Presentation on theme: "Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and"— Presentation transcript:
1Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and California Association of School PsychologistsBurlingame, CAMarch 18, 2004The Revisions of theKaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) andKaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-II)Alan S. KaufmanMark H. Daniel
2Original K-ABC—The Positives Smaller ethnic differences for African Americans, Hispanics, and Native AmericansTheory-based**Novel tasks**Teaching Items**
3Original K-ABC—The Positives Interpretive Manual**Many validity studies in manual**Special Education children in standardization sample**Easy to Administer & ScoreIncludes Nonverbal Scale
4Original K-ABC—The Negatives Excluded verbal ability from measure of intelligenceMeasured too few abilities (only Sequential-Simultaneous Processing)Alternative interpretations feasibleToo much memory, not enough reasoning ability
5Goals of the KABC-IIKeep the positives of theK-ABC and eliminate its negativesDevelop a test that will help effect changeExpand age range to 3-18 years (K-ABC range was 2½ -12½ )
6Goals of the KABC-II Offer flexibility to examiner Two Theories—Luria & CHCTwo Global scores—MPI & FCINonverbal ScaleCore Battery + Supplementary Subtests + Supplementary Delayed Recall Scale + Out-of-Level Norms
7Goals of the KABC-II Keep the Best K-ABC Subtests and develop interesting new onesEight K-ABC subtests were eliminatedEight K-ABC subtests were retainedEight new subtests were added to the KABC-II
11Features of the KABC-II Measures a wider variety of processing abilities:Continues to measure Sequential & SimultaneousNew emphasis on learning abilityIncreased emphasis on reasoning ability (planning)
12KABC-II: Key FeaturesWide age range for consistency of assessment throughout the school yearsProcessing orientation helps give insights into how the child learnsFive scales help identify processing disorders (and integrities) for the assessment of SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES
18Theory of Original K-ABC Based on:Sperry’s cerebral lateralization theoryLuria’s neuropsychological theoryDefinition of intelligence:The integration of sequential and simultaneous processing, distinct from language ability and factual knowledge
22Features of the KABC-II Hybrid of the new and the old:Roots in Luria’s theorySimultaneously rests on the CHC modelProvides alternative frameworks for interpreting the 4 or 5 scales that compose the battery
29Dual theoretical model Luria perspective—Learning/GlrLEARNING ABILITYrepresents the integration of the processes associated with all three functional units, placing a premium onBlock 1 (Attention) andBlock 2 (Coding, Storage, & Sensory Integration)
30Dual theoretical model Luria perspective—Sequential/GsmSEQUENTIAL PROCESSINGis associated primarily with the Coding functions of Block 2 (Successive or Sequential information processing)** Arranging input in sequential or serial order to solve a problem, where each idea is linearly and temporally related to the preceding one
31Dual theoretical model Luria perspective—Simultaneous/GvSIMULTANEOUS PROCESSINGis associated primarily with the Coding functions of Block 2 (Simultaneous information processing), but also with the Planning functions of Block 3**Synthesizing stimuli simultaneously (holistically), usually spatially, to produce the appropriate solution. Blends Luria’s Blocks 2 & 3 to enhance complexity of KABC-II tasks
32Dual theoretical model Luria perspective—Planning/GfPLANNING ABILITYis associated primarily with the Planning, Executive Functioning, and Organizing functions of Block 3 (Frontal Lobe)**measures the high-level, executive processes associated with Block 3, such as decision making, planning, generating hypotheses, self-monitoring, & programming
33Dual theoretical model Luria perspective—Knowledge/GcACQUIRED KNOWLEDGELike Learning Ability, it represents the integration of the processes associated with all three functional unitsUnlike Learning Ability, it depends heavily on cultural background & experience, quality of home & school environment, and motivation. Consequently, this scale is excluded from the Luria model and its global score (MPI)
34Dual theoretical model Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective:Assesses five broad abilities (of the ten in the full CHC model)Crystallized ability is just as essential as other components
35Dual theoretical model CHC Broad AbilitiesLong-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr)—storing and efficiently retrieving newly-learned or previously learned informationShort-Term Memory (Gsm)—taking in and holding information, and then using it within a few seconds
36Dual theoretical model CHC Broad Abilities (continued)Visual Processing (Gv)—perceiving, storing, manipulating, and thinking with visual patterns (KABC-II tasks deliberately add Gf)Fluid Reasoning (Gf)—solving novel problems by using reasoning abilities such as induction and deductionCrystallized Ability (Gc)—demonstrating the breadth and depth of knowledge acquired from one’s culture (KABC-II tasks add Gf)
37Dual theoretical model Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective:Compatible with most other comprehensive cognitive batteriesConsistent with several other Kaufman tests, such as KAIT, K-BIT, & KBIT-2Forms the basis for the popular cross-battery assessment approach
38Selecting the model: guidelines Theoretical orientation of each modelLuria model: focuses more on problem-solving skills than on acquired knowledgeCHC model: more conventional view of cognitive functioning, well suited to cross-battery assessment
39Selecting the model: guidelines Selection must be made before administering the KABC-IIThe CHC model is the model of choice, except in cases where the examiner believes that including measures of acquired knowledge would compromise the validity of the Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI).
40Selecting the model: guidelines In those cases, the Luria-based global score (MPI) is preferred. The CHC model is given priority over the Luria model because we believe that knowledge/Gc is, in principle, an important aspect of cognitive functioning.
41Selecting the model: guidelines Cases where the Luria model (MPI) would be preferred include, but are not limited to, the following:a child from a bilingual backgrounda child whose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal development
42Selecting the model: guidelines A child with known or suspected language disorders, whether expressive, receptive, or mixed receptive-expressiveA child with known or suspected autism
43Selecting the model: guidelines In addition, an examiner with a firm commitment to the Luria processing approach, who believes that acquired knowledge should be excluded from any global cognitive score—regardless of the reason for referral—may use the KABC-II in the same way as the original K-ABC, as a Luria-based instrument.
44Selecting the model: guidelines Otherwise, we recommend the CHC model for most other situations, including evaluation of children with known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematics; mental retardation; behavior disorders; or attentional disorders such as ADHD.
45Selecting the model: guidelines The CHC model is particularly appropriate for assessing children for entry into programs for the gifted and talented. Such programs typically emphasize academic (Gc) skills. Also, Gc tends to be a strength of gifted children, so the CHC model is fairer and more suitable for this application.
46Selecting the model: guidelines This set of guidelines does not imply that we consider one model to be theoretically superior to the other. Both theories are equally important as foundations of the KABC-II.
47Selecting the model: guidelines The CHC psychometric theory emphasizes specific cognitive abilities.The Luria neuropsychological theory emphasizes "processes," namely the way children process information when solving problems.
48Selecting the model: guidelines Both approaches are valid for understanding how children learn and solve new problems, which is why each scale has two names, one from each theory.
49Selecting the model: guidelines Ultimately, decisions are functions of:Reason for Referral—For example, children with reading disabilities are ordinarily given the CHC model whereas children with language disabilities are given the Luria modelChild’s Background—For example, the Luria model is preferred for children from bilingual backgrounds
50Selecting the model: guidelines Examiner’s Theoretical Orientation—Examiners devoted to Luria’s approach are permitted to administer the Luria model of the KABC-II, regardless of other considerations.
51Selecting the model: guidelines Interpretation of KABC-II ProfileHow examiners interpret children’s KABC-II scores is separate from the model they choose.Examiners who favor the CHC approach will interpret scales as CHC Broad Abilities, even if they choose to report the MPI for a particular child.Those who prefer Luria’s model will apply a processing approach to interpretation, even when they administer the CHC model.
55Administration Times for Core Battery MPIFCIAgesLuria ModelCHC Model3-4567-1830 Minutes40 Minutes50 Minutes55 Minutes40 Minutes50 Minutes60 Minutes70 Minutes
56Supplementary subtests Supplementary subtests are additional measuresHowever, they don’t contribute to scores for scales (except to substitute for a spoiled core subtest)Contribute to the interpretive systemFully normed and validated, and therefore useful for hypothesis testing (as in cross-battery assessment)
64Learning/Glr Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)Broad Ability = Long-Term Storage & Retrieval/GlrMain Narrow Ability = Glr—Associative Memory (MA)LuriaIntegration of Blocks 1, 2, & 3—Emphasis on both Block 1 (Attention) and Block 2 (Coding & Storage)AlsoDepends on good Working MemoryRequires Sustained Attention & ConcentrationSusceptible to Anxiety & Distractibility
65Learning/Glr Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18) AtlantisRebusProvides feedback for errors?YESNOUses meaningful visual stimuli?Uses meaningful auditory stimuli?Context important for success?Does sequence of stimuli matter?
69Sequential/Gsm Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)Broad Ability = Short-Term Memory/GsmMain Narrow Ability = Gsm—Memory Span (MS)LuriaEmphasis on Block 2 (Successive or Sequential Processing)AlsoRequires good Attention SpanSusceptible to Anxiety & Distractibility
70Sequential/Gsm Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18) Word OrderNumber RecallNature of Output?PointingVocalNature of Content?WordsNumbersAchieves Difficulty?Interference TaskLong Number SeriesIntegration of auditory & visual stimuli?YESNO
71[Long sequences of hand positions] Sequential/Gsm Scale with Supplementary Hand Movements—How the Three Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18)Word OrderNumber Recall[Hand Movements]Nature of Output?PointingVocalGross MotorNature of Content?WordsNumbersHand positionsAchieves difficulty?Interference taskLong number series[Long sequences of hand positions]Integration: auditory& visual stimuli?YESNOChannel of communicationAuditory-MotorAuditory-VocalVisual-Motor
72YES (interference task) Sequential/Gsm Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (AGES 4–18) (continued)Word OrderNumber RecallCHC: measures the Gsm narrow ability—Working Memory (WM)?YES (interference task)NORequires flexibility to shift tasks?YES
73Sequential/Gsm Scale with Supplementary Hand Movements—How the Three Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 4–18) (continued)CHC Narrow AbilityWord OrderNumber Recall[Hand Movements]Gsm —Memory Span (MS)***Working Memory(WM)Gv —Visual Memory(MV)
74Sequential/Gsm: Number Recall “Say these numbers just as I do.”7 – 32 – 5 – 9 – 47 – 9 – 3 – 5 – 2 – 10 – 5 – 1 – 4
77Simultaneous/Gv Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–4) TrianglesConceptual ThinkingFace RecognitionNature of visual stimuli?AbstractAbstract & MeaningfulMeaningfulNature of Response?Gross-MotorPointingProblem Solving or Memory?Problem solvingMemory
78Simultaneous/Gv Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–4) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityTrianglesConceptual ThinkingFace RecognitionGV —Visualization (VZ)***Spatial Relations (SR)Visual Memory (VM)Gf—Induction (I)
79Simultaneous/Gv Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 5–6) CHC Narrow AbilityTrianglesConceptual ThinkingPattern ReasoningRover(age 6)Gv—Visualization (VZ)***Gv—Spatial Relations (SR)Gv—Spatial Scanning (SS)Gf — Induction (I)Gf—General SequentialReasoning (RG)
80Simultaneous/Gv Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–12) Core BatterySupplementaryCHC Narrow AbilityRoverTrianglesBlock CountingGestalt ClosureGv—Visualization (VZ)***Gv—Spatial Relations (SR)Gv—Spatial Scanning (SS)Gv—Closure Speed (CS)Gf—General SequentialReasoning (RG)Gq—Math Achievement (A3)
81Core Battery Supplementary Simultaneous/Gv Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 13–18)Core BatterySupplementaryCHC Narrow AbilityRoverBlock CountingTrianglesGestalt ClosureGv—Visualization (VZ)***Gv—Spatial Relations (SR)Gv—Spatial Scanning (SS)Gv—Closure Speed (CS)Gf—General SequentialReasoning (RG)Gq—Math Achievement (A3)
104Story Completion Planning/Gf Which one of these pictures goes here?
105Story Completion Planning/Gf Which of these pictures go here?
106Story Completion Planning/Gf Which one of these pictures goes here?
107Knowledge/Gc Scale (Ages 4–18) Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)Broad Ability = Crystallized Ability/GcNarrow Ability = Gc—Lexical Knowledge (VL)LuriaAcquired Knowledge—Integration of Blocks 1, 2, & 3NOTE—Knowledge/Gc Scale is excluded from Luria modelAlsoDependent on environmental opportunity, cultural background, & alertness to environment
108Knowledge/Gc Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–6) RiddlesExpressive VocabularyType of stimuli?VerbalPictorialChannel of communicationAuditory-visualVisual-vocalNote—Riddles has verbal and pictorial stimuli for its easiest items.
109Knowledge/Gc Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 3–6) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityRiddlesExpressive VocabularyGcLexical Knowledge (VL)***Language Development(LD)GfGeneral Sequential Reasoning (RG)
110Knowledge/Gc Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) RiddlesVerbal KnowledgeType of stimuli?AuditoryVisual + auditoryType of response?VocalPointingMeasures auditory-visual integrationNOYES
111Knowledge/Gc Scale—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) (continued) CHC Narrow AbilityRiddlesVerbal KnowledgeGcLexical Knowledge(VL)***LanguageDevelopment(LD)General Information(KO)GfGeneral SequentialReasoning (RG)
112Knowledge/Gc Scale with Supplementary Expressive Vocabulary—How the Subtests Complement Each Other (Ages 7–18) (continued)CHC Narrow AbilityRiddlesVerbal KnowledgeExpressive VocabularyGcLexical Knowledge (VL)***Language Development (LD)General Information (KO)GfGeneral Sequential Reasoning (RG)
113Riddles All-Verbal Items What has many contests, cowboys, and horses?What is made of nylon, is carefully folded, and is needed for skydiving?
114Riddles All-Verbal Items What is as big as a fist, has a beat, and keeps people alive?What is a liquid, is silver-colored, and is used in thermometers?
120Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge/Gc What is this? (tambourine)
121Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge/Gc What is this? (warthog)
122Global Score Differences for Whites & African Americans on Several Tests—Adjusted for SES Mean differences are adjusted for SES and other variables, depending on the study. WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998). WJ-R and Binet-4 data are from Wasserman & Becker (2000). CAS data are from Naglieri, Rojahn, Aquilino, & Matto (in press).
123Mean Global Scores on the K-ABC and KABC-II for African American Children (NOT Adjusted for SES)
124Mean Scale Indexes on the K-ABC and KABC-II for African American Children (NOT Adjusted for SES)
125Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African AmericanHispanicAmerican IndianAsianWhiteMPI98.798.299.5100.3100.9FCI98.096.699.799.8101.6NVI96.7104.0104.3100.8Sample Size1501621713505
126Ages 3-6: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African AmericanHispanicAmerican IndianAsianWhiteLearning/Glr99.398.9—99.7Sequential/Gsm101.496.7101.0Simultaneous/Gv96.4100.1100.7Knowledge/Gc95.993.7102.8Sample Size1501621713505
127Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Global Scores, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African AmericanHispanicAmerican IndianAsianWhiteMPI95.296.5104.6101.9FCI94.595.895.6103.9102.4NVI93.198.397.0103.4102.0Sample Size31538351621,356
128Ages 7-18: Mean KABC-II Scale Indexes, By Ethnic Group (Adjusted for Gender & SES) African AmericanHispanicAmerican IndianAsianWhiteLearning/Glr98.397.096.7102.8101.6Sequential/Gsm99.895.196.9102.6101.3Simultaneous/Gv92.998.7100.1105.0101.7Planning/Gf94.798.8101.8Knowledge/Gc93.994.994.4100.4103.1Sample Size31538351621,356
129Scale 88.6 WISC-III FS-IQ 94.8 KABC-II MPI 94.0 KABC-II FCI Mean Global Scores on the WISC-III & KABC-II for African American Children—NOT ADJUSTED for SESScaleWISC-III Mean(Ages 6-16)N=338KABC-II Mean (Ages 7-18)N=315WISC-III FS-IQ88.6KABC-II MPI94.8KABC-II FCI94.0WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998)
130Scale +11.0 WISC-III FS-IQ +6.7 KABC-II MPI +7.9 KABC-II FCI Differences between Global Scores of Whites & African Americans on the WISC-III & KABC-II—ADJUSTED for SESScaleWISC-III Mean(Ages 6-16)N=338KABC-II Mean (Ages 7-18)N=315WISC-III FS-IQ+11.0KABC-II MPI+6.7KABC-II FCI+7.9WISC-III data are from Prifitera & Saklofske (1998)
131Taos sample: KABC-II & WISC-IV GLOBAL SCORE MEANS(N=30)WISC-IVFS-IQKABC-IIDifference86.7MPI: 95.1+8.4FCI: 94.1+7.4Note—Children were tested first on KABC-II (ages 5-14, mean = 7.8) and second on WISC-IV (ages 6-15, mean = 9.3). Data from Fletcher-Janzen (2003).
133KABC-II Norm SampleN = 3,025Tested from September 2001 through January 2003Matches March 2001 Current Population Survey (Census Bureau) by:SexEthnicitySES (mother’s education)RegionSES within ethnicity
134KABC-II Norm Sample Includes representative proportions of: Specific learning disabilitySpeech/language impairmentMental retardationEmotional/behavioral disturbanceADHDGifted/talented
135KABC-II Norm SampleAge 18 sample matches population on educational status:DropoutIn high schoolHigh school grad, no post-secondary schoolingEntered 2-year post-secondary programEntered 4-year post-secondary program
136KABC-II Subtest Floors At the youngest age group (3:0—3:2), the lowest possible scaled score on the core subtests averages 3.1 (range: 2 to 5).That is about 2 1/3 SDs below the meanOn the original K-ABC, the average at the youngest age was 7.2, or about 1 SD below the mean
137KABC-II Subtest Ceilings At the oldest age group (18:6—18:11), the highest possible scaled score on the core subtests averages 16.9 (range: 14 to 19).That is about 2 1/3 SDs above the meanOn the original K-ABC, the average at the oldest age was 15.6, almost 2 SDs above the mean
138KABC-II Subtest Floors & Ceilings At ages where a subtest does not have adequate floor or ceiling, it may be available as an “out of level” subtest.“Out of level” subtests are used only for supplementary assessment, in situations when you expect the child to perform in the score range that is not affected by the floor or ceiling problem.
139Range of KABC-II Standard Scores Type of Score RangeScale Index 50 to 155Global Scale Index 40 to 160
140Mean KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for the Five Scales, By Age AGE GROUPScaleLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfKnowledge/Gc
141Mean KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for FCI, MPI, and NVI Ages FCI MPI NVI
142KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Learning/Glr Subtests and Delayed Recall Score Ages Atlantis Rebus RecallNote: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Median values are shown for ages 5-6, 7-12, and There are no Supplementary Subtests for Learning/Glr, but there is a Supplementary Delayed Recall Scale, shown in italics.
143KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Sequential/Gsm Subtests Word Number HandAges Order Recall Movements(.89)(.72)(.74)(.80)(.79)Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses. Median values are shown for ages 5-6, 7-12, and
144KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Simultaneous/Gv Subtests (Ages 3-6) Conceptual Face Pattern GestaltAge Triangles Thinking Recognition Reasoning Rover Closure(.76)(.73)(.65) (.76)(.71)Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses. Block Counting (.90) and Story Completion (.82) are Supplementary subtests at age 6.
145KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Simultaneous/Gv Subtests (Ages 7-18) Block GestaltAges Rover Triangles Counting Closure(.86) (.75)(.87) (.77)Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses.
146KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Planning/Gf Subtests (Ages 7-18) Pattern StoryAges Reasoning CompletionNote: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. There are no Supplementary Subtests for Planning/Gf.
147KABC-II Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Knowledge/Gc Subtests Expressive VerbalAges Riddles Vocabulary Knowledge(.75)(.89)(.86)(.85)(.88) .89Note: Coefficient for Core Subtests are in BOLD. Supplementary Subtests are in parentheses. Median values are shown for ages 5-6, 7-12, and Knowledge/Gc is included only in the CHC model.
148KABC-II Retest Reliability Coefficients for the Global Scales, By Age (interval: days)AGE GROUPScaleFCIMPINVIN
149KABC-II Retest Reliability Coefficients for the Five Scales, By Age AGE GROUPScaleLearning/GlrSequential/GsmSimultaneous/GvPlanning/GfCrystallized/GcN
165KABC-II Factor Structure Confirmatory factor analyses, core batteryAge 3: only separation is between Sequential/Gsm subtests (Word Order & Number Recall) and everything else; therefore, no separate scales at age 3Age 4 and ages 5-6: 4 distinct factorsAges 7-18: additional Planning/Gf factor
166KABC-II Factor Structure Fit of model is extremely good at all agesStandard benchmarks for good fit are: CFI at least .95, and RMSEA .05 or smaller.Age 4: no statistically significant difference between data and model!Across age groups:CFI ranges from .997 to 1.000RMSEA ranges from .014 to .055
167KABC-II Factor Structure At age 4, the Simultaneous/Gv and Knowledge/Gc factors correlate highly (.90) and are not statistically distinct. The reason is that Conceptual Thinking loads on both factors. However, the scales were separated on content grounds.At ages 5-18, all factors are statistically distinct (p < .001).