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1 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Presentation Title Subtitle Your Name Title Contact

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-II: Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition Authors: Alan S. Kaufman & Nadeen L. Kaufman

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Authors of the KABC-II Alan S. KaufmanNadeen L. Kaufman

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Covers an extended age range: 3-18 Provides measurement of 5 Scales Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Conormed with KTEA-II KABC-II : Whats New?

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Includes a measure of verbal ability Provides two theoretical models for interpretation (Luria & CHC) Places new emphasis on learning ability and reasoning ability Helps identify processing disorders for the assessment of specific learning disabilities (SLD) KABC-II : Whats New?

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Reduces ethnic score differences –K-ABC led the field in this area –Test designed to reduce score differences Captures the child s interest –Game-like tasks that engage the child –Accessible to all children Blends science and clinical expertise –Based on theory –Provides rich assessment of processing –Collects important qualitative information Advantages of the KABC-II

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Small Ethnic Score Differences Global Composite African American HispanicWhite Fluid Crystallized Index (FCI) Mental Processing Index (MPI) Nonverbal Index (NVI) Sample Size Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores by Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) (rounded)

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Capture the Childs Interest Rover wants his bone. Watch how he can move one space at a time. Rover is a new novel Simultaneous/Gv task

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Blends Science & Clinical Expertise Luria Model Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Planning Ability Learning Ability Mental Processing Index (MPI) CHC Model (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) Short-term Memory (Gsm) Visual Processing (Gv) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Long-term Retrieval (Glr) Crystallized Ability (Gc) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) Dual Theoretical Model

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Overview

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Goals of the KABC-II Keep the positives of the original K-ABC and eliminate its negatives Measure multiple ability constructs Expand age range to 3-18 years Provide an assessment that is fair and flexible Offer effective preschool assessment Facilitate neuropsychological assessment Offer effective clinical assessment

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Original K-ABC: The Positives Smaller ethnic differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans Theory-based Easy to administer and score –Novel tasks –Teaching Items Interpretive Manual and numerous validity studies Special education children in standardization sample Nonverbal Scale All in KABC-II

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Original K-ABC: The Negatives Excluded verbal ability Measured too few abilities (Sequential-Simultaneous Processing) Included too much memory, not enough reasoning ability Had inadequate floors and ceilings for some subtests KABC-II includes verbal ability KABC-II measures 5 abilities KABC-II includes more reasoning KABC-II improves floors & ceilings

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Flexible Assessment Two Theories Three Global Scores Five Scales Administration Options Interpretive Options Core Battery Core + Supplementary Nonverbal Scale

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Structure of the KABC-II Planning/Gf Learning/Glr None Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Scale Profile Nonverbal Index (NVI) Nonverbal Knowledge/Gc Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) CHC Mental Processing Index (MPI) Luria Age 7-18 GlobalAge 4-6 GlobalAge 3 Global

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. MPIFCI AgesLuria Model CHC Model 30 Minutes 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 55 Minutes 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 60 Minutes 70 Minutes Administration Times for Core Battery

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Theoretical Foundations

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Theory of Original K-ABC Based on: –Sperry s cerebral lateralization theory –Luria s neuropsychological theory Definition of intelligence: –The integration of sequential and simultaneous processing, distinct from language ability and factual knowledge

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Mental Processing Composite Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Achievement Original K-ABC Structure

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Theoretical Foundations of the KABC-II Hybrid of the new and the old: Roots in Luria s theory Simultaneously rests on the CHC model Provides alternative frameworks for interpreting the 4 or 5 scales that compose the battery

21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. The CHC theory emphasizes specific cognitive abilities (broad and narrow abilities). The Luria neuropsychological theory focuses on processes and does not include measures of acquired knowledge. Both theories are equally important as foundations of the KABC-II. Both approaches are valid for understanding how children learn and solve new problems. Theoretical Foundations of the KABC-II

22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Dual Theoretical Foundation Luria Term Learning Ability Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Planning Ability Mental Processing Index (MPI) CHC Term Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr) Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) KABC-II Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Name of Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Crystallized Ability (Gc) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Visual Processing (Gv)

23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Introduction to the Five Scales

24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Taking in and holding information, and then using it within a few seconds. Sequential/Gsm Short-Term Memory 6 – 3 2 – 5 – 9 – 4 8 – 9 – 3 – 5 – 2 – 10 Say these numbers just as I do. Number Recall Sequential/Gsm

25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Perceiving, storing, manipulating, and thinking with visual patterns. Simultaneous/Gv Visual Processing Block Counting Simultaneous/Gv

26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Storing and efficiently retrieving newly-learned or previously learned information. Learning/Glr Long-Term Retrieval Atlantis Learning/Glr

27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

28 Solving novel problems by using reasoning abilities such as induction and deduction. Planning/Gf Fluid Reasoning Pattern Reasoning Planning/Gf

29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Demonstrating the breadth and depth of knowledge acquired from one s culture. Knowledge/Gc Not in Luria Model Verbal Knowledge Knowledge/Gc

30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Abilities Not Measured in KABC-II Auditory Processing (Ga) Processing Speed (Gs) Reaction Time/Decision Speed (Gt) Reading & Writing (Grw) Quantitative Ability (Gq) Achievement (Measured by KTEA-II) Not Sufficiently Complex

31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Selecting the Model: Guidelines

32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Selecting the Model: Guidelines Selection must be made before administering the KABC-II and should consider reasons for referral. The CHC model is given priority because Knowledge/Gc is an important aspect of cognitive functioning. The Luria model is preferred when the validity of the global composite would be compromised by including acquired knowledge. Models are selected primarily with fairness in mind.

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Selecting the CHC Model known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematics mental retardation behavior disorders attention disorders The CHC model is recommended when evaluating children with: Also recommended for determining gifted and talented eligibility.

34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Selecting the Luria Model The Luria model would be preferred, for example, when testing a child: from a bilingual background whose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal development with known or suspected language disorder with known or suspected autism

35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-II Nonverbal Scale hearing loss (deaf or hard-of-hearing) very limited English proficiency moderate to severe speech impairments or language disorders Use to enhance fairness of assessment for individuals with: Yields only the Nonverbal Index. No Scale composites available.

36 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Interpretation Based on Either Theory Interpretation may be based on either theory, irrespective of which model was administered. Administration Interpretation LuriaModel Luria or CHC CHCModel CHC or Luria

37 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Technical Qualities

38 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-II Norm Sample N = 3,025, ages 3:0-18:11 Conormed with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form at ages 4:6- 18:11 Tested from September 2001 through January 2003 Matches March 2001 Current Population Survey (Census Bureau) by: –Sex –Ethnicity –SES (mother s education) –Region –SES within ethnicity

39 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Specific learning disability Speech/language impairment Mental retardation Emotional/behavioral disturbance ADHD Gifted/talented KABC-II Norm Sample Includes representative proportions of:

40 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Dropout In high school High school grad, no post-secondary schooling Entered 2-year post-secondary program Entered 4-year post-secondary program KABC-II Norm Sample Age 18 sample matches population on educational status:

41 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic White MPI FCI NVI Sample Size Reduce Ethnic Score Differences

42 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic White Learning/Glr Sequential/ Gsm Simultaneous/G v Knowledge/ Gc Sample Size Reduce Ethnic Score Differences

43 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) 1, Sample Size NVI FCI MPI WhiteAsian American IndianHispanic African American Reduce Ethnic Score Differences

44 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African AmericanHispanic American IndianAsianWhite Learning/Glr Sequential/ Gsm Simultaneous/ Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/ Gc Sample Size ,356 Reduce Ethnic Score Differences

45 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Global Score Differences for Whites & African Americans Adjusted for SES Mean differences are adjusted for SES and other variables, depending on the study. WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998). WJ-R and Binet-4 data are from Wasserman & Becker (2000). CAS data are from Naglieri, Rojahn, Aquilino, & Matto (in press).

46 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Taos sample: KABC-II & WISC-IV +7.4FCI: MPI: DifferenceKABC-II WISC-IV FS-IQ NoteChildren were tested first on KABC-II (ages 5-14, mean = 7.8) and second (18 months later) on WISC-IV (ages 6-15, mean = 9.3). Data from Fletcher-Janzen (2003). Native American Sample, N=30

47 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AgesFCI MPI NVI Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients Reliability of Global Composites

48 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AGE GROUP Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Reliability of Scale Composites Note: Mean Split-Half Reliability Coefficients

49 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AGE GROUP Scale FCI MPI NVI N Retest Reliability for the Global Scales Note: Interval days

50 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AGE GROUP Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc N Retest Reliability for the Five Scales

51 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. SeqSimLrnPlnKn o Sequential--- Simult Learning Planning Knowledge Scale Intercorrelations Note: Ages 7-12 (N = 1200)

52 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. AgesFCI with MPI Global Scale Intercorrelations

53 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Age range Scales MPI vs. MPC Nonverbal Sequential Simultaneous Knowl vs. Ach N7448 Correlations with K-ABC

54 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-IIWISC-IVr FCIFSIQ.89 MPIFSIQ.88 Seq/GsmWMI.71 Sim/GvPRI.66 Plan/GfPRI.69 Know/GcVCI.85 Correlations with WISC-IV Note: Ages 7-16 (N = 56)

55 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-IIWJ III COGr FCIGIA (Std).78 MPIGIA (Std).77 Seq/Gsm Working Memory.55 Sim/Gv Vis-Spatial/Gv.51 Plan/Gf Fluid Reas/Gf.64 Know/Gc Comp.Know/Gc.84 Correlations with WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities Note: Ages 7-16 (N = 85)

56 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-IIKAITr FCIComposite.91 MPIComposite.85 Sim/GvFluid.53 Plan/GfFluid.71 Know/GcCrystallized.93 Correlations with KAIT Note: Ages (N = 29)

57 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-II Global Scale Correlations with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form KTEA-IIKABC-II Scale CompositeFCIMPINVI Comprehensive Reading Mathematics Written Language Oral Language Note: Values are rounded to nearest.05. N = 2,325, ages 4 1/2 to 18

58 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Grades KABC-IIWIAT-II FCIReading MPI FCIMath MPI FCIWritten Language MPI N8284 Correlations with WIAT-II

59 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Grades KABC-IIWJ-III FCIBroad Reading MPI FCIBroad Math MPI FCIBroad Written Lang MPI N7988 Correlations with WJ-III Tests of Achievement

60 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. No separate scales (only Sequential/Gsm subtests (Word Order & Number Recall) separated from others) KABC-II Factor Structure Confirmatory factor analyses, core battery Age 3 Most factors are distinct (Simultaneous/Gv and Knowledge/Gc not significantly distinct, but separated on content) Age 4 Age 5-6 Age factors are distinct 5 factors are distinct (No Planning/Gf)

61 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Extremely good fit at all ages –Benchmarks: Confirmatory Fit Index (CFI) >.95 Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation (RMSEA) <.05 –Age 4 and ages 5-6: no statistically significant difference between data and model –Across age groups: CFI:.997 to RMSEA:.014 to.055 –At ages 5-18, all factors are statistically distinct (p <.001). KABC-II Factor Structure

62 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Administration

63 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Preparing for Administration Select CHC or Luria Model (or Nonverbal Index) Identify tests that will be administered. Depending on AGE and MODEL selected: Luria Model requires 5-8 tests CHC Model requires 7-10 tests Nonverbal Index requires 4-5 tests Arrange testing materials. Supplementary tests can be chosen later. (except for Delayed)

64 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Tests in 4 Easels Easel 1: 1. Atlantis (3-18) 2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6) 3. Face Recognition (3-4) 4. Story Completion (7-18) Easel 2: 5. Number Recall (4-18) 6. Gestalt Closure 7. Rover (6-18) 8. Atlantis Delayed 9. Expressive Vocabulary (3-6) Easel 3: 10. Verbal Knowledge (7-18) 11. Rebus (4-18) 12. Triangles (3-12) Easel 4: 13. Block Counting (13-18) 14. Word Order (3-18) 15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18) 16. Hand Movements 17. Rebus Delayed 18. Riddles (3-18) Tests 9, 10, & 18 are omitted if using Luria Model. Core Tests in bold

65 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Eliminated Spatial Memory Magic Window Photo Series Matrix Analogies Arithmetic Faces & Places Reading: Decoding Reading: Understanding Word Order Number Recall Triangles Face Recognition Riddles Expressive Vocabulary (extended to age 18) Hand Movements (S) Gestalt Closure (S) Retained KABC Subtests (S) Supplementary

66 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. New KABC-II Subtests Atlantis (Immediate & Delayed) Rebus (Immediate & Delayed) Conceptual Thinking (ages 3-6) Rover (ages 6-18) Block Counting (ages 5-18) Pattern Reasoning (ages 5-18) Story Completion (ages 6-18) Verbal Knowledge (ages 3-18)

67 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Sequence of Administration Tests are numbered 1-18 in Easels and Record Form. Administer required core tests in numeric sequence. Age 3 - CHC Model 1. Atlantis ( Easel 1) 2. Conceptual Thinking (Easel 1) 3. Face Recognition (Easel 1) 9. Expressive Vocabulary (Easel 2 ) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4) 18. Riddles (Easel 4) Age 3 - Luria Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 2. Conceptual Thinking (Easel 1) 3. Face Recognition (Easel 1) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4)

68 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Sequence of Administration Age CHC Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 4. Story Completion (Easel 1) 5. Number Recall (Easel 2) 7. Rover (Easel 2) 10. Verbal Knowledge (Easel 3) 11. Rebus (Easel 3) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4) 15. Pattern Reasoning (Easel 4) 18. Riddles (Easel 4) Age Luria Model 1. Atlantis (Easel 1) 4. Story Completion (Easel 1) 5. Number Recall (Easel 2) 7. Rover (Easel 2) 11. Rebus (Easel 3) 12. Triangles (Easel 3) 14. Word Order (Easel 4) 15. Pattern Reasoning (Easel 4) Sequence shown by age on page 20 of Manual and back of Rover Booklet.

69 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. KABC-II Core Battery - A ge 3 Atlantis Word Order Triangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Riddles Expressive Vocabulary MPI or FCI composites only Luria CHC

70 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Tests for Nonverbal Index Easel 1: 2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6) 3. Face Recognition (3-5) 4. Story Completion (7-18) Easel 2: None Easel 3: 12. Triangles (3-18) Easel 4: 13. Block Counting (13-18) 15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18) 16. Hand Movements (3-18) 4 tests at ages tests at all other ages

71 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Using KABC-II with Bilingual Children Permits teaching in any language or mode of communication during sample and teaching items (not including specific item stimuli) Accept correct verbal responses in other languages on tests requiring a verbal response, except Number Recall and Rebus (responses must be in English) Lists correct and Incorrect Spanish responses for Expressive Vocabulary, Gestalt Closure, and Riddles Includes Spanish wording of instructions for all tests with sample or teaching items Use Nonverbal Scale if child is not proficient in English

72 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Supplementary Subtests Administer after core subtests Use to explore hypotheses (added measure of core scales) Use for planned comparisons Use as a substitute if a core subtest is spoiled No prescribed sequence with one exception - Delayed Recall. At ages 5 and 13-18, you must administer a supplementary subtest to get the right delay interval. Knowledge/Gc tests are never used to obtain delay interval

73 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Supplementary Tests Gestalt Closure Number Recall Verbal Knowledge Gestalt Closure Hand Movements Verbal Knowledge Face Recognition Hand Movements Verbal Knowledge Block Counting Gestalt Closure Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed Story Completion Hand Movements Verbal Knowledge Block Counting Gestalt Closure Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed Hand Movements Block Counting Gestalt Closure Expressive Vocabulary Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed Hand Movements Triangles Gestalt Closure Expressive Vocabulary Atlantis Delayed Rebus Delayed

74 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Record Form Features Circle number for all tests to be administered Core Test for Ages 4-18 Sample or Teaching Items Start Points (after Sample) Basal/Discontinue Rules

75 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Samples and Teaching Items Both are identified with an apple. Samples do not count in the raw score. Samples are highlighted in green. Teaching Items do count in the raw score.

76 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Qualitative Indicators (QI) Optional list of QIs is provided for each test to guide observations of childs behavior during testing. Disruptive QIs (-) Enhancing QIs (+) After testing, QIs may be summarized on page 2 of Record Form. QIs (optional) Atlantis – Fails to sustain attention – Impulsively responds incorrectly – Reluctant to respond when uncertain – Responds negatively to correction + Unusually focused + Verbalizes a strategy for remembering QIs developed in collaboration with Dr. Elaine Fletcher-Janzen.

77 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Subtest: Atlantis Scale: Learning/Glr This is KOH. Point to KOH. Let child point to the picture (repeat instruction if necessary), then immediately turn page. You will see pictures of fish, plants, and shells, Each one has a name.

78 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Subtest: Atlantis Scale: Learning/Glr Point to KOH.

79 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Starting point after Sample for age 6. Point to the one that doesnt belong. Item 6 If starting here and incorrect response is given, drop back to Item 1. Subtest: Conceptual Thinking Scale: Simultaneous/Gv

80 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Subtest: Face Recognition Scale: Simultaneous/Gv Begin timing. See this person? Expose the picture for 5 seconds, then immediately turn the page. Start: All Ages

81 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Correct: Go on to Item 1. Incorrect or no response: This is the person I showed you (point to person). Lets try again. Turn back to the exposure page and repeat the item. Find that person here. Subtest: Face Recognition Scale: Simultaneous/Gv

82 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. If necessary, say What is this? If child names a specific part instead of the whole object say Yes, but tell me the name of the whole thing. If the child names an irrelevant part of the picture, point to the intended object and say Yes, but tell me the name of this. Subtest: Expressive Vocabulary Scale: Knowledge/Gc

83 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Begin timing. Put these together to make one like this (point to easel). Items have time limits. Begin timing when you turn the page. Stop timing when child is finished or time limit. Record response times in seconds for ages 7-18 (not at ages 3-6). Subtest: Triangles Scale: Simultaneous/Gv

84 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Subtest: Word Order Scale: Sequential/Gsm Look at these pictures (point to the entire row). Point to the Star…Cup…Key…Bird…House. Correct the child as necessary and repeat until the child associates the appropriate word with each picture. Starting Directions

85 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Point to something that swims in the water and lives in a bowl. Point to an animal that gives milk. Point to something you can wear to keep warm. Subtest: Riddles Scale:Knowledge/Gc Riddles Pictures (Items 1-8) An oral response is acceptable. If oral response is incorrect, say Point to the answer.

86 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Interpretation

87 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Color-coded Record Form Score summaries on front and back covers Completing the Record Form Front: Ages 7-18Back: Ages 3-6

88 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Color-coded Green = Learning Red = Sequential Purple = Simultaneous Brown = Planning Blue = Knowledge Subtests - (Ages 7-18) Solid color = Core Test Colored Text = Supplemental Test Record raw score, scaled score, PR, and AE Use Tables D.1, D.4, D.5

89 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Scale Indexes Record & sum scaled scores for each core test within a Scale Index Record the sums for each Scale Index in the appropriate column (FCI or MPI) Sum to obtain total for global index Record the SS, confidence intervals, and PR (Use Tables D.2 and D.4)

90 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Range of Standard Scores Global Scale Index Scale Index 40 to to or greater 116 to to to or less Upper extreme Above average Average Below average Lower extreme Descriptive Category Range of Standard Scores

91 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Nonverbal Index Record scaled scores for required subtests and sum Record standard score, confidence interval, and PR (Tables D.2, D.4)

92 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Profile of Scale Indexes Page 3 of Record Form

93 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Analysis of Scale Indexes Page 3 of Record Form

94 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Inside back cover for ages 3-6 Profile and Analysis of Scale Indexes P. 23

95 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Background Questions Page 2 of Record Form

96 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Summary of Qualitative Indicators Optional Page 2 Record Form

97 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Ground Rules for Interpreting the KABC-II Interpret a scale index only if performance is consistent on subtests that compose scale (base rate rule <10%) Use.05 level of statistical significance when determining personal strengths/weaknesses Consider differences that are both statistically significant and uncommon (<10%) to be potentially valuable for diagnosis and educational purposes

98 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Interpreting the Results Step 1. Interpret the global scale index (FCI, MPI, or NVI) A. Consult Table D.2 to obtain SS and 90% or 95% confidence interval. Use Table D.4 for PR and Table 5.1 for category. B. If using NVI do not conduct any other interpretive steps. FCI Average Global Scale Index Standard Score 95% confidence interval Percentile Rank Descriptive Category

99 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Interpreting the Results Step 2. Interpret the profile of scale indexes to identify strengths and weaknesses (personal/relative and normative) A. Determine whether each scale is interpretable (unitary). B. Conduct normative analysis (relative to Average range of ) C. Conduct ipsative analysis (relative to childs mean score) D. Determine if any scales that are personal strengths or weaknesses are infrequent.

100 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Is Each Scale Interpretable? Step 2A: Use base rate rule of <10%. See Record Form p. 3 for ages 7-18 and p. 23 for ages 3-6.

101 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. What if a Scale is Not Interpretable? Provides rich, diagnostic information Identifies uncommon variability Provides divergent vs. convergent data Consider narrow abilities or task differences Use cross-battery assessment to explore Determine if tests within scale are a notable integrity (both > 12) or a notable limitation (both < 8) Meaningfulness of Scale may be diminished, but the tests are not invalid.

102 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Any Normative Strengths or Weaknesses? Step 2B: Identify if any of the scales are a normative weakness ( 115.

103 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Graphical Profile of Norm-Referenced Performance

104 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Any Relative Strengths or Weaknesses? Step 2C: Identify personal weaknesses or strengths in the scale profile. Calculate mean and difference from mean for each interpretable scale. Mean Consult Tables on p. 3. See next slide. 92

105 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Any Relative Strengths or Weaknesses? Step 2D: Consult statistical significance and frequency table in Record Form (p. 3 or p. 23).

106 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Interpreting the Results Optional Steps Step 3. Scale Comparisons A. Learning/Glr to Delayed Recall (5-18) B. Learning/Glr to Knowledge/Gc Step 4. Supplementary Subtest Analysis A.Compare to the mean scaled score of the core subtests in interpretable scales. B. See Table 5.3 (p. 55) of Manual for supplementary subtests by scale and age C. Consult Table D.10 to evaluate the size and frequency of the differences.

107 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Zero scores always require caution. If child has more than 3 raw scores of 0, do not interpret the global scale index. If child has 2 of more raw scores on a scale, do not interpret the scale index. Zero Raw Scores

108 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Prorating for the FCI or MPI A maximum of two unusable tests Must have at least one valid subtest in each scale included in the global scale index Prorating is Permitted Prorating for the NVI or the Simultaneous/Gv Scale Must have at least two usable subtests Compute the rounded average (mean) of the usable scaled scores and use as the score for the unusable subtest(s). Do not perform interpretive analysis with any scores obtained by prorating.

109 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Covers an extended age range: 3-18 Provides measurement of 5 Scales Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Uses Luria or CHC Theories Conormed with KTEA-II KABC-II : Summary

110 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. We are the most important element in evaluation…not the tests. Intelligent Testing Alan S. Kaufman

111 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.


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