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Unit 2A – Demand and Supply Price Controls & Consumer Surplus.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 2A – Demand and Supply Price Controls & Consumer Surplus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 2A – Demand and Supply Price Controls & Consumer Surplus

2 P Q 0 Price Ceilings: The government sets a maximum price. It is only an effective price ceiling if it is set below equilibrium price. S D Pe Qe Effective price ceilings appear at the bottom of the graph (below equilibrium price). Pc

3 P Q 0 Price Ceilings: What is the immediate effect of a price ceiling? S D Pe Qe Shortages Qc Pc Effective price ceilings appear at the bottom of the graph (below equilibrium price).

4 P Q 0 Price Ceilings: What are the long term effects of a price ceiling? S D Pe Shortages Rationing Problem Black Markets Suppliers allocate too few resources to the product. Market doesnt achieve allocative efficiency. Examples. QeQc Pc

5 P Q 0 Price Floors: The government sets a minimum price. It is only an effective price floor if it is set above equilibrium price. S D Pe Qe Effective price floors appear at the top of the graph (above equilibrium price). Pf

6 P Q 0 Price Floors: What is the immediate effect of a price floor? S D Pe Qe Surpluses Qf Pf Effective price floors appear at the top of the graph (above equilibrium price).

7 P Q 0 Price Floors: What are the long term effects of a price floor? S D Pe Qe Surpluses Qf Pf Govt. needs to do something with the surplus. Taxpayers end up paying for it. Suppliers allocate too many resources to the product. Market doesnt achieve allocative efficiency. Examples.

8 P Q 0 Quantity Controls: The government sets a maximum quantity or quota. An effective quantity control must be less than equilibrium quantity. S D Pe Qe Effective quantity controls appear at the left of the graph (below equilibrium quantity).

9 P Q 0 Consumer Surplus: the difference between the amount consumers were willing to pay for a product and the amount they had to pay (the price). S D Pe Qe Consumer Surplus To find consumer surplus on a graph, look for the area above the price, and below the demand curve.

10 P Q 0 Producer Surplus: the difference between the amount producers were willing to sell the product for and the amount the actually got (the price). S D Pe Qe Producer Surplus To find producer surplus on a graph, look for the area below the price, and above the supply curve.

11 P Q 0 Total Surplus: is equal to consumer surplus plus producer surplus. S D Pe Qe Consumer Surplus + Producer Surplus = Total Surplus

12 P Q 0 Notice: Last thought on consumer and producer surplus: they dont have to be equal. It depends on the slope of the demand and supply curves. S D Pe Qe Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus

13 P Q 0 Notice: Last thought on consumer and producer surplus: they dont have to be equal. It depends on the slope of the demand and supply curves. S D Pe Qe Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus

14 P Q 0 Notice: Price Ceilings take away from total surplus. (mostly from producer surplus, which makes sense). S D Pe Qe Pc Qc This area of lost surplus is called deadweight loss. It represents mutually beneficial transactions that buyers and sellers would like to have made, but could not.

15 P Q 0 Notice: Price floors take away from total surplus. S D Pe Qe Pf Qf This area of lost surplus is called deadweight loss. It represents transactions that buyers would not voluntarily make, but happened anyway. Total surplus is now the green and orange triangles minus the red one.

16 P Q 0 Notice: Quotas also take a away from total surplus and cause deadweight loss. S D Pe Qe Qc

17 Price Quantity of Textbooks S $ D

18 What do you need to do? - Make sure you have read Ch. 3 and the Ch. 3 Web packet in their entirety. - As you read, write down any questions that you have. Anything that doesnt make sense, you have to try to figure out, or you have to ask about in class the next day. - Do the assigned study questions. We dont usually review them. Sometimes I dont talk about the exact same things, but I am assuming you understand them and the concepts behind them.


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