Presentation on theme: "Ch. 6: Markets in Action. Price ceiling and inefficiencies."— Presentation transcript:
1Ch. 6: Markets in Action. Price ceiling and inefficiencies. Price floors (minimum wage) and inefficiency.Taxes and inefficiencies
2The effect of price ceilings. Price ceiling is a maximum price.“binding” only if ceiling is below equilibrium price.binding price ceiling causes a shortage.
3SR & LR effects without price ceiling Suppose equilibrium price of gasoline is $4 and a hurricane destroys numerous refineries. Examine SR & LR effects on price and quantity.S$4D
4Compare outcomes with and without a price ceiling at $4 ShortageEffect on consumer’s surplusEffect on producer’s surplusDeadweight lossBlack markets, search costs, enforcement costsS$4S-LRDMillions of gallons per day
5The effect of price floors A price floor is a minimum pricebinding only if it is set above the equilibrium pricebinding price floor creates a surplus.
6Minimum Wage Is a price floor on labor. Why is there a minimum wage? Would a higher minimum wage make workers better off?Efficiency versus equity
7The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage Minimum wage isa price floor.Price floor is “binding” only if it is above equilibrium price.
8The Labor Market and the Minimum Wage A “binding” price floorreduces consumer (employer) surplusCould increase or decrease producer (employee) surplusCreates a deadweight lossDestroys some of the producer surplus (employee) through search activity.
9The Effect of Price Floors In general, a “binding” price floor will result in:a. Buyers (employers) are worse offb. Sellers (employees) could be better or worse off.c. A deadweight loss.
10TaxesTax Incidencethe division of the burden of a tax between the buyer and the seller.When an item is taxed, its price might rise by the full amount of the tax, by a lesser amount, or not at all.If the price rises by the full amount of the tax, the buyer pays the tax.If the price rises by a lesser amount than the tax, the buyer and seller share the burden of the tax.If the price doesn’t rise at all, the seller pays the tax.
11Taxes Tax Incidence Tax incidence doesn’t depend on tax law. The law might impose a tax on the buyer or the seller, but the outcome will be the same.Example: On July 1, 2002, Mayor Bloomberg upped the cigarette tax in New York City from almost nothing to $1.50 a pack.
14Taxes A Tax on Buyers Tax incidence: suppose that buyers, not sellers, are taxed $1.50 a pack.Tax incidence:Buyer: $1Seller: $.50
15Tax Division and Elasticity of Demand The more inelastic the demand, the larger is the buyers’ share of the tax.
16TaxesThe more elastic the supply, the larger is the buyers’ share of the tax.
17Taxes Taxes in Practice Taxes usually are levied on goods and services with an inelastic demand or an inelastic supply.Alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline have inelastic demand, so the buyers of these items pay most of the tax on them.Labor has a low elasticity of supply, so the seller—the worker—pays most of the income tax and most of the Social Security tax.
18TaxesTaxes create allocative inefficiency unless S or D is perfectly inelastic.What’s effect of tax onConsumer surplusProducer surplusTax revenueDeadweight lossExcess burden of taxreduction in consumer & producer surplus minus tax revenueIdentical to deadweight loss
19Subsidies and QuotasFluctuations in the weather bring big fluctuations in farm output.How do changes in farm output affect the prices of farm products and farm revenues?How might farmers be helped by intervention in markets for farm products?
20Stabilizing Farm Revenues A poor harvest decreases supply.Effect on total revenue?higher pricelower quantityHow would answer change if demand were elastic?
21Stabilizing Farm Revenues A large harvest increases supply.Effect on total revenue?Lower priceHigher quantityHow would answer change if demand were elastic?
22Stabilizing Farm Revenues Intervention in markets for farm products takes two main forms:Subsidiesa payment made by the government to a producer that’s in addition to market price received.Production quotasan upper limit on the quantity of a good that may be produced during a specified period.
23Subsidies Effect of $20 subsidy Equilibrium quantity Equilibrium price Consumer surplusProducer surplusCost to taxpayersDeadweight loss
24Quotas Maximum production allowed. Binding only if below equil quantitylimits total production to 40 million tons a year.Effect onPriceConsumer’s surplusProducer’s surplusDeadweight lossPrice of license