Relationships = 12Play and Leisure Time = 15*Coping Skills = 10*Motor Skills = 91Gross = 14Fine = 13Adaptive Behavior Composite = 90
16Interpretations & Recommendations Communication Domain: Personal StrengthReceptive, Expressive, and Written subdomainsSocialization DomainPlay and Leisure Time subdomain: Personal StrengthCoping Skills subdomain: Personal WeaknessInterpersonal Relationships: Moderately Low adaptive levelRecommendations:Anthony may benefit from a daily schedule (using visual cues) to ease in transitions from different activitiesMore structure in home environment to ease into the transition into preschoolSince he has a very playful nature, and is able to communicate his needs well, Anthony may benefit from a reinforcement system that would promote his positive behaviors when interacting with peers his ageFor example: Frequent verbal praise, token economy system, etc.Deals with his ability to:Understand and successfully communicate with othersListen and attend to othersIt may have been beneficial to administer the Maladaptive Behavior Index, as it seemed that his impulsivity, aggressive nature, and temper tantrums may affect his ability to effectively cope and socialize with peers his age
17ReferencesSparrow, S.S., Cicchetti, D.V., Balla, D.A. 2005). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition: Survey Forms Manual. Pearson Assessments: Minneapolis, MN.Stein, S. (N.D.A). Review of the vineland adaptive behavior scales, 2nd edition. Mental Measurements Yearbook.Widaman, K.F. (N.D.A.). Review of the vineland adaptive behavior scales, 2nd edition. Mental Measurements Yearbook.