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OTTAWA FIRE SERVICES. 2 ObjectivesObjectives Refresher of type III construction Know the critical areas of operation Understanding the tactical principles.

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Presentation on theme: "OTTAWA FIRE SERVICES. 2 ObjectivesObjectives Refresher of type III construction Know the critical areas of operation Understanding the tactical principles."— Presentation transcript:

1 OTTAWA FIRE SERVICES

2 2 ObjectivesObjectives Refresher of type III construction Know the critical areas of operation Understanding the tactical principles of type III structures Understanding the application of different methods of ventilation in type III structures Awareness of collapse potential

3 3 DefinitionDefinition Type III buildings also know as Ordinary construction, consist of masonry load-bearing walls that support wooden floor joists used as simple beams that span from wall to wall.

4 4 Interior structural members, including walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs, are completely or partially constructed of wood or other materials. CharacteristicsCharacteristics

5 5 Type III buildings tend to be larger, more imposing structures that include ornate brickwork, large balconies, and masonry walls on all four sides.

6 6 Identifying Type 3 Structures Identifying Type III structures can be a challenge One common mistake is to confuse Type III ordinary construction with balloon frame construction.

7 7

8 8 Identifying Type 3 Structures As with all buildings, typical Type III buildings should be identified in each district and operational planning should be developed.

9 9 Critical Areas of Operation Chimney Fires Cocklofts and Attics Ceilings

10 10 Chimney Fires Most chimney fires occur because of a lack of proper maintenance and cleaning. Chimney fires in Type III buildings are not to be viewed lightly or as routine.

11 11 Cocklofts and Attics Once fire takes hold in a cockloft space, it will run unchecked across an entire roof structure. Depending on the fires origin and resource limitations, the cockloft and the basement must be inspected for fire spread as soon as possible.

12 12

13 13 CeilingsCeilings Dropped or hanging ceilings are a common problem that firefighters encounter in Type III buildings.

14 14 While Type III buildings are more collapse resistant than Type V (wood-frame construction) structures, after prolonged exposure to fire floor joists, aging mortar, and roof supports will begin to fail. Collapse Considerations

15 15 CollapseCollapse

16 16 Parapet Wall Collapse When firefighters arrive on the scene of any structure, they must look forward and then look up immediately to identify what the roofline is, the type of roof structure, and if a parapet wall is present.

17 17 Floor Collapse The failure of a connection point can cause localized collapse or set in motion a chain of events that can reduce the entire building to rubble.

18 18 Exterior Signs of Collapse Firefighters should be aware of the signs of the impending collapse of a building. Upon arrival, firefighters should examine the buildings exterior for signs of structural instability or pre-fire stress. Such signs include

19 19 Exterior Signs of Collapse Visible Cracks in the masonry of the exterior walls The presence of reinforcing stars or steel bracing

20 20 Exterior Signs of Collapse Bulging Walls Damaged Brickwork

21 21 Below-grade Fires in Type III These fires will punish fire companies and can escalate into complex problems that can involve an entire city block

22 22 Below-grade Fires in Type III

23 23 Below-grade Fires in Type III If the fires intensity prevents access to the basement then fire companies may decide to cut access holes in the floor near the main body of the fire for the insertion of specialized nozzles such as Bresnan nozzles and piercing applicators.

24 24 Tactical Principles The principles outlined in this section are generic and also apply to fires in Type IV and Type V structures. These principles are intended as a general guide for fire personnel operating on the fireground and are not intended to replace an officers experience and initiative.

25 25 Rescue and Evacuation Within moments of arriving, the Incident Commander should ensure that an exterior reconnaissance is completed as part of the initial size-up. As rescue and life safety are always the first priority, exterior or interior rescue operations are to be undertaken immediately for the unit of origin, as required.

26 26 Advancing Hose Lines If the interior occupancy is unknown, then introducing a hose stream into a vent opening will draw air into the structure and push the fire away from the opening and towards occupants. Whenever practical, fires are to be fought from the interior unburned side.

27 27 Containing a Fire in a Type III Structure A well-developed fire may seem to be contained to one room, but can migrate into voids before the fire attack company is aware that it is moving. The use of a thermal imaging camera and infrared thermometer is a great tool in locating these hidden fires.

28 28 Coordination of Fire Attack and Ventilation Communication is key: Successful fireground operations cant be undertaken without ensuring that all fire companies understand their task and are able to seamlessly communicate with all sectors and command.

29 29 RetreatRetreat If the attacking fire company is forced to retreat, then they should do so without turning their backs on the fire. Remain calm and in control.

30 30 SalvageSalvage Salvage operations are often ignored or implemented too late in the operation. A great deal of salvage can be performed before the fire is extinguished. Salvage is the glimpse of brightness for the owner/occupant on such a sad and dark day. What ever we can do to help brighten that day will be remembered!

31 31 OverhaulOverhaul Because of their age and design, Type III buildings generally tend to have a great deal of lath and plaster as the interior wall coverings. Exposing the hidden void spaces in between the stud channels and pulling down ceiling areas within these buildings is labour-intensive work.

32 32 Ventilation in Type III Structures

33 33 VentilationVentilation Type III roof operations can be one of the most challenging tasks on the fireground. The roof is a critical area in Type III construction and must be a priority in the incident action plan.

34 34 Positive Pressure Ventilation The use of positive pressure fans can assist in reducing interior temperatures, increasing visibility and limit the migration of smoke.

35 35 Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs Ventilating a flat roof on a Type III structure will initially require the following equipment: Chain saws, circular saws, or axes; Plaster hooks or pike poles; A hose line for personnel protection; Square nose shovel for clearing away roof ballast; and A thermal imaging camera and heat gun, if available.

36 36 Escape Routes

37 37 Depending on the location of the fire and situation, vertical roof venting should begin with natural openings such as roof vents, hatches, and skylights. Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs (continued)

38 38 The roof sector officer should determine the optimum location for a roof vent. Before ascending to the roof, the officer should be aware of the fires location through a reconnaissance of the building and examination for visual indicators of the fires location. Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs (continued)

39 39 After the hole is cut and the interior ceiling area has been breached, fire personnel should monitor the effectiveness of the vents through visual observation and by liaising with fire attack. Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs (continued)

40 40 Trench Cutting Procedure

41 41 Once the trench has been cut, the decking can be left in place to avoid drawing any products of combustion toward the trench cut. If the fire has taken hold in the cockloft, the decking in the trench is removed and hose lines directed to prevent fire spread.

42 42 At every structure fire, ground ladders are to be placed strategically on all sides of the building and to service floors where fire personnel are conducting fire operations. Unless a ground ladder is being positioned for a Rapid Intervention Team (RIT), it should be placed at a 70°angle. Ground Ladder Considerations

43 43 SectorsSectors

44 44 Fire Control The fire control sector officer directs companies in the Hot Zone to perform search, rescue, ventilation and fire suppression.

45 45 RITRIT The RIT should be staged in a shaded area with SCBA on and turnout clothing open during hot humid weather and sheltered as close to the scene as possible during cold weather. Equipment on the RIT tarp shall be for the exclusive use of the RIT. A dedicated hose line shall also be in place

46 46 Water Supply During a fire, the water supply sector officer is responsible to manage the supply pump, tankers and the fill site.

47 47 AccountabilityAccountability Initial arriving Crews shall operate under Phase I A minor incident escalates, or initial size-up indicates the safety and accountability of personnel is beyond the span of control of Command, Phase II shall be established and an accountability officer designated.

48 48 StagingStaging Staging refers to the use of a temporary stopping place where resources can be assembled before they are engaged in the incident.

49 49 RehabRehab Personnel operating at an emergency scene or training exercise shall be sent to the Rehab Sector after using two air cylinders, or after 30 – 45 minutes of exertion. In extreme weather conditions, shorter times shall be considered.

50 50 Special Considerations

51 51 Different detached Type III single-family residences and rooming houses can look similar from the exterior, but have dissimilar interior floor configurations.

52 52 Group Homes, Halfway Houses, and Shelters Under maximum occupancy loading, the rescue and evacuation requirements may prove overwhelming for the first arriving companies.

53 53 Row Housing Fires in Type III row houses have the potential to last a very long time and typically require significant commitments of human and physical resources.

54 54 High Type III Multi Residential Buildings These buildings can be quite large and are generally between three to six storeys in height, with some even taller.

55 55 Modified Type III Buildings

56 56 Abandoned Type III Buildings One of the primary questions is whether the Incident Commander decides to undertake primary search activities.

57 57 SummarySummary This chapter has explained the characteristics of Type III buildings and some general principles for responding to fires in them.

58 58 Questions?Questions?

59 59 EvaluationEvaluation

60 60 Question #1 Type III construction is also known as?

61 61 Question #2 Name the three types of collapse.

62 62 Question #3 Explain the importance of coordination between Fire attack and Ventilation

63 63 Question #4 The Rapid Intervention Team shall:

64 64 Question #5 In abandoned buildings, one of the primary questions is whether the Incident Commander decides to undertake primary search activities. What considerations should be taken into account?


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