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Fire Fighter I Fire Control-Lesson One

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1 Fire Fighter I Fire Control-Lesson One
There is to be a designated safety officer at all fire control practical's. 1. Discuss the need for size-up procedures on vehicle emergencies. a) Proper types of barrier devices i) Fire line tape ii)Traffic cones iii)Utility rope Re-illustrate the importance of the Line by Line comparison process on the Lesson Plans as well.

2 Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three
TERMINAL OBJECTIVE The Firefighter II candidate shall correctly define in writing the different material used in lightweight construction as well as identify lightweight construction components, describe their reaction to fire and truss locations found in structures. ENABLING OBJECTIVES The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight construction. The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight structural components to fire. The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can be found in structures. Discuss this new Lesson plan and how it is now of critical importance.

3 Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three
ENABLING OBJECTIVE#1 The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight construction. Define the term “Truss construction.” Discuss “surface to mass ratio.” Discuss “Open web steel joists.” Discuss “Wood trusses.” Point out the different types of trusses. Label the different parts of a truss.

4 Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three
Point out the difference between a steel truss and a wood truss. Discuss the function of gusset plates to wooden trusses. Define the term “Engineered wood structural member.” Define the term “Plywood.” Define the term “Oriented Strand Board.” Discuss compression and tension forces as it relates to truss construction.

5 Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three
ENABLING OBJECTIVE#2 The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight structural components to fire. Discuss the statement – “Our trusses are engineered.” Discuss hazards associated with a “truss void.” Discuss the fire characteristics of steel trusses. Discuss the fire characteristics of wood trusses. Discuss the fire characteristics of wooden I beams.

6 Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three
ENABLING OBJECTIVE# 3 The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can be found in structures. Discuss floor trusses and the problems associated with them. Discuss roof trusses and the problems associated with them.

7 Fire Fighter II Fire Behavior Lesson Two
ENABLING OBJECTIVE #3 The Fire Fighter II candidate shall correctly describe in writing why recognizing observations in reading smoke and the warning signs of hostile fire events is important. 1. Explain why reading smoke is important to evaluating the fires position within a building. 2. Explain how evaluating the volume of smoke assists in the understanding of the amount of fuel that is off-gassing in a given space. 3. Explain that the velocity of smoke is an indicator of pressure. 4. Describe the two things that can create smoke pressure. a. Heat b. Restricting the volume of smoke within a container Ask if anyone in the class has heard of “The ART OF READING SMOKE” by DAVE DODSON, this new lesson is based on his work.

8 Fire Fighter II Fire Behavior Lesson Two
5. Explain how smoke thickens. 6. Discuss the fact that the greater the smoke density, the more likely a hostile fire event can occur. 7. Explain that the color of smoke will only indicate the type of burning material in a single-fuel fire. Point out that smoke can tell the Fire Fighter which stage of burning is taking place. APPLICATION Divide the class up into suitable size work groups 3-5 candidates. Show them pictures of different fire scenarios and have them evaluate the smoke conditions. Assist them in recognizing the volume, velocity, density, and color of smoke for each picture.

9 Reading Smoke

10 Why “Read” Smoke? To determine “HOW MUCH” fire

11 To help find the LOCATION of the fire
Why “Read” Smoke? To help find the LOCATION of the fire

12 Why “Read” Smoke? To help predict COLLAPSE potential

13 Why “Read” Smoke? To help PRIORITIZE Strategies & Tactics

14 Why “Read” Smoke? To PROTECT Firefighters from a “HOSTILE FIRE EVENT”
Flashover Back Draft Smoke Explosion Auto Ignition Rapid Fire Spread

15 The “ADVANCED” Basics What is “Smoke”? Aerosols Gases Particles

16 Solid Particles Carbon Dust Other fibers

17 Aerosols Hydrocarbons Oil Tar

18 Fire Gases Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Cyanide Acrolein Hydrogen Sulfide

19 Smoke is FUEL!!! Additional Products of Combustion: Water Vapor
Unburned Particles Carbon Dioxide

20 Flashpoint and Auto Ignition Temperatures
Carbon Monoxide F Hydrogen Cyanide 0 F 538 F Acrolein F 428 F Hydrogen Sulfide F Benzene 12 F 928 F As you discuss these temperatures, illustrate that the temperatures in the structure fires we encounter today are all much higher that the temperatures indicated here; therefore if smoke is fuel then we have the heat and the fuel for ignition, all we need now is enough air and we get flame. I use the general knowledge of the research that DOI has conducted over the years to emphasize the temp.s.

21 Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrogen Cyanide is more prevalent now than ever before due to the increased use of synthetics. It attacks our bodies through Oral inhalation as well as Occular and Dermal absorption. It is more lethal than CO and is more difficult to test for toxicity levels. It is suspected of contibuting to the many of the FF Fatalities in the past originally thought to CO induced. Point out that HCN has an extremely short half life in the blood stream and CO has a long half life, it is lethal even when only absorbed through the skin; 30 times more lethal than CO. Today’s state of the art turnout gear does not adequately protect the FF from HCN. SCBA can eliminate the inhalation hazard but our best bunker gear is not designed to protect from absorption. With the short half life of HCN, is difficult to test for in autopsy and the test is complex.

22 LAYERS Fuel – UEL and LEL Reaction- Oxygen-Fuel effect
Ceiling layer- High fuel/Low Oxygen Floor Layer- High Oxygen/Low Fuel They meet at the reaction layer Oxygen – Deficient or Enriched Point out the layering effect of smoke and heat and relate the survivability of the environment.

23 The “ADVANCED” Basics What relationship does mass & density have on fuels? Fuels are Synthetic now Fuels have LESS MASS – they off-gas quicker! From this point on, discuss the Art of Reading Smoke slides as we would in our upgrade. You will run out of time long before you complete the presentation, it is open ended. Remember that you only have 2 and one half hours to deliver the class presentation in total, you will need 75 minites for the test. That makes 3 hours 15 minutes and you will have 2 to 3 breaks.

24 Building Construction Factors
Contents Size Ventilation Fire protection systems


26 Construction Type Insulation Condition Heat Flux

27 Lightweight Construction

28 Lightweight Construction
Glu-Lam Finger-Joint

29 Lightweight Construction

30 Lightweight Construction
Wood Truss

31 Gusset Plates

32 How Wood Burns • As the surface temperature of wood increases due to fire exposure, flammable vapors are produced and a char layer (burnt wood) is formed on the external surfaces. • In the presence of fire, these flammable vapors ignite and contribute to the fire. • As the char layer gets thicker, it insulates the remaining unburned wood and slows the rate of vapor production, thereby slowing the charring process



35 Links American Forest & Paper Association- Southern Building Components Association

36 Contents Type of fuel load Size / Amount 36

37 Construction and Contents
Homeowners “padding” their homes: Plusher carpet Elaborate curtain & drapes More / heavier furniture Comfort accessories “Bed, Bath & Beyond” 37

38 Increasing use of synthetic materials Tighter construction
Better insulation Modern construction materials Double/triple pane EE windows

39 Size Area Height Configuration 39

40 Ventilation Volume Distance Type Influences fire spread 40

41 Fire Protection Systems
HVAC Sprinklers Standpipes 41

42 “Modern” Structure Fire
Ceiling temps have increased from 1300 to 1600 degrees BTU production > 18,000 (more than doubled)

43 What Does this Mean For Us?
Doesn’t necessarily change our tactics… Does accelerate our tactical time frame at an incident...

44 The “ADVANCED” Basics How does “flammable range” factor in?

45 Flammable Range & the Three Fires
Too Rich . . . Too Lean . . . Just Right . . .

46 The “ADVANCED” Basics To Read Smoke – you must be able to:
Determine the stage of burning (early, growing, late) Tell if the Fire is in Thermal Balance (smoke up and out, fresh air in). Find out if the “box” is absorbing heat or not (Linear vs. Turbulent Smoke Flow)

47 “ HOSTILE ”Fire Events Flashover Back draft Smoke Explosion
Rapid Fire Spread Auto Ignition

48 FLASHOVER Fuel mass/box is heat saturated
Reflective radiant heat intensifies Simultaneous ignition of fuels Warning Signs: Turbulent smoke, Rollover, Auto-Ignition Flashover of one box means what?

49 Flashover Transition or event that occurs between the incipient and fully developed phases of fire All surfaces that are exposed ignite at once 49

50 BACKDRAFT Introduction of oxygen to an environment that is:
Heated past fuel ignition temps Usually confined or restricted Pressurized with gases Capable of sustained burning Warning Signs: Ugly Yellow/grey smoke, Smoke leaving cracks under pressure, black-stained windows Note: Puffing is NOT a good warning sign( a pressurized container must vent before it can suck!)

51 SMOKE EXPLOSION A pocket of gas that has reached an ignitable mixture - but not enough energy to sustain ignition Ignition of this pocket is a spark or flame – which then causes an “explosive” surge of pressure Usually no resulting fire - but increased chance of fire spread (container breach?) Ceiling spaces and vaulted ceilings are candidates for smoke explosions

52 RAPID Fire Spread Usually “Container” Influenced – especially stairs and hallways Fuel is continuous and available to burn Especially “volatile” fuel causes the spread – usually smoke-cloud ignition Thermal Balance exists Usually results from another “event”

53 AUTO IGNITION Typically used to describe the ignition of fuels AFTER they leave the box Primarily a WARNING SIGN Exposure Threat: Other parts of building Other Buildings Firefighters

54 “ Reading Smoke” Observations are typically made from outside - inside observations hide the “real” picture.

55 Size Up Outside Inside Fire attack crews IC Safety SAR crews RIT
Backup Inside Fire attack crews SAR crews Salvage crews 55

56 Before you “ Read Smoke”
RULES: Nothing is absolute Visible FIRE is easy to read - look past it for the real story Compare all Openings/Cracks

57 The ART of Reading Smoke
A 4-STEP PROCESS to help predict fire behavior and hostile events

58 Step 1: Evaluate Key Factors
Volume = Fullness of Box Velocity (Pressure) = Heat, Volume, and Distance to fire Density = Quality of burning – likelihood of “event” Color = Stage of Heating, Distance, amount of “flaming”

59 Characteristics of Smoke
Velocity Color Volume Density Air Track 59

60 Smoke Velocity May be an indicator of pressure inside the container
Pressure may be caused by heat or volume 60

61 Smoke Velocity If the velocity or pressure is a result of heat, the smoke will rise and loose velocity. If the velocity or pressure is a result of volume, the smoke will loose velocity but also maintain a neutral buoyancy. 61

62 Smoke Velocity Turbulent smoke is a potential
indicator of the container not being able to absorb more heat. Laminar smoke is a potential indicator of the container still being able to absorb heat. 62

63 Smoke Velocity Smoke will become slower as distance from the seat of the fire increases. To locate the seat of the fire, compare smoke coming from several opening and determine which has the most turbulent smoke coming from the smallest opening 63

64 Smoke Color Heavy/light is an insufficient description
The department should have predetermined descriptions of smoke conditions in place in SOP’s 64

65 Smoke Color Darker- Hydrocarbon fuels
White- Incipient fire or great distance from the seat Grey/yellow- Ordinary combustibles Brown- Wood at or near ignition temperature possibly involving structural components 65

66 Smoke Color Light colored smoke may have large amounts of unburned fuel and may have travel some distance picking up moisture and depositing carbon. Dark smoke often indicates an under ventilated fire or hydrocarbon fuels. 66

67 Smoke Volume May relate to amount of fuel May relate to pressure
Best as an indicator when coupled with other indicators Ventilation controlled fires that near the smoldering stage may produce larger quantities of smoke. Indicator of degree or location of fire. 67

68 Smoke Density May result from amount of fuel in the smoke
Heavy/light description is inadequate 68

69 Optical Density Refers to how well you can see through the smoke.
Optically dense smoke may contain high concentrations of particulate matter. Often described as having the appearance of velvet. Relates to the fuel and degree of ventilation. 69

70 Physical Density Refers to the buoyancy of the smoke.
The higher the higher the density, the lower the temperature and pressure, the smoke sinks. The lower the density, the higher the temperature and pressure, the smoke will rise. 70

71 Pay Attention to Changes
Any significant change over a 5 second period may indicate a hostile fire event or loss of structural integrity. 71

72 Pay Attention to Changes
Sudden rise in hot gas layer Ventilation from outside crews Self ventilation 72

73 Pay Attention to Changes
Sudden lowering of the hot gas layer Worsening condition Impending flashover Rapid fire progression Water application Excessive Inappropriate 73

74 Heat Not typically visible Must observe its effects 74

75 Air Track Direction of smoke Direction of fresh air 75

76 Direction of Smoke Heated gases will move up and out from the fire
Often predicts the path of fire spread Pay attention to the height of the hot gas layer (Thickness) 76

77 Tricks When making entry-look at the direction of the smoke and the fresh air. Always carry a light and observe the direction of the smoke and the fresh air.

78 Air Track Size of opening Temperature Laminar Turbulent 78

79 Air Track Neutral plane Movement of the hot gas layer
Charles’ law: as the temperature of a gas increases it will expand becoming less dense and more buoyant Gay-Lussac’s law: when the volume of gas remains constant and the temperature increases, pressure increases Movement of the hot gas layer Up or down 79

80 Air Track Neutral Plane
The plane that is formed between the hot air layer (top) and the cool air or oxygen layer (Bottom). The hot air layer typically moves outward away from the seat of the fire and towards the ventilation point. The cool air typically moves inward towards the seat of the fire. 80

81 Neutral Plane 81

82 Visible Flames Most obvious indicator
Often the latest indicator to develop 82

83 High V.V.D.C. = “BLACK FIRE”
“Black Fire” is the term we give to High Volume, High Velocity, Extremely Dense, Black Smoke. It is the sure sign of impending flashover – VENT & COOL are your only choices.

84 Black Fire Is there a chance of survival in a compartment that is producing black turbulent smoke? Are rescue efforts feasible?

85 160 Degrees The maximum survivable (wet) temperature

86 Step 2: Weigh Factors Container (most important factor)
Thermal Balance Weather Firefighting efforts Other factors?

87 Step 3: Judge the Fire Status
Are conditions getting better or worse?

88 Classify the Fire: Stable -predictable Rapidly changing -predictable



91 Step 4: Predict the EVENT
Consider that: One hostile event can - and usually will - lead to another event. Communicate your observations. Warning Signs are not always visual – use your KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCE. TRUST YOUR INSTINCTS…

92 Some other “Tricks” When you open a door or window - watch what the smoke does…and what THE FRESH AIR DOES!


94 Some other “Tricks” In poor visibility - watch the smoke in front of your light - it will give you some clues

95 Some other “Tricks” A 5-second change in any key factor means an event has taken place – the key is to define what event has taken place and to forecast what will likely happen next.

96 “You should expect fire on every run.”
“The garbage man doesn’t get excited when he turns the corner and sees trash, and you shouldn’t get excited when you turn the corner and see fire.” “You should expect fire on every run.” -Lt A. Fredericks

97 Special Thanks to David Dodson
With less fires - this ART could be lost… take the lesson… pass it on. David Dodson

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