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OTTAWA FIRE SERVICES Strategy and Tactics Tactics 3.

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1 OTTAWA FIRE SERVICES Strategy and Tactics Tactics 3

2 Objectives Refresher of type III construction
Know the critical areas of operation Understanding the tactical principles of type III structures Understanding the application of different methods of ventilation in type III structures Awareness of collapse potential

3 Definition Type III buildings also know as Ordinary construction, consist of masonry load-bearing walls that support wooden floor joists used as simple beams that span from wall to wall. Type III ordinary construction should not be confused with Type V balloon wood-frame construction. Both these types are common in Ottawa’s older inner city neighbourhoods and in many rural areas.

4 Characteristics Interior structural members, including walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs, are completely or partially constructed of wood or other materials. Commonly referred to as Main Street construction In Ottawa, Type III buildings range in height from 1 to 10 storeys. When Type III construction was dominant, 25 feet was the practical width that builders could span using full dimensional lumber. Today, much larger widths are spanned through the use of wooden I-joists or wooden web joists. These wider spans allow developers to remove interior load-bearing walls and create large open spaces for restaurants and showrooms. The beams in Type III construction can be made either of wood or unprotected steel. The materials used depended on availability and the preference of the builder. Supporting columns can be made of wood, brick, stone, concrete block, steel, or cast iron If the material of supporting columns is unknown or known to be cast iron, cold water should not be sprayed on them. Cold water will shatter cast iron columns that have been heated and cause the building to collapse.

5 Type III buildings tend to
be larger, more imposing structures that include ornate brickwork, large balconies, and masonry walls on all four sides. In large Type III buildings, brick walls can be several layers thick. The floor joists, usually full dimensional lumber, are placed in notches in the masonry. Wood planking or tongue and groove boards are laid over the joists. The floors can be several layers thick.

6 Identifying Type 3 Structures
Identifying Type III structures can be a challenge One common mistake is to confuse Type III ordinary construction with balloon frame construction. Balloon frame construction uses wood framing and is classified as Type V construction, while Type III structures have non-combustible load bearing walls

7 The following exterior features help to identify a Type III building:
• Masonry load-bearing walls; • Recessed windows and doors openings (see Figure 4–7, page 221); • Header or bond courses of brick (see Figure 4–9, page 222); • Ornate brickwork or masonry (see Figure 4–10, page 223); and • Large fire escapes The following interior features help to identify a Type III building: • Floor joists rest inside the load bearing walls. Where the joists rest can be determined by examining the underside of the floor in the basement area on an exterior wall. Figure 4–11 shows floor joists resting on the load-bearing brick wall. • There is a large load-bearing wall in the middle of the basement. This wall would support one end of the floor joists and allow for a wider structure. • When the interior layer of material is pealed off an exterior wall during an overhaul, the wall is masonry, usually brick. Some interior walls in the centre of the structure may also be masonry walls fixed to the exterior.

8 Identifying Type 3 Structures
As with all buildings, typical Type III buildings should be identified in each district and operational planning should be developed. While it is not practical to develop a pre-fire plan for every building in a response area, it is practical to stop and look at all Type III buildings, particularly those undergoing renovation. Changes to these structures will affect the performance of the building when exposed to fire.

9 Critical Areas of Operation
• Chimney Fires • Cocklofts and Attics • Ceilings

10 Chimney Fires Most chimney fires occur because of a lack of proper maintenance and cleaning. Chimney fires in Type III buildings are not to be viewed lightly or as routine. If the masonry work around the chimney is in disrepair or the chimney has not been lined with an updated steel insulated chimney liner, heat, sparks, and fire can find their way into void spaces within the structure and transition from a chimney fire to a structure fire in a short period of time. In many instances the use of water spray and chains is the preferred method to extinguish these fires.

11 inspected for fire spread as soon as possible.
Cocklofts and Attics Once fire takes hold in a cockloft space, it will run unchecked across an entire roof structure. Depending on the fire’s origin and resource limitations, the cockloft and the basement must be inspected for fire spread as soon as possible. Many of these buildings have cocklofts or attics that can range in depth from 50 centimetres to well over a meter. Another major area of concern is fire spread in concealed spaces. Once a fire has communicated into a void space, the fire will begin to consume all of the combustible structural elements and grow unchecked until it bursts out in another location, often the cockloft.

12 Depending on the style of roof and the size of the building, many rooflines cut into the building in such a manner as to create short knee walls on the top floor. These knee walls must be accessed and searched for fire spread early in the life of an incident.

13 Ceilings The original design of most of these structures featured high ceilings. To conserve energy and to modernize the interior layout of these buildings dropped ceilings have led to the creation of large void spaces above the renovated ceilings. Fire can readily spread between the dropped ceiling and the original ceiling. During overhaul, wall and ceiling coverings must be pulled down outward from the area of origin until there is no sign of charring or heavy smoke staining. Interior walls often have chases for heating ducts and plumbing pipes that extend vertically in unprotected voids within the structure. Dropped or hanging ceilings are a common problem that firefighters encounter in Type III buildings.

14 Collapse Considerations
While Type III buildings are more collapse resistant than Type V (wood-frame construction) structures, after prolonged exposure to fire floor joists, aging mortar, and roof supports will begin to fail.

15 Collapse Depending on the circumstances, the Incident Commander may choose to establish collapse zones early in the operation in an effort to anticipate the potential for collapse. It is always sound practice to position elevating devices at the corners of the subject building.

16 Parapet Wall Collapse When firefighters arrive on the scene of any structure, they must look forward and then look up immediately to identify what the roofline is, the type of roof structure, and if a parapet wall is present. Many Type III buildings, particularly those in strip malls or that are old theatres, have parapet walls. A parapet wall is a “the continuation of an exterior wall, a fire wall, or a party wall above the roof level.” These walls can encircle a roof or be present on one side only. They are often located above front entrances where they can be very dangerous.

17 The failure of a connection point can cause
Floor Collapse The failure of a connection point can cause localized collapse or set in motion a chain of events that can reduce the entire building to rubble. The original design of Type III buildings makes them very strong and durable. However, interior renovations and the effects of aging on mortar have diminished the ability of these buildings to withstand the effects of fire.

18 Exterior Signs of Collapse
Firefighters should be aware of the signs of the impending collapse of a building. Upon arrival, firefighters should examine the building’s exterior for signs of structural instability or pre-fire stress. Such signs include Depending on the circumstances, the Incident Commander may choose to establish collapse zones early in the operation in an effort to anticipate the potential for collapse. It is always sound practice to position elevating devices at the corners of the subject building.

19 Exterior Signs of Collapse
Visible Cracks in the masonry of the exterior walls The presence of reinforcing stars or steel bracing

20 Exterior Signs of Collapse
Bulging Walls Damaged Brickwork This photograph of damaged brickwork and bulging walls, both of which are indications of structural instability. If the following exterior signs are detected during fire operations, they could indicate that the building is becoming unstable: • Lintels above windows and doors begin to crack or deflect; • Water from fire operations begins leaking from masonry work on the exterior; • Walls begin to sag and bow at the lowest levels; • Key stones fall out of place; and • Masonry elements begin to show cracks and open at the corners of the building. Structural elements such as floor joists that have been exposed to fire for period longer than 20 minutes are likely to become unstable. If the following interior signs are detected during fire operations, they could indicate that the building is becoming structurally unstable: • Walls and floors begin to tilt or fall out of plumb; • Interior walls begin to show cracks; • Staircases begin tilting and the stair treads become uneven; • Framing around doors and windows becomes uneven; • There is a visible drop in the floor in relation to the entrance door; and • The floor feels spongy or it moves downward as weight is applied.

21 Below-grade Fires in Type III
These fires will punish fire companies and can escalate into complex problems that can involve an entire city block Firefighters must ascertain the following immediately upon arrival: • Rescue requirements; • Location of the fire; • Are there dwelling units or storage in the basement; • The type and nature of the fire loading in the basement; and • Is the basement confined to one building or accessible from adjoining structures?

22 Below-grade Fires in Type III
The key to successfully mitigating below-grade fires in structures such as the ones depicted, is to ensure that ventilation operations are undertaken as soon as possible. Fire attack companies attempting to make a push into a below-grade compartment without the aid of ventilation will suffer a great deal of punishment before accomplishing the task. Modifications to these buildings can create narrow hallways and storage areas. Fire personnel should be wary not to venture too far into subterranean areas under heavy heat and smoke conditions without the aid of thermal imaging cameras, hose lines, lifelines, Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) support, and sufficient air supplies.

23 Below-grade Fires in Type III
If the fire’s intensity prevents access to the basement then fire companies may decide to cut access holes in the floor near the main body of the fire for the insertion of specialized nozzles such as Bresnan nozzles and piercing applicators. Firefighters should view piercing applicators as portable sprinkler systems that can be inserted in any number of locations to prevent fire spread and to hold a fire in check. These nozzles can be strategically placed to limit fire spread and aid in containment of the fire in the basement, while a 65-millimetre Bresnan rotary nozzle is placed into position to knock down the fire. Another dangerous aspect of basement fires in these buildings is that the basement ceilings are rarely finished. Consequently, the floor joists are exposed and will likely become fire-involved early in the incident, making collapse likely under intense uncontrolled fire conditions.

24 Tactical Principles The principles outlined in this section are generic and also apply to fires in Type IV and Type V structures. These principles are intended as a general guide for fire personnel operating on the fireground and are not intended to replace an officer’s experience and initiative.

25 part of the initial size-up.
Rescue and Evacuation Within moments of arriving, the Incident Commander should ensure that an exterior reconnaissance is completed as part of the initial size-up. As rescue and life safety are always the first priority, exterior or interior rescue operations are to be undertaken immediately for the unit of origin, as required. Subsequent rescue operations should be prioritized starting with occupants in the most danger and finishing with those in the least danger. Fire Floor Floor Above Floor Below In cold or inclement weather conditions, as soon as possible the Incident Commander should request buses to shelter displaced occupants or third-party agencies like the Salvation Army to attend the scene to assist with occupants.

26 Advancing Hose Lines If the interior occupancy is unknown, then introducing a hose stream into a vent opening will draw air into the structure and push the fire away from the opening and towards occupants. Whenever practical, fires are to be fought from the interior unburned side. Laying or stretching hose lines in Type III buildings can be challenging. One of the main issues is the distance from the pump to the front door and from the front door to the fire compartment, and leaving enough hose to properly manoeuvre within the fire compartment.

27 Containing a Fire in a Type III Structure
A well-developed fire may seem to be contained to one room, but can migrate into voids before the fire attack company is aware that it is moving. The use of a thermal imaging camera and infrared thermometer is a great tool in locating these hidden fires. In Type III construction, containing a fire can include overhaul or pulling the walls and ceilings down in conjunction with fire attack. As soon as possible, the ceiling areas nearest the fire, including the framework around doorways, should be pulled down and the voids thoroughly washed down.

28 Coordination of Fire Attack and Ventilation
Communication is key: Successful fireground operations can’t be undertaken without ensuring that all fire companies understand their task and are able to seamlessly communicate with all sectors and command. The following procedure to coordinate fire attack and ventilation can enhance interior conditions for fire personnel and victims trapped within the building: 1. The fire attack team positions itself in the best vantage point to make entry and attack the fire, preferably from the unburned side. 2. The ventilation company officer determines the best ventilation location, preferable above the fire or a natural opening adjacent to the fire, with consideration for wind and weather conditions. 3. When the ventilation company is in position, the ventilation officer advises the fire attack officer that they are in position to ventilate and the fire attack officer will give the order to ventilation. 4. As soon as the ventilation is verified, the fire attack company will make entry into the fire compartment and begin fire attack operations.

29 Remain calm and in control.
Retreat If the attacking fire company is forced to retreat, then they should do so without turning their backs on the fire. Remain calm and in control. While keeping low with their heads looking up they should back out while aggressively pulsating water into the gaseous layer, in order to prevent flashover. Exterior fire companies should never aggressively pull on a hose line from the outside in an effort to assist the interior fire companies make a rapid retreat. This action can cause injury and reduce the fire attack company’s ability to properly defend itself. Only pull hose out in a manner that allows the slack to be taken up without pulling on personnel.

30 Salvage Salvage operations are often ignored or implemented too late in the operation. A great deal of salvage can be performed before the fire is extinguished. Salvage is the glimpse of brightness for the owner/occupant on such a sad and dark day. What ever we can do to help brighten that day will be remembered! Whenever resources permit, rooms should be raided and furniture and valuables placed under heavy tarps in the centre of a room. Fire personnel should adopt an empathetic attitude when performing salvage and place themselves in the position of the homeowner or tenant whose belongings may be lost forever. Salvage operations should begin in the unit of origin and move to the unit below to protect that unit from water damage. The next most important units are those above and adjacent to the area of origin. Despite its importance, salvage should only be performed when it is safe to do so.

31 Overhaul Because of their age and design, Type III buildings generally tend to have a great deal of lath and plaster as the interior wall coverings. Exposing the hidden void spaces in between the stud channels and pulling down ceiling areas within these buildings is labour-intensive work. Overhaul in Type III buildings must be done almost in conjunction with fire attack activities. A general rule to remember is to pull as you go. Overhaul is a continual process and does not stop once the main body of the fire is extinguished. Old Type III buildings can be insulated with everything from horsehair and newspaper to wood chips. Any location that created a source of cold air was stuffed with whatever was handy and affordable. Horsehair was often stuffed into cracks and rolled newspaper pushed into vertical voids where wood and masonry joined. Thermal imaging cameras and heat guns are invaluable tools when undertaking the task of overhauling insulation.

32 Ventilation in Type III Structures

33 Ventilation Type III roof operations can be one of the most challenging tasks on the fireground. The roof is a critical area in Type III construction and must be a priority in the incident action plan. In many instances, fireground success or failure will be determined by the effectiveness of companies operating on the roof. Roof operations include the following kinds of operations: • Rescue and evacuation; • Vertical ventilation; • Cockloft inspection for fire spread; and • Trench cutting to halt fire spread.

34 Positive Pressure Ventilation
The use of positive pressure fans can assist in reducing interior temperatures, increasing visibility and limit the migration of smoke. Consideration should be given to using positive pressure ventilation (PPV) as part of the attack if the following conditions apply: • The fire is confined to one area of the building; • The fire does not have a firm hold within the structure; • The Incident Commander believes it will enhance fire operations; • Size-up of fire conditions indicates that it is unlikely that the use of PPV will entrain sufficient oxygen to cause unburned gases to ignite; • It is unlikely that PPV will spread the fire to uninvolved areas of the structure; and • It is felt that PPV will aid in the efficient ventilation of the building.

35 Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs
Ventilating a flat roof on a Type III structure will initially require the following equipment: • Chain saws, circular saws, or axes; • Plaster hooks or pike poles; • A hose line for personnel protection; • Square nose shovel for clearing away roof ballast; and • A thermal imaging camera and heat gun, if available. A visual and physical examination of the roof must be performed prior to the initiation of any roof operations. Personnel should constantly sound for roof weakness as they walk along the roof to the operational location. Once roof operations are established the officer assigned to this duty should assume the radio designation of “Roof Sector.” All companies assigned to roof operations must report to the roof sector officer for updates and directions.

36 Escape Routes Standard practice is to provide more than one means of exit off a roof for roof sector personnel. Once in place, ladders should not be moved without the approval of the Incident Commander or roof sector officer.

37 Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs (continued)
Depending on the location of the fire and situation, vertical roof venting should begin with natural openings such as roof vents, hatches, and skylights. A roof can be vented vertically without cutting through the roof decking by using a roof hatch, large skylight or opening if it is directly over the fire or in close proximity to the fire. The box frame of the skylight must be breached to allow the products of combustion to properly vent through the opening. Whenever possible ventilate directly over the fire compartment, as the products of combustion will travel along the path of least resistance and migrate from high-pressure areas to low-pressure areas. Venting in a location that is not above the fire compartment could draw convected heat and smoke through the attic or cockloft and cause the fire to spread.

38 Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs (continued)
The roof sector officer should determine the optimum location for a roof vent. Before ascending to the roof, the officer should be aware of the fire’s location through a reconnaissance of the building and examination for visual indicators of the fire’s location. The officer may also use the following methods to identify the location for the roof vent: • Communicate with fire attack to ascertain the fire’s location; • Use a thermal imaging camera or heat gun, when available; • Look for signs of heat, like bubbling tar, or melting snow and ice; and • Look for smoke migration patterns on the roof’s surface Once the decision is made to create a vent opening in a roof, the hole cut for the vent should be appropriate to the situation and should not cause the roof to destabilize. A rectangular hole of approximately 2.4 by 2.4 metres is a generally accepted size.

39 Roof Operations for Type III Flat Roofs (continued)
After the hole is cut and the interior ceiling area has been breached, fire personnel should monitor the effectiveness of the vents through visual observation and by liaising with fire attack.

40 Trench Cutting Procedure
Trench cutting is used when fighting fires in Type III structures to prevent fire spread in a cockloft area. Trench cutting is a commonly used roof evolution when fighting fires in Type III structures. After the roof sector officer determines the roof is safe to conduct roof operations, the following sequence of cuts should be performed. 1. Cut a 2.4 by 2.4 meter (8’ x 8’) main vent hole directly over the fire compartment. 2. Cut observation holes to find the best location for the trench cut. 3. Cut a 0.9 meter-wide (3’) trench the entire width of the roof. On long roofs, this should be done on either side of the fire.

41 trench is removed and hose lines directed to prevent fire spread.
Once the trench has been cut, the decking can be left in place to avoid drawing any products of combustion toward the trench cut. If the fire has taken hold in the cockloft, the decking in the trench is removed and hose lines directed to prevent fire spread. Only when interior fire attack companies are in a place of safety are hose lines to be directed into the cockloft from the exterior. Firefighters assigned to roof operations should never place themselves in a position between a vent and a trench cut. Additionally firefighters working on a roof must never allow the fire to get between them and their means of egress.

42 Ground Ladder Considerations
At every structure fire, ground ladders are to be placed strategically on all sides of the building and to service floors where fire personnel are conducting fire operations. Unless a ground ladder is being positioned for a Rapid Intervention Team (RIT), it should be placed at a 70°angle. These ladders should be placed in such a manner as to enable fire personnel to safely and quickly leave the building under extreme fire conditions. Fire personnel should avoid placing ladders against masonry walls that are showing signs of structural stress. Fire personnel should understand the exact purpose for the deployment and placement of any ground ladders. This understanding will enable them to work as a team and maximize their efficiency with regards to the tip’s location.

43 Sectors

44 Fire Control The fire control sector officer directs companies in the Hot Zone to perform search, rescue, ventilation and fire suppression.

45 RIT The RIT should be staged in a shaded area with SCBA on and turnout clothing open during hot humid weather and sheltered as close to the scene as possible during cold weather. Equipment on the RIT tarp shall be for the exclusive use of the RIT. A dedicated hose line shall also be in place • An initial or interim RIT shall be comprised of at least one (1) Officer/Crew Leader and one (1) firefighter. • A dedicated RIT shall be comprised of one (1) Officer/Crew Leader and three (3) firefighters. The Rapid Intervention Team shall: • Report to Command • Bring Accountability tags forward to Phase 1, 2 or 3 Accountability as required. • Size-up the structure. • Monitor radio frequencies for crew locations. • Monitor radio frequencies for firefighter distress calls. • Remain in a state of readiness until activated by Command. • Place the contents of the RIT Kit and other required equipment on the RIT tarp and check off against the inventory sheet. • Identify RIT designated hose lines. • Ready the rope bag. • Ready the “RIT Portable Air Supply” by inspecting and testing. • Ensure the air supply of any Member that the RIT assists is continually monitored and maintained until this Member is removed from the hot zone.

46 Water Supply During a fire, the water supply sector officer is responsible to manage the supply pump, tankers and the fill site. For each non-hydrant area incident, where a continuous and reliable water supply is required, a Water Supply Sector Officer shall be assigned within the Incident Management System. Water Supply Sector Officers shall: • Establish water supply area(s) at an incident. • Establish water fill site location(s). • Direct Tankers to supply, staging and fill site(s)/area. • Maintain communication with Command, all responding Tankers and Fill Site(s). • Remain positioned at water supply area and wear identifying vest. SOP FI Water Supply for Non-Hydrant Areas -- Revised

47 Initial arriving Crews shall operate under Phase I
Accountability Initial arriving Crews shall operate under Phase I A minor incident escalates, or initial size-up indicates the safety and accountability of personnel is beyond the span of control of Command, Phase II shall be established and an accountability officer designated. Accountability Officers shall: • Obtain the vehicle passports of crews at their location. • Don a vest and establish an accountability location near the command post location, if possible. • Assemble vehicle passports and individual tags on the initial accountability board or the Chief’s accountability case as required, and ensure all on scene personnel are accounted for. • Record all crew assignments and locations. • Assume the responsibilities of entry control if not already assigned. • Co-ordinate the activities of entry control personnel. • Conduct a PAR when requested by Command. If going directly to an emergency scene, Members shall report immediately to Command for assignment. NOTE: At a major incident, Members may expect to report to staging rather than Command. Once assigned, Members shall tag-on to a vehicle passport or accountability board as applicable. These Members shall either: • Be accounted for and assigned to a specific vehicle at the scene, or, • Be accounted for and assigned directly to a workgroup at the scene.

48 Staging Staging refers to the use of a temporary stopping place where resources can be assembled before they are engaged in the incident. Staging sector shall be located away from accountability and command. Preferably off the road in a shaded (summer) or warm (winter) area. The staging officer shall organize crews in the rural area into working groups ready for assignment. The staging officer shall notify command when a lack of personnel is imminent. Crews in staging shall be ready for deployment. SOP FI Incident Management System – Revised

49 Rehab Personnel operating at an emergency scene or training exercise shall be sent to the Rehab Sector after using two air cylinders, or after 30 – 45 minutes of exertion. In extreme weather conditions, shorter times shall be considered. SOP SA REV The Rehab Sector Officer shall: • Don the Rehab Officer vest. • Ensure that the Rehab Sector is established in a location that will provide shade and cooling in the summer months and protection from the weather in the winter months. • Ensure that the Rehab Sector location is established away from the incident in a location where personnel can remove their personal protective and equipment and have their vital signs checked if required. • Meet with Paramedic personnel and bring them to the Rehab location as they arrive on scene. • Ensure that personnel have access to fluids, medical evaluation, toilet facilities and food as required. • Ensure that the flow of personnel into and out of the Rehab Sector is coordinated and recorded. • Ensure personnel are provided with a means to be actively cooled when required • Maintain accountability for personnel assigned to the Rehab Sector. • Monitor Crews assigned to Rehab and ensure that personnel receive a minimum of 15 – 20 minutes rest before being re-assigned. • Remain within the Rehab Sector and be responsible for all activities in the Rehab Sector. • Inform the Command whenever a member requires transportation and treatment at a medical facility. • Maintain a list of crews assigned to Rehab and crews that are available for reassignment at small incidents where a formalized Staging Sector has not been established. • Ensure that their crew is properly checked-in with the Rehab Sector Officer.

50 Special Considerations

51 Different detached Type III single-family residences and rooming houses can look similar from the exterior, but have dissimilar interior floor configurations. In the case of rooming houses, many have been converted from single-family use to multi-residential use. This means that dining rooms, living rooms, and basements have been modified for use as bedroom space. Some Type III buildings have been segmented into duplexes, triplexes, and rooming houses. Firefighters can expect to find a wide spectrum of buildings in various states of physical upkeep. The outside appearance of a structure can indicate interior conditions. If the exterior looks in poor condition, then inside there may be breaches in the walls between units, alarm systems in disrepair, and so on.

52 Group Homes, Halfway Houses, and Shelters
Under maximum occupancy loading, the rescue and evacuation requirements may prove overwhelming for the first arriving companies. Group homes will also require increased resources for the response because occupants may be mentally and physically disabled.

53 Fires in Type III row houses have the potential to
Row Housing Fires in Type III row houses have the potential to last a very long time and typically require significant commitments of human and physical resources. A classic design groups every two units, which mirror one another with entrance doors and interior staircases side by side. Most configurations have a staircase leading to the second floor in front and to the side of the main entrance. The stairs to the cellar or basement might be under the second floor staircase or off the kitchen at the back. Typically, the kitchen is located at the back of the house, with a back door entrance leading off a small wood porch.

54 High Type III Multi‐Residential Buildings
These buildings can be quite large and are generally between three to six storeys in height, with some even taller. High Type III buildings are multi-storey and are typically older hotels, office buildings, or apartment buildings. These buildings tend to have moderate to good compartmentation, which helps limit fire extension. Because of their limited height and size, high buildings can provide for efficient horizontal and vertical ventilation with minimal stack effect. These buildings have different designs with narrow hallways and stairwells that are accessed in the centre rather than the ends of the halls. Many high Type III residential buildings have fire escapes. Fire escapes provide a secondary means of egress and can be accessed either from the end of a hallway or through individual units. The presence of a fire escape indicates that there is only one interior staircase.

55 Modified Type III Buildings
Because of their age and location, many Type III buildings have been renovated to perform a completely different purpose from what they were originally constructed to perform. This building could be more accurately described as being a “hybrid” as it combines elements of pre-code construction with new performance-based construction.

56 Abandoned Type III Buildings
One of the primary questions is whether the Incident Commander decides to undertake primary search activities. Fires in abandoned buildings may be caused by several sources like workers preparing the building for demolition or homeless people burning combustible materials in an effort to stay warm. Abandoned and boarded up Type III buildings present a host of dangerous challenges for fire personnel. Any decision to perform an interior search in an abandoned building should take into account the following considerations: • Is it likely there are victims inside the building? • How long has the building been abandoned? • Time of day? • Could there be workers performing renovation or demolition? • Weather conditions? • Do homeless people use the building for shelter in cold weather? • Have the utilities to the building been disconnected? • Have the doors and windows been breached by third-party forced entry? • Do pre-fire plans indicate that indigents regularly inhabit the structure? • Is the building associated with criminal activity or drug-related activities? • Are there exposure issues? • What is the size and location of the fire? • What are the collapse zone hazards? • What resources are available? • Is the building accessible for ladders? These are all considerations that the Incident Commander must ponder before committing to any course of action that might place his or her companies in jeopardy for a structure that may be worthless and that does not contain valuables. The Incident Commander will also have to analyze the buildings structural integrity as part of developing the incident action plan. In many abandoned structures, walls have been breached and doors have been removed. A fire that is fully developed will travel within minutes in the void spaces and degrade the structure’s load bearing elements quickly. However, one advantage is that these structures tend to have a limited fire load, which may result in reduced heat release rates.

57 for responding to fires in them.
Summary This chapter has explained the characteristics of Type III buildings and some general principles for responding to fires in them. It has provided more detail about the tactics used in fighting fires in Type III structures, with a special section on flat roof operations.

58 Questions?

59 Evaluation

60 Type III construction is also known as?
Question #1 Type III construction is also known as? Ordinary construction or Main street construction

61 Name the three types of collapse.
Question #2 Name the three types of collapse. 90 Degree-Angle Curtain-Fall Collapse Inward-Outward Collapse

62 Question #3 Explain the importance of coordination between Fire attack and Ventilation Increases visibility Permits quicker entry and advancement Minimizes time it takes to find seat of fire Minimizes time it takes to find fire spread Reduces chance of flashover or Backdraft

63 The Rapid Intervention Team shall:
Question #4 The Rapid Intervention Team shall: The Rapid Intervention Team shall: • Report to Command • Bring Accountability tags forward to Phase 1, 2 or 3 Accountability as required. • Size-up the structure. • Monitor radio frequencies for crew locations. • Monitor radio frequencies for firefighter distress calls. • Remain in a state of readiness until activated by Command. • Place the contents of the RIT Kit and other required equipment on the RIT tarp and check off against the inventory sheet. • Identify RIT designated hose lines. • Ready the rope bag. • Ready the “RIT Portable Air Supply” by inspecting and testing. • Ensure the air supply of any Member that the RIT assists is continually monitored and maintained until this Member is removed from the hot zone.

64 What considerations should be taken into account?
Question #5 In abandoned buildings, one of the primary questions is whether the Incident Commander decides to undertake primary search activities. What considerations should be taken into account? Any decision to perform an interior search in an abandoned building should take into account the following considerations: • Is it likely there are victims inside the building? • How long has the building been abandoned? • Time of day? • Could there be workers performing renovation or demolition? • Weather conditions? • Do homeless people use the building for shelter in cold weather? • Have the utilities to the building been disconnected? • Have the doors and windows been breached by third-party forced entry? • Do pre-fire plans indicate that indigents regularly inhabit the structure? • Is the building associated with criminal activity or drug-related activities? • Are there exposure issues? • What is the size and location of the fire? • What are the collapse zone hazards? • What resources are available? • Is the building accessible for ladders?


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