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2KABC-II: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition Authors: Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L. Kaufman
3Authors of the KABC-II Alan S. Kaufman Nadeen L. Kaufman NOTE: Dynamic duo….a blend of science and clinician.Since 1997: at Yale University’s Child Study Center in the School of MedicineAlan: student of Robert Thorndike at Columbia University: Psych Corp, and worked with David Wechsler and Dorothea McCarthy. Helped develop McCarthy Scales and WISC-R.Nadeen: graduate degrees in psychology, reading and learning disabilities, and special education (neuroscience) from Columbia University.Numerous publications (tests and books)Alan S. KaufmanNadeen L. Kaufman
4KABC-II : What’s New? Covers an extended age range: 3-18 Provides measurement of 5 ScalesLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfKnowledge/GcConormed with KTEA-IINOTE:Original age range: 2.6 to 12.6Original content: simultaneous/ sequentialIncluded some ACH as a separate area to assessWas not co-normed with KTEA (correlations were provided)
5KABC-II : What’s New? Includes a measure of verbal ability Provides two theoretical models for interpretation (Luria & CHC)Places new emphasis on learning ability and reasoning abilityHelps identify processing disorders for the assessment of specific learning disabilities (SLD)NOTE:Provide alternatives for interpretation of complex skills that are measured.Not just one view of the world….2 models each yielding a global score.Choose based on referral and background information.Learning: provide specific information to help Teacher & parentReasoning: Higher levels of problem-solving, executive functions (frontal lobe)With 5 scales, helps define integrities and weaknesses.IDEA definition is not changed, just a change in methods. (RTI may be used. IQ/ach is not needed)
6Advantages of the KABC-II Reduces ethnic score differencesK-ABC led the field in this areaTest designed to reduce score differencesCaptures the child’s interestGame-like tasks that engage the childAccessible to all childrenBlends science and clinical expertiseBased on theoryProvides rich assessment of processingCollects important qualitative informationNOTE:Racial and ethnic differences are published in the manual. What other current test does this? (Binet 4 did)Tryout edition tested on minoritiesTryout items reviewed by various cultural and linguistic expertsTryout items reviewed by specialists working with individuals with hearing impairmentKABC II designed from ground up to reduce ethnic score differences. Other tests try to prove no bias after the fact through item-bias studies.In KABC, goal of reducing ethnic differences drove design of test.Capture the child – presentation of the tasks makes the difference in engaging the child.Child-friendly tasks
7Small Ethnic Score Differences Global CompositeAfrican AmericanHispanicWhiteFluid Crystallized Index (FCI)9897102Mental Processing Index (MPI)99101Nonverbal Index (NVI)100Sample Size150162505NOTE:Exact numbers will be shown for both age groups in technical sectionThis is just to help illustrate, early-on, the advantage of KABC in reducing ethnic score differences.All differences are essentially 100 +/- 5Most other tests have greater differences and do not report them.Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores by Ethnic Group(Adjusted for Gender & SES) (rounded)
8Capture the Child’s Interest Rover is a new novel Simultaneous/Gv taskRover wants his bone. Watch how he can move one space at a time.
9Blends Science & Clinical Expertise Dual Theoretical ModelLuria ModelSequential ProcessingSimultaneous ProcessingPlanning AbilityLearning AbilityMental Processing Index(MPI)CHC Model (Cattell-Horn-Carroll)Short-term Memory (Gsm)Visual Processing (Gv)Fluid Reasoning (Gf)Long-term Retrieval (Glr)Crystallized Ability (Gc)Fluid-Crystallized Index(FCI)NOTE:Luria: focus on problem-solving (processing)CHC: focus on multiple factors (Scales in KABC II – called Broad abilities in CHC theory)Provide alternatives for interpretation of complex skills that are measured.Not just one view of the world….2 models each yielding a global score.Choose based on referral and background information.With 5 scales, helps define integrities and weaknesses.Learning: provide specific information to help Teacher & parentReasoning: Higher levels of problem-solving, executive functions (frontal lobe)IDEA definition is not changed, just a change in methods. (RTI may be used. IQ/ach is not needed)
11Goals of the KABC-IIKeep the positives of the original K-ABC and eliminate its negativesMeasure multiple ability constructsExpand age range to 3-18 yearsProvide an assessment that is fair and flexibleOffer effective preschool assessmentFacilitate neuropsychological assessmentOffer effective clinical assessmentNOTE:The value of the KABC-II extends beyond just scale content. It is theory based; Wechsler's scales are not.Ethnic differences on the KABC-II are substantially reduced relative to traditional IQ differences.Subtests tend to be game-like. The KABC-II has more manipulatives.KABC-II offers separate Gv and Gf scales for ages The WISC-IV merges these Broad Abilities in a single scale (perceptual reasoning)
12Original K-ABC: The Positives Smaller ethnic differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and Native AmericansTheory-basedEasy to administer and scoreNovel tasksTeaching ItemsInterpretive Manual and numerous validity studiesSpecial education children in standardization sampleNonverbal ScaleAll in KABC-IINOTE:Original was lauded for smaller ethnic differences. Much media attention back in 1983.African-Americans: typically 7 points lowerHispanic: points lowerIn 1983, a number of things were innovative…theory-based, teaching items, novel tasks, etc. Now most tests include these.(WJ had novel tasks in late 70’s but wasn’t used by psychologists)
13Original K-ABC: The Negatives Excluded verbal abilityMeasured too few abilities (Sequential-Simultaneous Processing)Included too much memory, not enough reasoning abilityHad inadequate floors and ceilings for some subtestsKABC-II includes verbal abilityKABC-II measures 5 abilitiesKABC-II includes more reasoningKABC-II improves floors & ceilingsNOTE:By 2004 standards, the original KABC included too few abilities.In past, a global score was all people needed or wanted.Change has occurred, perhaps due to LD movement. Required more than a score.Notion of fairness to those with handicapsNeed for profile of strengths/weaknessesInterest in multiple abilities, and reliable processing measures.Be able to measure how the student “thinks and learns.”Floors/Ceilings:At 3:0-3:2, lowest scaled score on core subtests averages 3.1 (range 2 to 5)2 1/3 SD below mean (original KABC: 7.2 (1 SD below)Ages 18:6-18:11, highest scaled on core subtests averages 16.9 (range 14 to 19)2 1/3 SDs above meanOriginal KABC 15.6 (2 SDs above)
14Administration Options Flexible AssessmentCore BatteryCore + SupplementaryNonverbal ScaleAdministration OptionsInterpretive OptionsNOTE:Interpretive Options:Luria & CHCGlobal Scores: MPI, FCI, and NVIMental Processing Index (comparable to original MPC but includes Learning/Glr)Nonverbal Index (comparable to original NVC)5 scales (Gv, Gsm, Gf, Glr, Gc)(simultaneous, sequential, planning, learning, knowledge)Two TheoriesThree Global ScoresFive Scales
15Structure of the KABC-II Age 3 GlobalAge 4-6 GlobalAge 7-18 GlobalLuriaMental Processing Index (MPI)Mental Processing Index (MPI)Mental Processing Index (MPI)CHCFluid-Crystallized Index (FCI)Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI)Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI)NonverbalNonverbal Index (NVI)Nonverbal Index (NVI)Nonverbal Index (NVI)Scale ProfileScale ProfileScale ProfileNoneLearning/GlrLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSequential/GsmNOTE: This represents the interpretive scheme.Simultaneous/GvSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfKnowledge/GcKnowledge/Gc
16Administration Times for Core Battery MPIFCIAgesLuria ModelCHC Model3-4567-1830 Minutes40 Minutes50 Minutes55 Minutes40 Minutes50 Minutes60 Minutes70 Minutes
18Theory of Original K-ABC Based on:Sperry’s cerebral lateralization theoryLuria’s neuropsychological theoryDefinition of intelligence:The integration of sequential and simultaneous processing, distinct from language ability and factual knowledge
19Original K-ABC Structure SequentialProcessingMentalProcessingCompositeSimultaneousProcessingAchievementNOTE:MPC is similar to new MPI with the addition of Learning. Sequential Processing has not really changed.Simultaneous has some changes in the scale content.Achievement was always separate. Now it is in KTEA-II, not in KABC II.
20Theoretical Foundations of the KABC-II Hybrid of the new and the old:Roots in Luria’s theorySimultaneously rests on the CHC modelProvides alternative frameworks for interpreting the 4 or 5 scales that compose the batteryNOTE: We based the KABC-II on both the Luria and CHC theories.DECISION OF WHAT TO INCLUDE:Our philosophy that was the basis for deciding what to include in our comprehensive measure of cognitive ability;Like my mentor David Wechsler believed, and like Alfred Binet before him, mental tasks need to be complex to measure human capacities. That is our opinion as well.We excluded measures of Luria's Block 1 arousal, and likewise excluded measures of the Ga and Gs Broad Abilities, to be true to our conception of intellectual and cognitive functioning.
21Theoretical Foundations of the KABC-II The CHC theory emphasizes specific cognitive abilities (broad and narrow abilities).The Luria neuropsychological theory focuses on “processes” and does not include measures of acquired knowledge.Both theories are equally important as foundations of the KABC-II.Both approaches are valid for understanding how children learn and solve new problems.NOTE:
22Dual Theoretical Foundation Name ofLuria TermCHC TermKABC-II ScaleLong-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr)Short-Term Memory (Gsm)Learning AbilitySequential ProcessingSimultaneous ProcessingPlanning AbilityLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvVisual Processing (Gv)Planning/GfNOTE:Provide alternatives for interpretation of complex skills that are measured.Not just one view of the world….2 models each yielding a global score.Choose based on referral and background information.Learning: provide specific information to help Teacher & parentReasoning: Higher levels of problem-solving, executive functions (frontal lobe)With 5 scales, helps define integrities and weaknesses.IDEA definition is not changed, just a change in methods. (RTI may be used. IQ/ach is not needed)Fluid Reasoning (Gf)Knowledge/GcCrystallized Ability (Gc)Mental ProcessingIndex (MPI)Fluid-CrystallizedIndex (FCI)
24Number Recall Sequential/Gsm Short-Term MemoryTaking in and holding information, and then using it within a few seconds.Say these numbers just as I do.6 – 32 – 5 – 9 – 48 – 9 – 3 – 5 – 2 – 10NOTE:Same as KABC Sequential ScaleWord Order & Number Recall(Hand Movements is Supplementary Test)Russell Barkley: Hand Movements & Word Order display ADD more than other tasksNumber Recall Sequential/Gsm
25Block Counting Simultaneous/Gv Visual ProcessingPerceiving, storing, manipulating, and thinking with visual patterns.Block Counting Simultaneous/GvNOTE:Luria: Measuring integration of Blocks 2/3CHC: some tasks would be considered mixed measures (e.g., Gv and Gf)Simultaneous/Gv:Conceptual ThinkingFace RecognitionRoverTrianglesPattern Reasoning (at ages 5 & 6: at age 7 and above this test is in Planning/Gf scale)Block Counting (added to get more problem-solving)Supplemental tests:Gestalt ClosureStory Completion (this is in Planning/Gf scale at age 7 and above)
26Atlantis Learning/Glr Long-Term RetrievalStoring and efficiently retrieving newly-learned or previously learned information.Atlantis Learning/GlrNOTE:Learning/Glr Scale:Atlantis and RebusSupplemental tests:Atlantis-Delayed and Rebus-DelayedTask will introduce a fish, plant, or shell by name.The child will have to find the named items on a response page.For example, “This is Neef.”
27Point to Neef.If an error is made, the examiner points to the correct item and says, “This is Neef.”
28Planning/Gf Pattern Reasoning Planning/Gf Fluid Reasoning Solving novel problems by using reasoning abilities such as induction and deduction.Pattern Reasoning Planning/GfNOTE:“Which one of these, goes here?”Planning/Gf Scale:Pattern ReasoningStory CompletionBoth are core tests at ages 7-18 for this scale.However, at ages 5-6, Pattern Reasoning is a core test for Simultaneous/GvStory Completion is a supplementary Simultaneous/Gv test for age 6.
29Knowledge/Gc Verbal Knowledge Knowledge/Gc Not in Luria Model Demonstrating the breadth and depth of knowledge acquired from one’s culture.Verbal Knowledge Knowledge/GcNOTE:Not school-oriented knowledge, rather environmental knowledge.Tests in Knowledge Scale:Expressive Vocabulary (verbal response required)Riddles (pointing at earlier items, verbal response at higher level items)Verbal Knowledge (all pointing responses)Example above: Point to bush.
30Abilities Not Measured in KABC-II Auditory Processing (Ga)Processing Speed (Gs)Reaction Time/Decision Speed (Gt)Reading & Writing (Grw)Quantitative Ability (Gq)Not Sufficiently ComplexAchievement (Measured by KTEA-II)
32Selecting the Model: Guidelines Selection must be made before administering the KABC-II and should consider reasons for referral.The CHC model is given priority because Knowledge/Gc is an important aspect of cognitive functioning.The Luria model is preferred when the validity of the global composite would be compromised by including acquired knowledge.Models are selected primarily with “fairness” in mind.NoteSelection is up to the examiner.Should be a considered decision and made prior to testing.Focus on MPI or FCI?Focus on scales vs. global?CHC focus is on abilitiesLuria focus is on processingGc/Knowledge can be given as a supplemental measure.Irrespective of model administered, interpret from perspective you prefer.
33Selecting the CHC Model The CHC model is recommended when evaluating children with:known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematicsmental retardationbehavior disordersattention disordersNOTE:Also recommended for determining gifted and talented eligibility.
34Selecting the Luria Model The Luria model would be preferred, for example, when testing a child:from a bilingual backgroundwhose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal developmentwith known or suspected language disorderwith known or suspected autism
35KABC-II Nonverbal Scale Use to enhance “fairness” of assessment for individuals with:hearing loss (deaf or hard-of-hearing)very limited English proficiencymoderate to severe speech impairments or language disordersNOTE:Do not use as a shortcut, or for arbitrary reasons, or for excessively shy childrenHow to decide between NVI and MPI?Can you give Atlantis and Rebus?Can you give Word Order and Number Recall?If you cannot give these, then use NVI.Yields only the Nonverbal Index. No Scale composites available.
36Interpretation Based on Either Theory Interpretation may be based on either theory, irrespective of which model was administered.Administration InterpretationLuria Model Luria or CHCCHC Model CHC or Luria
38KABC-II Norm Sample N = 3,025, ages 3:0-18:11 Conormed with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form at ages 4:6-18:11Tested from September 2001 through January 2003Matches March 2001 Current Population Survey (Census Bureau) by:SexEthnicitySES (mother’s education)RegionSES within ethnicityNOTE:
39Includes representative proportions of: KABC-II Norm SampleIncludes representative proportions of:Specific learning disabilitySpeech/language impairmentMental retardationEmotional/behavioral disturbanceADHDGifted/talentedNOTE:Myth: inclusion in norm sample of “my” testing population = fairness.The content insures fairness for all groups.The norms must include representative samples of the abilities.
40KABC-II Norm SampleAge 18 sample matches population on educational status:DropoutIn high schoolHigh school grad, no post-secondary schoolingEntered 2-year post-secondary programEntered 4-year post-secondary programNOTE:One-half of 18 year old sample NOT in school
41Reduce Ethnic Score Differences Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES)African AmericanHispanicWhiteMPI98.798.2100.9FCI98.096.6101.6NVI96.799.7100.8Sample Size150162505NOTE:Differences are small between MPI and FCI because the Knowledge measured in the FCI is more environmental than school-based.SES is based on Mother’s Education, not really SES….found to be a good indicator, though.Point for further exploration:Why is NVI lower for African Americans than the other composites?(Note: Means on WISC IV for African Americans were in 87/88 range.)
42Reduce Ethnic Score Differences Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES)African AmericanHispanicWhiteLearning/Glr99.398.999.7Sequential/Gsm101.496.7101.0Simultaneous/Gv96.4100.1100.7Knowledge/Gc95.993.7102.8Sample Size150162505
43Reduce Ethnic Score Differences Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES)1,3566251383315Sample Size102.0103.497.098.393.1NVI102.4103.995.695.894.5FCI101.9104.696.595.2MPIWhiteAsianAmerican IndianHispanicAfrican AmericanNOTE:Use columns vertically – within ethnic groupAll scores are pretty close to 100 +/- 5.Needing further exploration?Why NVI is lowest composite for African Americans? (interest, motivation, use of language issues?)Gc load on KABC II is not so complex as other measures of verbal ability. More broad-based, environmental knowledge rather than school-based acquired knowledge.
44Reduce Ethnic Score Differences Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES)African AmericanHispanicAmerican IndianAsianWhiteLearning/Glr98.397.096.7102.8101.6Sequential/Gsm99.895.196.9102.6101.3Simultaneous/ Gv92.998.7100.1105.0101.7Planning/Gf94.798.8101.8Knowledge/Gc93.994.994.4100.4103.1Sample Size31538351621,356Note:Use columns vertically rather than across.Look within the ethnic group.Knowledge/Gc Scale not that much lower due to less complex language demands of tasks. (compare to language load on WISC-IV subtests)
45Global Score Differences for Whites & African Americans—Adjusted for SES NOTE:What other company reports these differences in their manuals?Hard to obtain the information on WJ III or WISC 4? Or SB 5?Estimate of a 10 pt. difference between White and African Americans on WISC IV.Mean differences are adjusted for SES and other variables, depending on the study. WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998). WJ-R and Binet-4 data are from Wasserman & Becker (2000). CAS data are from Naglieri, Rojahn, Aquilino, & Matto (in press).
46Taos sample: KABC-II & WISC-IV Native American Sample, N=30+7.4FCI: 94.1+8.4MPI: 95.186.7DifferenceKABC-IIWISC-IVFS-IQNOTE:KABC II sample (n=46)WISC IV sample (n=30) tested about 18 months laterSample size for Planning is 21Correlations were substantial between FSIQ and MPI (.86) and FCI (.84)However, the mean scores differed by about ½ of a SD with KABC scores higher.Differences on scales were greatest on Gc and memory scales (+7) and smallest on Gf/nonverbal (+1-4) with KABC scores being higher.Note—Children were tested first on KABC-II (ages 5-14, mean = 7.8) and second (18 months later) on WISC-IV (ages 6-15, mean = 9.3). Data from Fletcher-Janzen (2003).
47Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients Reliability of Global CompositesAges FCI MPI NVINote: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients
48Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients Reliability of Scale CompositesAGE GROUPScaleLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfKnowledge/GcNote: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients
49Retest Reliability for the Global Scales AGE GROUPScaleFCIMPINVINNote: Interval days
50Retest Reliability for the Five Scales AGE GROUPScaleLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfKnowledge/GcN
51Scale Intercorrelations Seq Sim Lrn Pln KnoSequential ---SimultLearningPlanningKnowledgeNOTE:Correlations are as expected for a test with multiple scalesNote: Ages 7-12 (N = 1200)
52Global Scale Intercorrelations Ages FCI with MPINOTE:Q: Correlation so high, why have 2 scales?A: First, there is overlapping content (identical except for Gc tasks). Also, there is a difference between group and individual data…there is a clinical impact on the individual. The .02 portion is what matters, not the .98.So high due to contaminated content…overlap within indexes.4/5 abilities overlap.Only Gc is different in the FCI.Gc tasks are not complex language tasks. (Single word expression or pointing responses) This also could help explain why there is not a great difference.
53Correlations with K-ABC Age rangeScalesMPI vs. MPCNonverbalSequentialSimultaneousKnowl vs. AchNNOTE:Table 8.16 in manual, page 110Mean scores of the younger age group (3-5) were about 7 points lower on the MPI than on the MPC.Mean scores of the older age group (8-12) were about 6 points lower on the MPI than on the MPC.(expected differences due to Flynn Effect, Flynn, 1987)Correlation of the MPC with the FCI was higher for the 3-5 age group (.72)Correlation of the MPC with the FCI (.84) for the older age group was similar to MPI/MPC (.85)Interesting point…inclusion of the Knowledge does not diminish the correlation with KABC MPC.Sequential Scale virtually unchanged, thus higher correlation.Simultaneous Scale has been modified considerably, hence lower correlations.
54Correlations with WISC-IV KABC-II WISC-IV rFCI FSIQ .89MPI FSIQ .88Seq/Gsm WMI .71Sim/Gv PRI .66Plan/Gf PRI .69Know/Gc VCI .85NOTE:Table 8.17 in Manual, page 111Mean FCI was about 2 points higher than the WISC IV FSIQ. (97.3 vs 95)NVI to FSIQ: .79Correlations between Simultaneous and PRI and Planning and PRI indicate that PRI is both Gv and Gf (addition of Matrix Reasoning on WISCIV)WISC IV Processing Speed Index (PSI) is reported in manual. Lower correlations in general.(PSI: High of .64 with NVI and a low of .16 with Sequential)Note: Ages 7-16 (N = 56)
55Correlations with WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities KABC-II WJ III COG rFCI GIA (Std) .78MPI GIA (Std) .77Seq/Gsm Working Memory .55Sim/Gv Vis-Spatial/Gv .51Plan/Gf Fluid Reas/Gf .64Know/Gc Comp.Know/Gc .84NOTE:Table 8.22 in Manual, page 116Why no Glr reported?Is sequential compared to Gsm on WJ III or to the WM cluster on WJ III?The Simultaneous/Gv Scale actually correlates better with the WJ III Gf composite than with the WJ III Gv composite. This illustrates the KABC II goal of including problem-solving throughout the scales, not just in the Planning Scale.Note: Ages 7-16 (N = 85)
56Correlations with KAIT KABC-II KAIT rFCI Composite .91MPI Composite .85Sim/Gv Fluid .53Plan/Gf Fluid .71Know/Gc Crystallized .93NOTE:Table 8.21 in Manual, page 115KAIT core Fluid Scale includes both learning ability (Rebus Learning) and reasoning ability (Mystery Codes & Logical Steps) so correlations with Planning and Learning are sensible (.79 Learning, .71 Planning)Note: Ages (N = 29)
57KABC-II Global Scale Correlations with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form KTEA-II KABC-II ScaleComposite FCI MPI NVIComprehensiveReadingMathematicsWritten LanguageOral LanguageNOTE:Correlations between cognitive/IQ measures and Achievement measures seem to be rising.Why?Better predictors?Continuum of abilities and where we divide them is somewhat arbitrary? Blurring of constructs?“All tests are tests of achievement”Note: Values are rounded to nearest .05.N = 2,325, ages 4 1/2 to 18
58Correlations with WIAT-II Grades GradesKABC-II WIAT-IIFCI ReadingMPIFCI MathMPIFCI Written LanguageMPIN
59Correlations with WJ-III Tests of Achievement Grades GradesKABC-II WJ-IIIFCI Broad ReadingMPIFCI Broad MathMPIFCI Broad Written LangMPIN
60KABC-II Factor Structure Confirmatory factor analyses, core batteryAge 3No separate scales(only Sequential/Gsm subtests (Word Order & Number Recall) separated from others)Age 4Most factors are distinct (Simultaneous/Gv and Knowledge/Gc not significantly distinct, but separated on content)NOTE:Age 5-64 factors are distinct(No Planning/Gf)Age 7-185 factors are distinct
61KABC-II Factor Structure Extremely good fit at all agesBenchmarks:Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) >.95Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA) <.05Age 4 and ages 5-6: no statistically significant difference between data and modelAcross age groups:CFI: .997 to 1.000RMSEA: .014 to .055At ages 5-18, all factors are statistically distinct (p < .001).NOTE:Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) .95 or higher is considered good fitRoot Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RSMEA) .05 or lower is considered good fitP values indicate if there is a statistically significant difference between model and dataKABC II: values at all ages meet benchmarks: fit to theoretical model is very good
63Preparing for Administration Select CHC or Luria Model (or Nonverbal Index)Identify tests that will be administered. Depending on AGE and MODEL selected:Luria Model requires 5-8 testsCHC Model requires 7-10 testsNonverbal Index requires 4-5 testsArrange testing materials.Supplementary testscan be chosen later (except for Delayed)
64Tests 9, 10, & 18 are omitted if using Luria Model. Tests in 4 EaselsCore Tests in boldEasel 3:10. Verbal Knowledge (7-18)11. Rebus (4-18)12. Triangles (3-12)Easel 1:1. Atlantis (3-18)2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6)3. Face Recognition (3-4)4. Story Completion (7-18)Easel 4:13. Block Counting (13-18)14. Word Order (3-18)15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18)16. Hand Movements17. Rebus Delayed18. Riddles (3-18)Easel 2:5. Number Recall (4-18)6. Gestalt Closure7. Rover (6-18)8. Atlantis Delayed9. Expressive Vocabulary (3-6)NOTE:Tests 9, 10, & 18 are omitted if using Luria Model.
65KABC Subtests Eliminated Retained Spatial Memory Word Order Magic WindowPhoto SeriesMatrix AnalogiesArithmeticFaces & PlacesReading: DecodingReading: UnderstandingWord OrderNumber RecallTrianglesFace RecognitionRiddlesExpressive Vocabulary (extended to age 18)Hand Movements (S)Gestalt Closure (S)NOTE:Issues of reliability, validity, interpretability, and ease of administration drove decision of tests to eliminate.Original Simultaneous Processing Scale: eliminate 4 tests (Magic Window, Spatial Memory ,Photo Series, and Matrix Analogies)Eliminate the 3 school achievement subtests: Arithmetic, Reading/decoding, reading/understanding).Tried to move away from so much memory and needed to add new abilities. (eliminate Spatial Memory)Photo Series is revamped into new Story Completion (less perceptual and more reasoning)Matrix Analogies is analogous to new Pattern Reasoning. (Matrix Analogies was a mixed measure – Gf/Gc)Faces and Places revamped into new Verbal KnowledgeExpressive Vocabulary extended ceiling.Face Recognition: focus on face, eliminated background detailsTriangles: improved floor (plastic manipulatives)Word Order: improved explanation of interference task & added a sampleRiddles: new pictorial stimuli added to improve floorExpressive Vocabulary & Riddles are adapted from KABC Achievement scale.Neuro interest in Hand Movements and Gestalt Closure.(S) Supplementary
66New KABC-II Subtests Atlantis (Immediate & Delayed) Rebus (Immediate & Delayed)Conceptual Thinking (ages 3-6)Rover (ages 6-18)Block Counting (ages 5-18)Pattern Reasoning (ages 5-18)Story Completion (ages 6-18)Verbal Knowledge (ages 3-18)NOTE:Learning: Atlantis & Rebus (Glr)Knowledge: Verbal Knowledge (plus Expressive Vocabulary or Riddles depending on age)Simultaneous: Conceptual Thinking, Rover, Block Counting (Gv/Gf) (with Face Recognition, Triangles & Pattern Reasoning – depending on age)Planning: Pattern Reasoning & Story Completion (Gf) (at ages 7-18)Both can be administered at ages 4-6 but would be in the Simultaneous ScaleSequential: Same as in KABC – Word Order & Number Recall (no new tests, just improvements)
67Sequence of Administration Tests are numbered 1-18 in Easels and Record Form. Administer required core tests in numeric sequence.Age 3 - CHC Model1. Atlantis (Easel 1)2. Conceptual Thinking (Easel 1)3. Face Recognition (Easel 1)9. Expressive Vocabulary (Easel 2)12. Triangles (Easel 3)14. Word Order (Easel 4)18. Riddles (Easel 4)Age 3 - Luria Model1. Atlantis (Easel 1)2. Conceptual Thinking (Easel 1)3. Face Recognition (Easel 1)12. Triangles (Easel 3)14. Word Order (Easel 4)
68Sequence of Administration Age CHC Model1. Atlantis (Easel 1)4. Story Completion (Easel 1)5. Number Recall (Easel 2)7. Rover (Easel 2)10. Verbal Knowledge (Easel 3)11. Rebus (Easel 3)12. Triangles (Easel 3)14. Word Order (Easel 4)15. Pattern Reasoning (Easel 4)18. Riddles (Easel 4)Age Luria Model1. Atlantis (Easel 1)4. Story Completion (Easel 1)5. Number Recall (Easel 2)7. Rover (Easel 2)11. Rebus (Easel 3)12. Triangles (Easel 3)14. Word Order (Easel 4)15. Pattern Reasoning (Easel 4)Sequence shown by age on page 20 of Manual and back of Rover Booklet.
69KABC-II Core Battery - Age 3 AtlantisWord OrderTrianglesConceptual ThinkingFace RecognitionRiddlesExpressive VocabularyMPI or FCI composites onlyLuriaCHCNOTE:Only global scores availableNo scales(mix of tasks Simultaneous, Sequential, and Learning…plus Knowledge if using CHC)5 tests using Luria (Glr, Gsm, and Gv)7 tests using CHC (2 Knowledge tests below dashed line)
70Tests for Nonverbal Index Easel 1:2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6)3. Face Recognition (3-5)4. Story Completion (7-18)Easel 2:NoneEasel 3:12. Triangles (3-18)Easel 4:13. Block Counting (13-18)15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18)16. Hand Movements (3-18)4 tests at ages 3-45 tests at all other ages
71Using KABC-II with Bilingual Children Permits teaching in any language or mode of communication during sample and teaching items (not including specific item stimuli)Accept correct verbal responses in other languages on tests requiring a verbal response, except Number Recall and Rebus (responses must be in English)Lists correct and Incorrect Spanish responses for Expressive Vocabulary, Gestalt Closure, and RiddlesIncludes Spanish wording of instructions for all tests with sample or teaching itemsUse Nonverbal Scale if child is not proficient in EnglishNOTE:Not intended that KABC II be administered in Spanish.Except for Nonverbal Scale, it is for those proficient in English.Goal of samples & teaching is to be sure child understands the task.Correct responses in any language are acceptable on Knowledge tests (Expressive Vocabulary and Riddles). Verbal Knowledge is a receptive task requiring pointing only.Also, correct responses in other languages are acceptable on Gestalt Closure (a supplementary test of Simultaneous/Gv).
72Supplementary Subtests Administer after core subtestsUse to explore hypotheses (added measure of core scales)Use for planned comparisonsUse as a substitute if a core subtest is spoiledNo prescribed sequence with one exception - Delayed Recall.At ages 5 and 13-18, you must administer a supplementary subtest to get the right delay interval.Knowledge/Gc tests are never used to obtain delay interval
74Record Form Features Circle number for all tests to be administered Core Test for Ages 4-18Sample or Teaching ItemsStart Points (after Sample)Basal/Discontinue Rules
75Both are identified with an “apple.” Samples and Teaching ItemsBoth are identified with an “apple.”Samples do not count in the raw score.Samples are highlighted in green.Teaching Items do count in the raw score.
76Qualitative Indicators (QI) Optional list of QIs is provided for each test to guide observations of child’s behavior during testing.Disruptive QIs (-)Enhancing QIs (+)QIs (optional) Atlantis– Fails to sustain attention– Impulsively responds incorrectly– Reluctant to respond when uncertain– Responds negatively to correction+ Unusually focused+ Verbalizes a strategy for rememberingAfter testing, QIs may be summarized on page 2 of Record Form.QIs developed in collaboration with Dr. Elaine Fletcher-Janzen.
77Subtest: Atlantis Scale: Learning/Glr You will see pictures of fish, plants, and shells, Each one has a name.This is KOH. Point to KOH.This is KOHLet child point to the picture (repeat instruction if necessary), then immediately turn page.
78Subtest: Atlantis Scale: Learning/Glr Point to KOH.Point to Koh.
79Item 6 Starting point after Sample for age 6. Subtest: Conceptual Thinking Scale: Simultaneous/GvItem 6Starting point after Sample for age 6.Point to the one that doesn’t belong.Which one doesn’t belong?If starting here and incorrect response is given, drop back to Item 1.
80Start: All Ages See this person? Begin timing. Subtest: Face Recognition Scale: Simultaneous/GvStart: All AgesBegin timing.See this person?Expose the picture for 5 seconds, then immediately turn the page.NOTE:See this person? (Sample Exposure)Faces are cropped….eliminate background details.
81Find that person here. Correct: Incorrect or no response: Subtest: Face Recognition Scale: Simultaneous/GvFind that person here.Correct:Go on to Item 1.Incorrect or no response:This is the person I showed you (point to person). Let’s try again. Turn back to the exposure page and repeat the item.Find that person here.Sample Response
82If necessary, say What is this? Subtest: Expressive Vocabulary Scale: Knowledge/GcIf necessary, say What is this?If child names a specific part instead of the whole object say Yes, but tell me the name of the whole thing.If the child names an irrelevant part of the picture, point to the intended object and say Yes, but tell me the name of this.What is this? (warthog)
83Subtest: Triangles Scale: Simultaneous/Gv Items have time limits. Begin timing when you turn the page. Stop timing when child is finished or time limit.Begin timing.Put these together to make one like this (point to easel).Record response times in seconds for ages (not at ages 3-6).
84Starting Directions Subtest: Word Order Scale: Sequential/Gsm Look at these pictures (point to the entire row). Point to the Star…Cup…Key…Bird…House.Correct the child as necessary and repeat until the child associates the appropriate word with each picture.
85Riddles Subtest: Riddles Scale:Knowledge/Gc Pictures (Items 1-8) Point to something that swims in the water and lives in a bowl.Point to an animal that gives milk.Point to something you can wear to keep warm.An oral response is acceptable. If oral response is incorrect, say Point to the answer.
87Completing the Record Form Front: Ages 7-18Color-coded Record FormScore summaries on front and back coversBack: Ages 3-6
88Subtests - (Ages 7-18) Color-coded Green = Learning Red = Sequential Purple = SimultaneousBrown = PlanningBlue = KnowledgeSolid color = Core TestColored Text = Supplemental TestRecord raw score, scaled score, PR, and AEUse Tables D.1, D.4, D.5
89Scale IndexesRecord & sum scaled scores for each core test within a Scale IndexRecord the sums for each Scale Index in the appropriate column (FCI or MPI)Sum to obtain total for global indexRecord the SS, confidence intervals, and PR(Use Tables D.2 and D.4)
90Range of Standard Scores Global Scale IndexScale Index40 to 16050 to 155131 or greater116 to 13085 to 11570 to 8469 or lessUpper extremeAbove averageAverageBelow averageLower extremeDescriptive CategoryRange of Standard ScoresNOTE:Break from previous tradition of average being
91Nonverbal Index Record scaled scores for required subtests and sum Record standard score, confidence interval, and PR (Tables D.2, D.4)
92Profile of Scale Indexes Page 3 of Record FormProfile of Scale Indexes
96Summary of Qualitative Indicators OptionalPage 2Record FormNOTE:Integrate this information with test results. (error analysis across tests)The QIs focus on observable behaviors, not diagnostic categories. The QIs are listed on the record form by each subtest to permit examiners to use these QIs as an optional procedure.The record form includes a place for the examiner to summarize these QIs (both negative behaviors and positive behaviors) shown above. This summary is intended to help examiners assess the validity of the obtained profile of scores, not to diagnose psychological problems.The QIs are not incorporated into the interpretive system presented in the KABC-II manual.Test-taking behaviors (how student approaches tasks)About 5% have behaviors that affect performanceVerify impact across settingsStrategies employed – shifting – especially when tasks get hardProcess approach to assessmentValid reflection of student’s performance** asks to repeat question**appears inattentive but isn’tHard to distinguish between Executive Function problems and attention problemsOften co-morbid with anxiety and depression
97Ground Rules for Interpreting the KABC-II Interpret a scale index only if performance is consistent on subtests that compose scale (base rate rule <10%)Use .05 level of statistical significance when determining personal strengths/weaknessesConsider differences that are both statistically significant and uncommon (<10%) to be potentially valuable for diagnosis and educational purposesNOTE:We provide interpretive guidelines that err on the side of caution. Verification with other data is a good thing and we encourage it. Examples of "other data" include background information, clinical observations of behavior during the evaluation and in alternate settings, scores on KABC-II supplementary subtests, scores on other tests from the child's record or during the present evaluation, and so forth.We recommend that statistically significant differences be verified with other data if these differences are not "uncommonly large" as a precaution to emphasize the importance of obtaining multiple sources of data.
98Interpreting the Results Step 1. Interpret the global scale index (FCI, MPI, or NVI)A. Consult Table D.2 to obtain SS and 90% or 95% confidence interval. Use Table D.4 for PR and Table 5.1 for category.B. If using NVI do not conduct any other interpretive steps.FCI AverageGlobal Scale IndexStandard Score95% confidence intervalPercentile RankDescriptive Category
99Interpreting the Results Step 2. Interpret the profile of scale indexes to identifystrengths and weaknesses (personal/relative andnormative)A. Determine whether each scale is interpretable (unitary).B. Conduct normative analysis (relative to Average range of )C. Conduct ipsative analysis (relative to child’s mean score)D. Determine if any scales that are personal strengths or weaknesses are infrequent.NOTE:Personal (or relative) strengths/weaknesses vs. Normative
100Is Each Scale Interpretable? Step 2A:Use base rate rule of <10%.See Record Form p. 3 for ages and p. 23 for ages 3-6.
101What if a Scale is Not Interpretable? Meaningfulness of Scale may be diminished, but the tests are not invalid.Provides rich, diagnostic informationIdentifies uncommon variabilityProvides divergent vs. convergent dataConsider narrow abilities or task differencesUse cross-battery assessment to exploreDetermine if tests within scale are a notable integrity (both > 12) or a notable limitation (both < 8)NOTE:Method of interpreting unitary and non-unitary scales is same as one recommended for WISC IV in Essentials book.If uncommon differences exist within the tests that comprise a Scale, the Scale composite’s meaningfulness is uninterpretable.With uncommonly divergent scores, the person’s abilities cannot be summed up with just one score.Unitary scores (tests are not uncommonly divergent) – interpret scaleDivergent scores (tests are uncommonly divergent) do not interpret scale, but look at individual tasks, collect more information, etc.Notable integrity: 2 tests are uncommonly divergent but both are > to 12.Notable Limitation: 2 tests are uncommonly divergent, but both are < to 8.
102Any Normative Strengths or Weaknesses? Step 2B: Identify if any of the scales are a normative weakness (<85), or a normative strength >115.
103Graphical Profile of Norm-Referenced Performance
104Any Relative Strengths or Weaknesses? Step 2C: Identify personal weaknesses or strengths in the scale profile. Calculate mean and difference from mean for each interpretable scale.Mean92Consult Tables on p. 3. See next slide.
105Any Relative Strengths or Weaknesses? Step 2D: Consult statistical significance and frequency table in Record Form (p. 3 or p. 23).NOTE:3 tests to meet:Normative strength or weaknessPersonal s or wUncommonIs it an asset (strength) or a weakness?
106Step 3. Scale Comparisons Interpreting the Results Optional StepsStep 3. Scale ComparisonsA. Learning/Glr to Delayed Recall (5-18)B. Learning/Glr to Knowledge/GcStep 4. Supplementary Subtest AnalysisCompare to the mean scaled score of the core subtests in interpretable scales.B. See Table 5.3 (p. 55) of Manual for supplementary subtests by scale and ageC. Consult Table D.10 to evaluate the size and frequency of the differences.NOTE:Planned Comparisons:Initial to delayed in Glr scaleGlr to GcGv to GcGf/Gv to Glr/GsmQ: Why no Sequential/Simultaneous comparison?A: That would be looking backward.
107Zero Raw Scores Zero scores always require caution. If child has more than 3 raw scores of 0, do not interpret the global scale index.If child has 2 of more raw scores on a scale, do not interpret the scale index.
108Prorating is Permitted Prorating for the FCI or MPIA maximum of two unusable testsMust have at least one valid subtest in each scale included in the global scale indexProrating for the NVI or the Simultaneous/Gv ScaleMust have at least two usable subtestsCompute the rounded average (mean) of the usable scaled scores and use as the score for the unusable subtest(s).Do not perform interpretive analysis with any scores obtained by prorating.
109KABC-II : Summary Covers an extended age range: 3-18 Provides measurement of 5 ScalesLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfKnowledge/GcUses Luria or CHC TheoriesConormed with KTEA-II
110“We are the most important element in evaluation…not the tests.” Intelligent Testing“We are the most important element in evaluation…not the tests.”Alan S. Kaufman