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The Revisions of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-II) Alan S. Kaufman Mark H. Daniel.

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Presentation on theme: "The Revisions of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-II) Alan S. Kaufman Mark H. Daniel."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Revisions of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-II) Alan S. Kaufman Mark H. Daniel California Association of School Psychologists Burlingame, CA March 18, 2004

2 Original K-ABCThe Positives Smaller ethnic differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans Theory-based** Novel tasks** Teaching Items**

3 Original K-ABCThe Positives Interpretive Manual** Many validity studies in manual** Special Education children in standardization sample** Easy to Administer & Score Includes Nonverbal Scale

4 Original K-ABCThe Negatives Excluded verbal ability from measure of intelligence Measured too few abilities (only Sequential-Simultaneous Processing) Alternative interpretations feasible Too much memory, not enough reasoning ability

5 Goals of the KABC-II Keep the positives of the K-ABC and eliminate its negatives Develop a test that will help effect change Expand age range to 3-18 years (K-ABC range was 2½ -12½ )

6 Goals of the KABC-II Offer flexibility to examiner Two TheoriesLuria & CHC Two Global scoresMPI & FCI Nonverbal Scale Core Battery + Supplementary Subtests + Supplementary Delayed Recall Scale + Out-of-Level Norms

7 Goals of the KABC-II Keep the Best K-ABC Subtests and develop interesting new ones Eight K-ABC subtests were eliminated Eight K-ABC subtests were retained Eight new subtests were added to the KABC-II

8 Subtests Eliminated from K-ABC Spatial Memory Magic Window Photo Series Matrix Analogies Arithmetic Faces & Places Reading: Decoding Reading: Understanding

9 Subtests Retained from K-ABC Word Order Number Recall Triangles Face Recognition Riddles Expressive Vocabulary (Extended to age 18) Hand Movements (Supplementary subtest only) Gestalt Closure (Supplementary subtest only)

10 New KABC-II Subtests Atlantis (Immediate & Delayed) Rebus (Immediate & Delayed) Conceptual Thinking (ages 3-6) Rover (ages 6-18) Block Counting (ages 5-18) Pattern Reasoning (ages 5-18) Story Completion (ages 6-18) Verbal Knowledge

11 Features of the KABC-II Measures a wider variety of processing abilities: Continues to measure Sequential & Simultaneous New emphasis on learning ability Increased emphasis on reasoning ability (planning)

12 KABC-II: Key Features Wide age range for consistency of assessment throughout the school years Processing orientation helps give insights into how the child learns Five scales help identify processing disorders (and integrities) for the assessment of SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES

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18 Theory of Original K-ABC Based on: –Sperrys cerebral lateralization theory –Lurias neuropsychological theory Definition of intelligence: –The integration of sequential and simultaneous processing, distinct from language ability and factual knowledge

19 Mental Processing Composite Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Achievement Original K-ABC Structure

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21 Dual Theoretical Foundation Luria Term Learning Ability Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing Planning Ability Mental Processing Index (MPI) CHC Term Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr) Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Visual Processing (Gv) Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Crystallized Ability (Gc) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) KABC-II Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Name of

22 Features of the KABC-II Hybrid of the new and the old: –Roots in Lurias theory –Simultaneously rests on the CHC model –Provides alternative frameworks for interpreting the 4 or 5 scales that compose the battery

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24 What has many contests, cowboys, and horses? What is made of nylon, is carefully folded, and is needed for skydiving?

25 What is as big as a fist, has a beat, and keeps people alive? What is a liquid, is silver- colored, and is used in thermometers?

26 Block 1Maintains Arousal

27 Block 2Codes & Stores Information

28 Block 3Plans & Organizes Behavior

29 Dual theoretical model Luria perspective Learning/Glr LEARNING ABILITY represents the integration of the processes associated with all three functional units, placing a premium on Block 1 (Attention) and Block 2 (Coding, Storage, & Sensory Integration)

30 Dual theoretical model Luria perspective Sequential/Gsm SEQUENTIAL PROCESSING is associated primarily with the Coding functions of Block 2 (Successive or Sequential information processing) ** Arranging input in sequential or serial order to solve a problem, where each idea is linearly and temporally related to the preceding one

31 Dual theoretical model Luria perspectiveSimultaneous/Gv SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSING is associated primarily with the Coding functions of Block 2 (Simultaneous information processing), but also with the Planning functions of Block 3 ** Synthesizing stimuli simultaneously (holistically), usually spatially, to produce the appropriate solution. Blends Lurias Blocks 2 & 3 to enhance complexity of KABC-II tasks

32 Dual theoretical model Luria perspectivePlanning/Gf PLANNING ABILITY is associated primarily with the Planning, Executive Functioning, and Organizing functions of Block 3 (Frontal Lobe) ** measures the high-level, executive processes associated with Block 3, such as decision making, planning, generating hypotheses, self-monitoring, & programming

33 Dual theoretical model Luria perspectiveKnowledge/Gc ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE Like Learning Ability, it represents the integration of the processes associated with all three functional units Unlike Learning Ability, it depends heavily on cultural background & experience, quality of home & school environment, and motivation. Consequently, this scale is excluded from the Luria model and its global score (MPI)

34 Dual theoretical model Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective: –Assesses five broad abilities (of the ten in the full CHC model) –Crystallized ability is just as essential as other components

35 Dual theoretical model CHC Broad Abilities Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr) storing and efficiently retrieving newly- learned or previously learned information Short-Term Memory (Gsm)taking in and holding information, and then using it within a few seconds

36 Dual theoretical model CHC Broad Abilities (continued) Visual Processing (Gv)perceiving, storing, manipulating, and thinking with visual patterns (KABC-II tasks deliberately add Gf) Fluid Reasoning (Gf)solving novel problems by using reasoning abilities such as induction and deduction Crystallized Ability (Gc)demonstrating the breadth and depth of knowledge acquired from ones culture (KABC-II tasks add Gf)

37 Dual theoretical model Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective: –Compatible with most other comprehensive cognitive batteries –Consistent with several other Kaufman tests, such as KAIT, K-BIT, & KBIT-2 –Forms the basis for the popular cross- battery assessment approach

38 Selecting the model: guidelines Theoretical orientation of each model Luria model: focuses more on problem- solving skills than on acquired knowledge CHC model: more conventional view of cognitive functioning, well suited to cross-battery assessment

39 Selecting the model: guidelines Selection must be made before administering the KABC-II The CHC model is the model of choice, except in cases where the examiner believes that including measures of acquired knowledge would compromise the validity of the Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI).

40 Selecting the model: guidelines In those cases, the Luria-based global score (MPI) is preferred. The CHC model is given priority over the Luria model because we believe that knowledge/Gc is, in principle, an important aspect of cognitive functioning.

41 Selecting the model: guidelines Cases where the Luria model (MPI) would be preferred include, but are not limited to, the following: a child from a bilingual background a child whose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal development

42 Selecting the model: guidelines A child with known or suspected language disorders, whether expressive, receptive, or mixed receptive-expressive A child with known or suspected autism

43 Selecting the model: guidelines In addition, an examiner with a firm commitment to the Luria processing approach, who believes that acquired knowledge should be excluded from any global cognitive scoreregardless of the reason for referralmay use the KABC-II in the same way as the original K-ABC, as a Luria-based instrument.

44 Selecting the model: guidelines Otherwise, we recommend the CHC model for most other situations, including evaluation of children with known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematics; mental retardation; behavior disorders; or attentional disorders such as ADHD.

45 Selecting the model: guidelines The CHC model is particularly appropriate for assessing children for entry into programs for the gifted and talented. Such programs typically emphasize academic (Gc) skills. Also, Gc tends to be a strength of gifted children, so the CHC model is fairer and more suitable for this application.

46 Selecting the model: guidelines This set of guidelines does not imply that we consider one model to be theoretically superior to the other. Both theories are equally important as foundations of the KABC-II.

47 Selecting the model: guidelines The CHC psychometric theory emphasizes specific cognitive abilities. The Luria neuropsychological theory emphasizes "processes," namely the way children process information when solving problems.

48 Selecting the model: guidelines Both approaches are valid for understanding how children learn and solve new problems, which is why each scale has two names, one from each theory.

49 Selecting the model: guidelines Ultimately, decisions are functions of: Reason for ReferralFor example, children with reading disabilities are ordinarily given the CHC model whereas children with language disabilities are given the Luria model Childs BackgroundFor example, the Luria model is preferred for children from bilingual backgrounds

50 Selecting the model: guidelines Examiners Theoretical OrientationExaminers devoted to Lurias approach are permitted to administer the Luria model of the KABC-II, regardless of other considerations.

51 Selecting the model: guidelines Interpretation of KABC-II Profile How examiners interpret childrens KABC-II scores is separate from the model they choose. Examiners who favor the CHC approach will interpret scales as CHC Broad Abilities, even if they choose to report the MPI for a particular child. Those who prefer Lurias model will apply a processing approach to interpretation, even when they administer the CHC model.

52 KABC-II StructureAges 3-18 Age 3 GlobalAge 4-6 GlobalAge 7-18 Global Luria MPI CHC FCI Nonverbal NVI Scale Profile NoneLearning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc

53 KABC-II Core BatteryAges 3-6 Age 3Age 4Age 5-6 Learning/Glr Atlantis Rebus Atlantis Rebus Sequential/Gsm Word Order Number Recall Word Order Number Recall Simultaneous/ Gv Triangles Concept. Thinking Face Recognition Triangles Concept. Thinking Face Recognition Triangles Concept. Thinking --- Pattern Reasoning Rover (age 6 only) Knowledge/Gc Riddles Expressive Voc. Riddles Expressive Vocab. Riddles Expressive Vocab.

54 KABC-II Core BatteryAges 7-18 Ages 7-12Ages Learning/Glr Atlantis Rebus Atlantis Rebus Sequential/Gsm Word Order Number Recall Word Order Number Recall Simultaneous/Gv Rover Triangles Rover Block Counting Planning/Gf Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Knowledge/Gc Riddles Verbal Knowledge Riddles Verbal Knowledge

55 MPIFCI AgesLuria ModelCHC Model 30 Minutes 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 55 Minutes 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 60 Minutes 70 Minutes Administration Times for Core Battery

56 Supplementary subtests Supplementary subtests are additional measures However, they dont contribute to scores for scales (except to substitute for a spoiled core subtest) Contribute to the interpretive system Fully normed and validated, and therefore useful for hypothesis testing (as in cross-battery assessment)

57 KABC-II Core Battery + Supplementary SubtestsAge 3 CORE BATTERYSUPPLEMENTARY Atlantis Word Order Triangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Gestalt Closure Number Recall Riddles Expressive Vocabulary Verbal Knowledge

58 KABC-II Core Battery + Supplementary SubtestsAge 4 SCALECORE BATTERYSUPPLEMENTARY Learning/GlrAtlantis Rebus Sequential/GsmWord Order Number Recall Hand Movements Simultaneous/GvTriangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Gestalt Closure Knowledge/GcRiddles Expressive Vocabulary Verbal Knowledge

59 KABC-II Core Battery + Supplementary SubtestsAge 5 SCALECORE BATTERYSUPPLEMENTARY Learning/GlrAtlantis Rebus Delayed Recall Scale Sequential/GsmWord Order Number Recall Hand Movements Simultaneous/ Gv Triangles Conceptual Thinking Pattern Reasoning Gestalt Closure Face Recognition Block Counting Knowledge/GcRiddles Expressive Vocabulary Verbal Knowledge

60 KABC-II Core Battery + Supplementary SubtestsAge 6 SCALECORE BATTERYSUPPLEMENTARY Learning/GlrAtlantis Rebus Delayed Recall Scale Sequential/GsmWord Order Number Recall Hand Movements Simultaneous/GvTriangles Conceptual Thinking Pattern Reasoning Rover Gestalt Closure Face Recognition Block Counting Story Completion Knowledge/GcRiddles Expressive Vocabulary Verbal Knowledge

61 KABC-II Core Battery + Supplementary SubtestsAges 7-12 ScaleCore BatterySupplementary Learning/Glr Atlantis Rebus Delayed Recall Scale Sequential/Gsm Word Order Number Recall Hand Movements Simultaneous/Gv Rover Triangles Block Counting Gestalt Closure Planning/Gf Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Knowledge/Gc Riddles Verbal Knowledge Expressive Vocabulary

62 KABC-II Core Battery + Supplementary SubtestsAges SCALE CORE BATTERYSUPPLEMENTARY Learning/Glr Atlantis Rebus Delayed Recall Scale Sequential/Gsm Word Order Number Recall Hand Movements Simultaneous/Gv Rover Block Counting Triangles Gestalt Closure Planning/Gf Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Knowledge/Gc Riddles Verbal Knowledge Expressive Vocabulary

63 KABC-II Nonverbal ScaleAges 3-18 Ages 3-4Age 5Age 6Ages 7-18 Hand Movements Triangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Block Counting 20 minutes30 minutes 40 minutes

64 Learning/Glr Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Broad Ability = Long-Term Storage & Retrieval/Glr Main Narrow Ability = GlrAssociative Memory (MA) Luria Integration of Blocks 1, 2, & 3Emphasis on both Block 1 (Attention) and Block 2 (Coding & Storage) Also Depends on good Working Memory Requires Sustained Attention & Concentration Susceptible to Anxiety & Distractibility

65 Learning/Glr ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18) AtlantisRebus Provides feedback for errors?YESNO Uses meaningful visual stimuli? YESNO Uses meaningful auditory stimuli? NOYES Context important for success? NOYES Does sequence of stimuli matter? NOYES

66 Learning/Glr Scale & the Supplementary Delayed Recall Scale (Ages 5–18) CHC Learning/Glr Scale Delayed Recall Scale Broad AbilitiesLong-term storage & retrieval/Glr Narrow AbilitiesAssociative MemoryAssociative Memory & Learning Abilities Luria Integration of Blocks 1, 2, & 3 Primary focus on Block 1- Attention Block 2- Coding & Sensory Integration Primary focus on Block 2- Storage & Retrieval Also Compare Initial & Delay Scores Initial Learning20 min. Delayed Recall

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69 Sequential/Gsm Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Broad Ability = Short-Term Memory/Gsm Main Narrow Ability = GsmMemory Span (MS) Luria Emphasis on Block 2 (Successive or Sequential Processing) Also Requires good Attention Span Susceptible to Anxiety & Distractibility

70 Sequential/Gsm ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18) Word OrderNumber Recall Nature of Output? PointingVocal Nature of Content? WordsNumbers Achieves Difficulty? Interference Task Long Number Series Integration of auditory & visual stimuli? YESNO

71 Sequential/Gsm Scale with Supplementary Hand MovementsHow the Three Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18) Word OrderNumber Recall [Hand Movements] Nature of Output? PointingVocalGross Motor Nature of Content? WordsNumbersHand positions Achieves difficulty? Interference task Long number series [Long sequences of hand positions] Integration: auditory & visual stimuli? YESNO Channel of communication Auditory- Motor Auditory-VocalVisual-Motor

72 Sequential/Gsm ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (AGES 4–18) (continued) Word OrderNumber Recall CHC: measures the Gsm narrow abilityWorking Memory (WM)? YES (interference task) NO Requires flexibility to shift tasks? YESNO

73 Sequential/Gsm Scale with Supplementary Hand MovementsHow the Three Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4 – 18) (continued) CHC Narrow Ability Word Order Number Recall [Hand Movements] Gsm Memory Span (MS) *** Working Memory (WM) *** Gv Visual Memory (MV) ***

74 Say these numbers just as I do. 7 – 3 2 – 5 – 9 – 4 7 – 9 – 3 – 5 – 2 – 10 – 5 – 1 – 4

75 Hand Movements Hand Movements Sequential/Gsm

76 Simultaneous/Gv Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Primary Broad Ability = Visual Processing/Gv Secondary Broad Ability = Fluid Reasoning/Gf Luria Emphasis on Block 2 (Simultaneous Processing) Integration of Block 2 & Block 3 (Planning Ability)

77 Simultaneous/Gv ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–4) Triangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition Nature of visual stimuli? AbstractAbstract & Meaningful Meaningful Nature of Response? Gross-MotorPointing Problem Solving or Memory? Problem solving Memory

78 Simultaneous/Gv ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–4) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityTriangles Conceptual Thinking Face Recognition GV Visualization (VZ) *** Spatial Relations (SR) *** Visual Memory (VM) *** Gf Induction (I) ***

79 Simultaneous/Gv ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 5–6) CHC Narrow Ability Triangles Conceptual Thinking Pattern Reasoning Rover (age 6) GvVisualization (VZ) *** GvSpatial Relations (SR) *** GvSpatial Scanning (SS) *** Gf Induction (I) *** GfGeneral Sequential Reasoning (RG) ***

80 Simultaneous/Gv ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–12) Core BatterySupplementary CHC Narrow Ability Rover Triangles Block CountingGestalt Closure GvVisualization (VZ) *** GvSpatial Relations (SR) *** GvSpatial Scanning (SS) *** GvClosure Speed (CS) *** GfGeneral Sequential Reasoning (RG) *** GqMath Achievement (A3) ***

81 Simultaneous/Gv ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 13–18) Core BatterySupplementary CHC Narrow Ability Rover Block CountingTrianglesGestalt Closure GvVisualization (VZ) *** GvSpatial Relations (SR) *** GvSpatial Scanning (SS) *** GvClosure Speed (CS) *** GfGeneral Sequential Reasoning (RG) *** GqMath Achievement (A3) ***

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91 Block Counting Block Counting Simultaneous/Gv

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96 Planning/Gf Scale (Ages 7–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Broad Ability = Fluid Reasoning/Gf Main Narrow Ability = GfInduction (I) Luria Emphasis on Block 3 (Planning Ability) Integration of Blocks 1 (Attention) with Block 3 (Planning Ability) Also Requires good Executive Functioning (frontal lobe) Susceptible to Impulsivity

97 Planning/Gf ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Meaningful visual stimuli? NOYES Visual-motor response? NOYES Uses manipulatives? NOYES

98 Planning/Gf ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) (continued) CHC Narrow Ability Pattern Reasoning Story Completion Gf Induction (I) *** Gc General Information (K0) *** Gv Visualization (VZ) ***

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103 Story Completion Story Completion Planning/Gf

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107 Knowledge/Gc Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Broad Ability = Crystallized Ability/Gc Narrow Ability = GcLexical Knowledge (VL) Luria Acquired KnowledgeIntegration of Blocks 1, 2, & 3 NOTEKnowledge/Gc Scale is excluded from Luria model Also Dependent on environmental opportunity, cultural background, & alertness to environment

108 Knowledge/Gc ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–6) Riddles Expressive Vocabulary Type of stimuli? VerbalPictorial Channel of communication Auditory-visualVisual-vocal NoteRiddles has verbal and pictorial stimuli for its easiest items.

109 Knowledge/Gc ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–6) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityRiddles Expressive Vocabulary Gc Lexical Knowledge (VL) *** Language Development (LD) *** Gf General Sequential Reasoning (RG) ***

110 Knowledge/Gc ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) Riddles Verbal Knowledge Type of stimuli? AuditoryVisual + auditory Type of response? VocalPointing Measures auditory-visual integration NOYES

111 Knowledge/Gc ScaleHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityRiddlesVerbal Knowledge Gc Lexical Knowledge (VL) *** Language Development (LD) *** General Information (KO) *** Gf General Sequential Reasoning (RG) ***

112 Knowledge/Gc Scale with Supplementary Expressive VocabularyHow the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityRiddles Verbal Knowledge Expressive Vocabulary Gc Lexical Knowledge (VL) *** Language Development (LD) *** General Information (KO) *** Gf General Sequential Reasoning (RG) ***

113 Riddles All-Verbal Items What has many contests, cowboys, and horses? What is made of nylon, is carefully folded, and is needed for skydiving?

114 Riddles All-Verbal Items What is as big as a fist, has a beat, and keeps people alive? What is a liquid, is silver-colored, and is used in thermometers?

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117 Verbal Knowledge Verbal Knowledge Knowledge/Gc

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120 Expressive Vocabulary Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge/Gc

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122 Global Score Differences for Whites & African Americans on Several TestsAdjusted for SES Mean differences are adjusted for SES and other variables, depending on the study. WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998). WJ-R and Binet-4 data are from Wasserman & Becker (2000). CAS data are from Naglieri, Rojahn, Aquilino, & Matto (in press).

123 Mean Global Scores on the K-ABC and KABC-II for African American Children (NOT Adjusted for SES)

124 Mean Scale Indexes on the K-ABC and KABC-II for African American Children (NOT Adjusted for SES)

125 Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic American IndianAsianWhite MPI FCI NVI Sample Size

126 Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic American IndianAsianWhite Learning/Glr Sequential/ Gsm Simultaneous /Gv Knowledge/ Gc Sample Size

127 Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African American Hispanic American IndianAsianWhite MPI FCI NVI Sample Size ,356

128 Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African AmericanHispanic American IndianAsianWhite Learning/Glr Sequential/ Gsm Simultaneous /Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/ Gc Sample Size ,356

129 Mean Global Scores on the WISC-III & KABC-II for African American ChildrenNOT ADJUSTED for SES Scale WISC-III Mean (Ages 6-16) N=338 KABC-II Mean (Ages 7-18) N=315 WISC-III FS-IQ 88.6 KABC-II MPI 94.8 KABC-II FCI 94.0 WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998)

130 Differences between Global Scores of Whites & African Americans on the WISC-III & KABC-IIADJUSTED for SES Scale WISC-III Mean (Ages 6-16) N=338 KABC-II Mean (Ages 7-18) N=315 WISC-III FS-IQ KABC-II MPI +6.7 KABC-II FCI +7.9 WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998)

131 Taos sample: KABC-II & WISC-IV WISC-IV FS-IQKABC-IIDifference 86.7MPI: FCI: NoteChildren were tested first on KABC-II (ages 5-14, mean = 7.8) and second on WISC-IV (ages 6-15, mean = 9.3). Data from Fletcher-Janzen (2003). GLOBAL SCORE MEANS (N=30)

132 Taos sample: KABC-II & WISC-IV KABC-II Mental Processing Index Fluid- Crystallized Index WISC-IV FS-IQ Global Score Intercorrelations (N=30)

133 KABC-II Norm Sample N = 3,025 Tested from September 2001 through January 2003 Matches March 2001 Current Population Survey (Census Bureau) by: –Sex –Ethnicity –SES (mothers education) –Region –SES within ethnicity

134 KABC-II Norm Sample Includes representative proportions of: –Specific learning disability –Speech/language impairment –Mental retardation –Emotional/behavioral disturbance –ADHD –Gifted/talented

135 KABC-II Norm Sample Age 18 sample matches population on educational status: –Dropout –In high school –High school grad, no post-secondary schooling –Entered 2-year post-secondary program –Entered 4-year post-secondary program

136 KABC-II Subtest Floors At the youngest age group (3:03:2), the lowest possible scaled score on the core subtests averages 3.1 (range: 2 to 5). –That is about 2 1/3 SDs below the mean –On the original K-ABC, the average at the youngest age was 7.2, or about 1 SD below the mean

137 KABC-II Subtest Ceilings At the oldest age group (18:618:11), the highest possible scaled score on the core subtests averages 16.9 (range: 14 to 19). –That is about 2 1/3 SDs above the mean –On the original K-ABC, the average at the oldest age was 15.6, almost 2 SDs above the mean

138 KABC-II Subtest Floors & Ceilings At ages where a subtest does not have adequate floor or ceiling, it may be available as an out of level subtest. Out of level subtests are used only for supplementary assessment, in situations when you expect the child to perform in the score range that is not affected by the floor or ceiling problem.

139 Range of KABC-II Standard Scores Type of ScoreRange Scale Index50 to 155 Global Scale Index40 to 160

140 Mean KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for the Five Scales, By Age AGE GROUP Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc

141 Mean KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for FCI, MPI, and NVI AgesFCI MPI NVI

142 KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Learning/Glr Subtests and Delayed Recall Score Delayed Ages Atlantis Rebus Recall Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Median values are shown for ages 5-6, 7-12, and There are no Supplementary Subtests for Learning/Glr, but there is a Supplementary Delayed Recall Scale, shown in italics.

143 KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Sequential/Gsm Subtests Word Number Hand Ages Order Recall Movements 3.86 (.89) (.72) (.74) (.80) (.79) Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses. Median values are shown for ages 5-6, 7-12, and

144 KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Simultaneous/Gv Subtests (Ages 3-6) ConceptualFacePatternGestalt AgeTrianglesThinkingRecognitionReasoningRoverClosure (.76) (.73) (.65) (.76) (.71) Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses. Block Counting (.90) and Story Completion (.82) are Supplementary subtests at age 6.

145 KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Simultaneous/Gv Subtests (Ages 7-18) Block Gestalt Ages Rover Triangles Counting Closure (.86) (.75) (.87).86 (.77) Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses.

146 KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Planning/Gf Subtests (Ages 7-18) Pattern Story Ages Reasoning Completion Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. There are no Supplementary Subtests for Planning/Gf.

147 KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Knowledge/Gc Subtests Expressive Verbal Ages Riddles Vocabulary Knowledge (.75) (.89) (.86) (.85) (.88).89 Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses. Median values are shown for ages 5-6, 7-12, and Knowledge/Gc is included only in the CHC model.

148 KABC-II Retest Reliability Coefficients for the Global Scales, By Age (interval: days) AGE GROUP Scale FCI MPI NVI N628261

149 KABC-II Retest Reliability Coefficients for the Five Scales, By Age AGE GROUP Scale Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Crystallized/Gc N488261

150 Scale intercorrelations Age 4 (N = 250) SeqSimLrnKnow Sequential--- Simult Learning Knowledge

151 Scale intercorrelations Ages 5-6 (N = 400) SeqSimLrnKnow Sequential--- Simult Learning Knowledge

152 Scale intercorrelations Ages 7-12 (N = 1200) SeqSimLrnPlnKno Sequential--- Simult Learning Planning Knowledge

153 Scale intercorrelations Ages (N = 975) SeqSimLrnPlnKno Sequential--- Simult Learning Planning Knowledge

154 Global Scale Intercorrelations AgesFCI with MPI

155 Correlations with K-ABC Age range Scales MPI/MPC Nonverbal Sequential Simultaneous Knowl/Ach N7448

156 Correlations with WISC-IV Ages 7-16 (N = 56) KABC-IIWISC-IVr FCIFSIQ.89 MPIFSIQ.88 Seq/GsmWMI.71 Sim/GvPRI.66 Plan/GfPRI.69 Know/GcVCI.85

157 Correlations with WISC-III Ages 8-13 (N = 119) KABC-IIWISC-IIIr FCIFSIQ.77 MPIFSIQ.71 Seq/GsmFDI.58 Sim/GvPOI.62 Plan/GfPOI.56 Know/GcVCI.82

158 Correlations with KAIT Ages (N = 29) KABC-IIKAITr FCIComposite.91 MPIComposite.85 Sim/GvFluid.53 Plan/GfFluid.71 Know/GcCrystallized.93

159 Correlations with WIAT-II Grades KABC-IIWIAT-II FCIReading MPI FCIMath MPI FCIWritten Language MPI N8284

160 Correlations with WJ-III Ach. Grades KABC-IIWJ-III FCIBroad Reading MPI FCIBroad Math MPI FCIBroad Written Lang MPI N7988

161 KABC-II Profiles: MR, Autism

162 KABC-II Profiles: SLD (Reading, Math)

163 KABC-II Profiles: Gifted/Talented

164 KABC-II Profiles: ADHD, EBD

165 KABC-II Factor Structure Confirmatory factor analyses, core battery –Age 3: only separation is between Sequential/Gsm subtests (Word Order & Number Recall) and everything else; therefore, no separate scales at age 3 –Age 4 and ages 5-6: 4 distinct factors –Ages 7-18: additional Planning/Gf factor

166 KABC-II Factor Structure Fit of model is extremely good at all ages –Standard benchmarks for good fit are: CFI at least.95, and RMSEA.05 or smaller. –Age 4: no statistically significant difference between data and model! –Across age groups: CFI ranges from.997 to RMSEA ranges from.014 to.055

167 KABC-II Factor Structure At age 4, the Simultaneous/Gv and Knowledge/Gc factors correlate highly (.90) and are not statistically distinct. The reason is that Conceptual Thinking loads on both factors. However, the scales were separated on content grounds. At ages 5-18, all factors are statistically distinct (p <.001).


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