Presentation on theme: "Fire Fighter I Fire Control-Lesson One"— Presentation transcript:
1Fire Fighter I Fire Control-Lesson One There is to be a designated safety officer at all fire control practical's.1. Discuss the need for size-up procedures on vehicle emergencies.a) Proper types of barrier devicesi) Fire line tapeii)Traffic conesiii)Utility ropeRe-illustrate the importance of the Line by Line comparison process on the Lesson Plans as well.
2Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three TERMINAL OBJECTIVEThe Firefighter II candidate shall correctly define in writing the different material used in lightweight construction as well as identify lightweight construction components, describe their reaction to fire and truss locations found in structures.ENABLING OBJECTIVESThe Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight construction.The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight structural components to fire.The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can be found in structures.Discuss this new Lesson plan and how it is now of critical importance.
3Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three ENABLING OBJECTIVE#1The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, what is considered lightweight construction and the materials used in the components of lightweight construction.Define the term “Truss construction.”Discuss “surface to mass ratio.”Discuss “Open web steel joists.”Discuss “Wood trusses.”Point out the different types of trusses.Label the different parts of a truss.
4Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three Point out the difference between a steel truss and a wood truss.Discuss the function of gusset plates to wooden trusses.Define the term “Engineered wood structural member.”Define the term “Plywood.”Define the term “Oriented Strand Board.”Discuss compression and tension forces as it relates to truss construction.
5Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three ENABLING OBJECTIVE#2The Firefighter II candidate shall describe in writing, the reaction of lightweight structural components to fire.Discuss the statement – “Our trusses are engineered.”Discuss hazards associated with a “truss void.”Discuss the fire characteristics of steel trusses.Discuss the fire characteristics of wood trusses.Discuss the fire characteristics of wooden I beams.
6Fire Fighter II Building Construction Lesson Three ENABLING OBJECTIVE# 3The Firefighter II candidate shall identify in writing, the locations where trusses can be found in structures.Discuss floor trusses and the problems associated with them.Discuss roof trusses and the problems associated with them.
7Fire Fighter II Fire Behavior Lesson Two ENABLING OBJECTIVE #3 The Fire Fighter II candidate shall correctly describe in writing why recognizing observations in reading smoke and the warning signs of hostile fire events is important. 1. Explain why reading smoke is important to evaluating the fires position within a building. 2. Explain how evaluating the volume of smoke assists in the understanding of the amount of fuel that is off-gassing in a given space. 3. Explain that the velocity of smoke is an indicator of pressure. 4. Describe the two things that can create smoke pressure. a. Heat b. Restricting the volume of smoke within a containerAsk if anyone in the class has heard of “The ART OF READING SMOKE” by DAVE DODSON, this new lesson is based on his work.
8Fire Fighter II Fire Behavior Lesson Two 5. Explain how smoke thickens.6. Discuss the fact that the greater the smoke density, the more likely a hostile fire event can occur.7. Explain that the color of smoke will only indicate the type of burning material in a single-fuel fire.Point out that smoke can tell the Fire Fighter which stage of burning is taking place.APPLICATIONDivide the class up into suitable size work groups 3-5 candidates. Show them pictures of different fire scenarios and have them evaluate the smoke conditions. Assist them in recognizing the volume, velocity, density, and color of smoke for each picture.
19Smoke is FUEL!!! Additional Products of Combustion: Water Vapor Unburned ParticlesCarbon Dioxide
20Flashpoint and Auto Ignition Temperatures Carbon Monoxide FHydrogen Cyanide 0 F 538 FAcrolein F 428 FHydrogen Sulfide FBenzene 12 F 928 FAs you discuss these temperatures, illustrate that the temperatures in the structure fires we encounter today are all much higher that the temperatures indicated here; therefore if smoke is fuel then we have the heat and the fuel for ignition, all we need now is enough air and we get flame. I use the general knowledge of the research that DOI has conducted over the years to emphasize the temp.s.
21Hydrogen CyanideHydrogen Cyanide is more prevalent now than ever before due to the increased use of synthetics.It attacks our bodies through Oral inhalation as well as Occular and Dermal absorption. It is more lethal than CO and is more difficult to test for toxicity levels.It is suspected of contibuting to the many of the FF Fatalities in the past originally thought to CO induced.Point out that HCN has an extremely short half life in the blood stream and CO has a long half life, it is lethal even when only absorbed through the skin; 30 times more lethal than CO. Today’s state of the art turnout gear does not adequately protect the FF from HCN. SCBA can eliminate the inhalation hazard but our best bunker gear is not designed to protect from absorption. With the short half life of HCN, is difficult to test for in autopsy and the test is complex.
22LAYERS Fuel – UEL and LEL Reaction- Oxygen-Fuel effect Ceiling layer-High fuel/Low OxygenFloor Layer-High Oxygen/Low FuelThey meet at the reaction layerOxygen – Deficient or EnrichedPoint out the layering effect of smoke and heat and relate the survivability of the environment.
23The “ADVANCED” BasicsWhat relationship does mass & density have on fuels?Fuels are Synthetic nowFuels have LESS MASS – they off-gas quicker!From this point on, discuss the Art of Reading Smoke slides as we would in our upgrade. You will run out of time long before you complete the presentation, it is open ended. Remember that you only have 2 and one half hours to deliver the class presentation in total, you will need 75 minites for the test. That makes 3 hours 15 minutes and you will have 2 to 3 breaks.
24Building Construction Factors ContentsSizeVentilationFire protection systems
32How Wood Burns• As the surface temperature of wood increases due to fire exposure, flammable vapors are produced and a char layer (burnt wood) is formed on the external surfaces.• In the presence of fire, these flammable vapors ignite and contribute to the fire.• As the char layer gets thicker, it insulates the remaining unburned wood and slows the rate of vapor production, thereby slowing the charring process
40VentilationVolumeDistanceTypeInfluences fire spread40
41Fire Protection Systems HVACSprinklersStandpipes41
42“Modern” Structure Fire Ceiling temps have increased from 1300 to 1600 degreesBTU production > 18,000(more than doubled)
43What Does this Mean For Us? Doesn’t necessarily change our tactics…Does accelerate our tactical time frame at an incident...
44The “ADVANCED” BasicsHow does “flammable range” factor in?
45Flammable Range & the Three Fires Too Rich . . .Too Lean . . .Just Right . . .
46The “ADVANCED” Basics To Read Smoke – you must be able to: Determine the stage of burning (early, growing, late)Tell if the Fire is in Thermal Balance (smoke up and out, fresh air in).Find out if the “box” is absorbing heat or not (Linear vs. Turbulent Smoke Flow)
47“ HOSTILE ”Fire Events Flashover Back draft Smoke Explosion Rapid Fire SpreadAuto Ignition
48FLASHOVER Fuel mass/box is heat saturated Reflective radiant heat intensifiesSimultaneous ignition of fuelsWarning Signs: Turbulent smoke, Rollover, Auto-IgnitionFlashover of one box means what?
49FlashoverTransition or event that occurs between the incipient and fully developed phases of fireAll surfaces that are exposed ignite at once49
50BACKDRAFT Introduction of oxygen to an environment that is: Heated past fuel ignition tempsUsually confined or restrictedPressurized with gasesCapable of sustained burningWarning Signs: Ugly Yellow/grey smoke, Smoke leaving cracks under pressure, black-stained windowsNote: Puffing is NOT a good warning sign( a pressurized container must vent before it can suck!)
51SMOKE EXPLOSIONA pocket of gas that has reached an ignitable mixture - but not enough energy to sustain ignitionIgnition of this pocket is a spark or flame – which then causes an “explosive” surge of pressureUsually no resulting fire - but increased chance of fire spread (container breach?)Ceiling spaces and vaulted ceilings are candidates for smoke explosions
52RAPID Fire SpreadUsually “Container” Influenced – especially stairs and hallwaysFuel is continuous and available to burnEspecially “volatile” fuel causes the spread – usually smoke-cloud ignitionThermal Balance existsUsually results from another “event”
53AUTO IGNITIONTypically used to describe the ignition of fuels AFTER they leave the boxPrimarily a WARNING SIGNExposure Threat:Other parts of buildingOther BuildingsFirefighters
54“ Reading Smoke”Observations are typically made from outside - inside observations hide the “real” picture.
55Size Up Outside Inside Fire attack crews IC Safety SAR crews RIT BackupInsideFire attack crewsSAR crewsSalvage crews55
56Before you “ Read Smoke” RULES:Nothing is absoluteVisible FIRE is easy to read - look past it for the real storyCompare all Openings/Cracks
57The ART of Reading Smoke A 4-STEP PROCESS to help predict fire behavior and hostile events
58Step 1: Evaluate Key Factors Volume = Fullness of BoxVelocity (Pressure) = Heat, Volume, and Distance to fireDensity = Quality of burning – likelihood of “event”Color = Stage of Heating, Distance, amount of “flaming”
59Characteristics of Smoke VelocityColorVolumeDensityAir Track59
60Smoke Velocity May be an indicator of pressure inside the container Pressure may be caused by heat or volume60
61Smoke VelocityIf the velocity or pressure is a result of heat, the smoke will rise and loose velocity.If the velocity or pressure is a result of volume, the smoke will loose velocity but also maintain a neutral buoyancy.61
62Smoke Velocity Turbulent smoke is a potential indicator of the container notbeing able to absorb more heat.Laminar smoke is a potentialindicator of the container stillbeing able to absorb heat.62
63Smoke VelocitySmoke will become slower as distance from the seat of the fire increases.To locate the seat of the fire, compare smoke coming from several opening and determine which has the most turbulent smoke coming from the smallest opening63
64Smoke Color Heavy/light is an insufficient description The department should have predetermined descriptions of smoke conditions in place in SOP’s64
65Smoke Color Darker- Hydrocarbon fuels White- Incipient fire or great distance from the seatGrey/yellow- Ordinary combustiblesBrown- Wood at or near ignition temperature possibly involving structural components65
66Smoke ColorLight colored smoke may have large amounts of unburned fuel and may have travel some distance picking up moisture and depositing carbon.Dark smoke often indicates an under ventilated fire or hydrocarbon fuels.66
67Smoke Volume May relate to amount of fuel May relate to pressure Best as an indicator when coupled with other indicatorsVentilation controlled fires that nearthe smoldering stage may producelarger quantities of smoke.Indicator of degree or location offire.67
68Smoke Density May result from amount of fuel in the smoke Heavy/light description is inadequate68
69Optical Density Refers to how well you can see through the smoke. Optically dense smoke may contain high concentrations of particulate matter.Often described as havingthe appearance of velvet.Relates to the fuel and degreeof ventilation.69
70Physical Density Refers to the buoyancy of the smoke. The higher the higher the density, the lower the temperature and pressure, the smoke sinks.The lower the density, the higher the temperature and pressure, the smoke will rise.70
71Pay Attention to Changes Any significant change over a 5 second period may indicate a hostile fire event or loss of structural integrity.71
72Pay Attention to Changes Sudden rise in hot gas layerVentilation from outside crewsSelf ventilation72
73Pay Attention to Changes Sudden lowering of the hot gas layerWorsening conditionImpending flashoverRapid fire progressionWater applicationExcessiveInappropriate73
74HeatNot typically visibleMust observe its effects74
75Air TrackDirection of smokeDirection of fresh air75
76Direction of Smoke Heated gases will move up and out from the fire Often predicts the path of fire spreadPay attention to the height of the hot gas layer (Thickness)76
77TricksWhen making entry-look at the direction of the smoke and the fresh air. Always carry a light and observe the direction of the smoke and the fresh air.
78Air TrackSize of openingTemperatureLaminarTurbulent78
79Air Track Neutral plane Movement of the hot gas layer Charles’ law: as the temperature of a gas increases it will expand becoming less dense and more buoyantGay-Lussac’s law: when the volume of gas remains constant and the temperature increases, pressure increasesMovement of the hot gas layerUp or down79
80Air Track Neutral Plane The plane that is formed between the hot air layer (top) and the cool air or oxygen layer (Bottom).The hot air layer typically moves outward away from the seat of the fire and towards the ventilation point.The cool air typically moves inward towards the seat of the fire.80
82Visible Flames Most obvious indicator Often the latest indicator to develop82
83High V.V.D.C. = “BLACK FIRE” “Black Fire” is the term we give to High Volume, High Velocity, Extremely Dense, Black Smoke.It is the sure sign of impending flashover – VENT & COOL are your only choices.
84Black FireIs there a chance of survival in a compartment that is producing black turbulent smoke?Are rescue efforts feasible?
85160 DegreesThe maximum survivable (wet) temperature
91Step 4: Predict the EVENT Consider that:One hostile event can - and usually will - lead to another event.Communicate your observations.Warning Signs are not always visual – use your KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCE.TRUST YOUR INSTINCTS…
92Some other “Tricks”When you open a door or window - watch what the smoke does…and what THE FRESH AIR DOES!
94Some other “Tricks”In poor visibility - watch the smoke in front of your light - it will give you some clues
95Some other “Tricks”A 5-second change in any key factor means an event has taken place – the key is to define what event has taken place and to forecast what will likely happen next.
96“You should expect fire on every run.” “The garbage man doesn’t get excited when he turns the corner and sees trash, and you shouldn’t get excited when you turn the corner and see fire.”“You should expect fire on every run.”-Lt A. Fredericks
97Special Thanks to David Dodson With less fires - this ART could be lost…take the lesson…pass it on.David Dodson