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European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, 26-27 November 2009, Frascati, Italy Emission inventory reporting within Europe –

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Presentation on theme: "European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, 26-27 November 2009, Frascati, Italy Emission inventory reporting within Europe –"— Presentation transcript:

1 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Emission inventory reporting within Europe – status, future developments and requirements Martin Adams Air and Climate Change Programme European Environment Agency

2 GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Introduction EEA and GMES role Status of Europes legislative-based emission inventory data reporting Open questions – application of satellite & remote-sensing data to emissions inventory policy needs

3 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy European Environment Agency (EEA) The European Environment Agency is the EU body dedicated to providing sound, independent information on the environment. We are a main information source for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and for the general public. Member countries Cooperating countries

4 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy The EU GMES initiative and EEA EEA has the role of in-situ data co-ordinator; make use of services and federate user requirements; follow and steer GMES implementation and governance processes; provide certain elements of GMES services. In-situ data are indispensable for forecasting models, calibration and validation of space-based information, analysis or filling gaps not available from space sources, and providing necessary reference data

5 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Pre-operational GMES services GMES is now in a pre-operational phase, creating and delivering services for marine, land-monitoring, emergency response, security, and atmosphere on the basis of FP7 research projects: MACCMACC PASODOBLEPASODOBLE GEOLAND2 SAFER DORIS NESIS MYOCEAN EURO4M MONARCH-A CARBONES SAGA-EO

6 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Emission inventories in the DPSIR framework e.g. Legislation, promotion of clean technologies, environmental taxes, information campaigns that promote environmental measures e.g. use of public transport etc Impacts on health biodiversity loss economic damage etc Industry Transport Agriculture Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases S tate I mpacts R esponses P ressures D rivers Concentrations of pollutants in the air, water & soil

7 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Emission inventories - why? Source identification: identifying the activities responsible for emissions 1. Input for air quality research (i.e. environmental state & impacts) Serving as input for AQ modelling/forecasting at urban, regional, or global scales, to estimate effects on health and the environment based on current or projected GHG/AP emission scenarios

8 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Emission inventories - why? Source identification: identifying the activities responsible for emissions 2. Input for policy-makers ensuring that those responsible for implementing mitigation policies (i.e. countries, sectors) are complying with their obligations; assessing the potential impacts and implications of different emission mitigation strategies and plans, positive and negative (– AQ effects link); evaluating the costs and benefits of different emission mitigation policies; assist in setting explicit policy objectives and constraints at sectoral, national or regional level; consumption-based emission inventories: account for consumption- based emissions produced elsewhere eg NAMEA environmental accounts type of approach

9 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Prospects of achieving 2010 emission ceilings: reported WM projections by MS Member StateNO X NMVOCSO 2 NH 3 Austria× Belgium× Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France×× Germany×× Greece Hungary Ireland× Italy Latvia Member StateNO x NMVOCSO 2 NH 3 Lithuania Luxembourg× Malta Netherlands×× Poland× Portugal× Romania Slovakia Slovenia× Spain××× Sweden× United Kingdom× ×12312

10 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Official emissions inventory reporting – available datasets Within Europe, all countries are (in general) bound by the reporting requirements of the UNFCCC/EU-MM, the UNECE LRTAP Convention and for MS the EU NEC Directive Emissions for a number of GHG and AP pollutants are reported each year, in general from 1990 to year X-2 Both national totals and ~100 individual emission source categories are reported. Compiled by experts with access to detailed national data Datasets are peer-reviewed each year, judged against endorsed inventory methodologies & quality standards i.e. IPCC Guidelines (GHGs), EMEP-EEA Guidebook (APs) Official inventories are regular, to agreed quality standards, and are peer-reviewed. Politically accepted emissions.

11 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Legal context: UNFCCC/EU-MM (1) Within the EU, Member States are bound by the reporting requirements of the EU-MM/UNFCCC Pollutants covered are CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 (plus indirects NOx, SO 2, NMVOCs and CO). Data in CRF format ~ 100 individual source categories Kyoto protocol emission targets defined for countries, and for EU MS under burden-sharing for the Kyoto period and for 2020 Each year MS must report emissions 1990 to X-2 Some reporting differences between UNFCCC and Kyoto protocol for year-1, final emissions for year-2, and projections for 2010

12 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Legal context: LRTAP Convention (2) The European Community and the individual MS are Parties to the 1979 UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution The Convention and its protocols require Parties to annually report emissions of air pollutants arising from anthropogenic activities Standard data format used for reporting national totals and ~100 (sub) source categories (NFR) Pollutants covered include main pollutants (NO x, SO x, NMVOCs, NH 3, CO), particulate matter (PM 2.5, PM 10, total PM), certain heavy metals and POPs Three protocols under CLRTAP are presently under review: Gothenburg, POPs and heavy metal protocols Data reported each year, in general covering 1990 to X-2

13 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Legal context: NECD (3) Within the EU, Member States are also bound by the reporting requirements of the National Emission Ceilings Directive (2001/81/EC) (NECD) Pollutants covered are NO x, SO 2, NMVOCs and NH 3, across the same 100 source activities as CLRTAP The NECD lays down emission ceilings (limits) for each MS for the 4 pollutants. The ceilings must be met by 2010 and in each year thereafter Each year MS must report preliminary emissions for year-1, final emissions for year-2, and projections for 2010 The NECD is presently under review. The Commission has not announced when a proposal for a revised Directive will be published

14 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Official point source emissions reporting – available datasets The ETS provides annual verified CO 2 emissions from included facilities The Large Combustion Plant Directive provides facility emissions of SO 2, NO x and dust plus activity data ( , 2007*) The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) now provides GHG and AP emissions data on an annual basis for around European facilities and 65 pollutants to air

15 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register launched 9 th Nov 2009 based on first reporting from countries. Replaces older EPER registry. Covers releases to air, water, land and off-site waste transfers from industrial facilities Activities for data are defined in E-PRTR Regulation Annex I EC 166/2006 Coverage: EU-27 +NO, IS, LI (CH)

16 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy E-PRTR continued Releases and waste transfers, as well as facility data are reported by national competent authorities Thresholds in the E-PRTR Regulation establish whether facility releases are reported – activity (Annex I), - pollutant release (Annex II) The thresholds are designed to ensure 90% coverage of facility releases Some limited spatial information on diffuse source emissions (eg road transport, agriculture) will also be included in the future

17 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy E-PRTR – public access to data Data searchable by country, activity, pollutant, address, map etc. Issues with comparability between E-PRTR, EU ETS, LCP and national inventory reporting

18 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Official data – issues & requirements Independent verification remains very difficult. Back-trajectory modelling, satellite remote data remain rather ad-hoc initiatives Use of national inventory and point source datasets hindered by differences in definitions & inconsistencies between obligations which hinders their use for assessment. Anthropogenic emissions only – natural emission sources generally not reported and are very uncertain. Not relevant for policy-makers focussed on mitigation options. But AQ… Spatial emissions reporting – only every 5 years spatial emission reporting (50x50 km) required to UNECE. Only 19/48 countries in extended EMEP grid area have reported gridded emissions for 2005

19 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Official data – issues & requirements No temporal resolution within years reported Urban AQ modelling and emission inventory needs are not addressed through current legislation i.e. spatially-resolved city inventories. Recent initiative proposed to look at improving guidance, awareness of needs etc under FAIRMODE network WG2 Potential for missing emission sources in official emission inventories (generally minor sources). Official inventories alone do not always adequately explain AQ trends in Europe. Problems in inventories, modelling or monitoring? Other contributing AQ factors of course include meteorology, long-range transport, natural sources, PM re-suspension etc

20 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Against a background of generally reducing reported emissions…

21 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy % of Europes urban population potentially exposed to pollution levels over AQ limits/targets Little change since 2001 in ozone (O 3 ) and particles (PM 10 ) exceedance trends Peak levels have decreased SO 2 declining Ozone has both human health and ecosystem impacts PM health impacts are significant…

22 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy Verification Verification refers to the collection of activities and procedures conducted during or after completion of an inventory that can help to establish its reliability for the intended applications of the inventory. [For the purposes of this guidance,] verification refers specifically to those methods that are external to the inventory and apply independent data, including comparisons with inventory estimates made by other bodies or through alternative methods. IPPC, UNECE

23 European Environment Agency GlobEmissions User Consultation Workshop, November 2009, Frascati, Italy European Environment Agency


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