Presentation on theme: "Section 1: What factors affect price?"— Presentation transcript:
1Section 1: What factors affect price? Essential QuestionCh 6: What is the right price?Section 1: What factors affect price?
2ObjectivesExplain how supply and demand create equilibrium in the marketplace.Describe what happens to price and quantity when in disequilibrium.Identify two ways that the government intervenes in markets to control prices.Analyze the impact of price ceilings and price floors on a free market.
3Introduction What factors affect price? Law of demand. (households) Law of supply (firms)They are also affected by actions of the government.Often times the government will intervene to set a minimum or maximum price for a good or service.We will study rent control and minimum wage
4Market Equilibrium: Where Supply Meets Demand AssumptionsConsumers maximize utilityLaw of Demand: Demand goes up as price goes downFirms maximize profitLaw of Supply: Supply goes up as price goes upNotationS1 = Original Market Supply CurveD1 = Original Market Demand CurveP* = Equilibrium PriceQ* = Equilibrium OutputP1 = Price if different from equilibrium priceQ1 = Quantity if different from equilibrium quantityAnswer: 200
5Market Equilibrium: Where Supply Meets Demand We are focusing on the the market are many buyers and sellerEquilibrium is where things are balanced: S = DIn order to find the equilibrium price and quantity, you can use supply and demand schedules.When a market is at equilibrium, both buyers and sellers benefit. The market is stable.Answer: 200
6Market Equilibrium: Where Supply Meets Demand Answer: 200
7Market Equilibrium: Where Supply Meets Demand (p135) How many slices are sold at equilibrium?What is the price?How many firms are in this market?What is profit?
8Disequilibrium: Shortage and Surplus (p.136) Checkpoint: What might cause a pizzeria owner to throw out many pizza slices at the end of the day?If the market price or quantity is anywhere but at equilibrium, the market is said to be at disequilibrium.Disequilibrium can produce two possible outcomes:Shortage—A shortage causes prices to rise as the demand for a good is greater than the supply of that good.Surplus—A surplus causes a drop in prices as the supply for a good is greater than the demand for that good.Checkpoint Answer: A surplus
9Disequilibrium: Shortage and Surplus (p.136) Shortage and surplus are both examples of disequilibriumHow much is the shortage when pizza is sold at $2.00 per slice?What will Gigio’s do in response to the shortage (line out the door)?Based on the second graph, how might the pizzeria solve the problem of excess supply?Answers: The shortage is 100 slices of pizza.
10The Pull Back to Equilibrium When a market is in disequilibrium, there are either shortages or surplusesThe market will eventually move back toward equilibrium.Shortages cause a firm to raise its prices.Higher prices cause the quantity supplied to rise and the quantity demanded to fall until the two values are equal again.Surpluses cause a firm to drop its prices.Lower prices cause the quantity supplied to fall and the quantity demanded to rise until equilibrium is restored.
11Government Intervention: Intentional Disequilibrium Markets drift toward equilibrium on their ownSometimes the government intervenes and sets market prices.Two ways the government controls prices:Price Ceilings / Rent ControlPrice Floors / Minimum Wage
12Price Ceilings: Rent Control In price ceilings, the government caps or limits the price that can be charged for a good/serviceRent ControlSets a price ceiling on apartment rentPrevents inflation during housing crisesHelps the poor cut their housing costsCan lead to poorly managed buildings because landlords cannot afford the upkeep.Can lead to shortage of housing
14Price Floors: Minimum Wage In price floors, the government sets a floor or a minimum price that must be charged for a good/service (including the factors of production)Minimum WageSets a price floor on the price for labor (wages)Affects both supply and demand for laborHelps people in low-income jobs earn a higher wageCan lead to shortage of jobs availableCan lead employers to substitute capital for labor
15The Effects of Minimum Wage (p.139) At what wage is the labor market at equilibrium?How many workers are hired at equilibrium?What is the minimum wage?Is it a price ceiling or floor?How much higher than equilibrium price do workers get paid?How many less workers are demanded at minimum wage level?Answer: $6.60.
16Key Terms market: exchange between firms/sellers and households/buyers market equilibrium: the point at which the demand for a product or service is equal to the supply of that product or servicedisequilibrium: any price or quantity not at equilibriumshortage: when quantity demanded is more than quantity suppliedsurplus: when quantity supplied is more than quantity demanded
17Key Terms, cont.price ceiling: a maximum price that can legally be charged for a good or servicerent control: a price ceiling placed on apartment rentprice floor: a minimum price for a good or serviceminimum wage: a minimum price that an employer can pay a worker for one hour of labor