Presentation on theme: "Equity in Organizations: Gender, Race, Disability and Class Chapter 10"— Presentation transcript:
1 Equity in Organizations: Gender, Race, Disability and Class Chapter 10
2 Introduction This lecture will: Explain how the concept of equity affects organizationsGive an overview of equitable/inequitable practiceDiscuss aspects of gender, race/ethnicity, disability and class across major English-speaking countriesOutline areas of current and future investigation in these areas
3 Equity and Justice in Work Organizations The area of organizational justice is an important aspect for the development of a theory of equity in the context of OBLegislation can relate to:Pay and employmentHuman Rights (including disability, sexual orientation, political/religious beliefs)Research in the area of justice covers three lines of enquiry:DistributiveProceduralInteractional
4 What is Justice? Justice is viewed as 'socially constructed' It includes objective and subjective dimensionsJustice results in positive benefits:Higher job satisfaction and greater commitmentPositive manager evaluationsEmployee citizenshipReduction in absentees, conflict and sabotage
5 Tensions in the Workplace Tensions can be horizontal or vertical:Horizontal tensions relate to group/organizational contextsVertical tensions relate to capital/labour relationsVertical tensions relate to appropriation, which relates to private capital accumulationThey are unique to life under capitalism
6 Gender OverviewWomen have made up 50% of the workforce in capitalist countries since 1980, but wage differentials have changed littleWomen in managerial positions suffer from the effects of so-called glass ceilings or from sticky floorsGender harassment is a feature of workplace discrimination
7 Debates about GenderAn issue of debate relates to management styles – some argue the new styles favour women, but others argue that this is based on a stereotypical view of female and male traitsContrasting cases are taken by Wajcman and Meyerson and FletcherLePine et al (2002) have developed a business case against gender inequityNgo, Foley, Wong and Loi have argued that although inequity can lead to a decline in morale/performance, the market alone cannot be relied upon to ‘weed out’ unequal firms on this basisDespite the high profile of the ‘glass ceiling’ effect, the greatest effect of discrimination is at the level of the ‘sticky floor’ – poor workers often in the ‘Third World’ countries
8 Race and EthnicityUK ethno-racial minorities are under-represented in higher roles and over-represented at lower levelsDifferences can exist as to employment within racial groups on other criteria such as age/disability etcCulture is as important as racial background in assessing the inequitiesThe research of Robinson has showed the value of English language education in promoting mobilityThe situation varies between different regions and different races/ethnicitiesPerceptions of the situation also vary - eg different ethno-racial groups experience work differently (Moodod) – and this can be linked to other factors such as desire for social mobility, schooling etcRecent case study by Brief, Dietz, Cohen, Pugh & Vaslow stresses the significance of training relative to applications in black applicants
9 Figure 10.1 - Proportion of UK households with half the national income (1994)
10 DisabilityDefinitions of disability vary between countries but can be defined in terms of five sub-groupings: Sensory / Physical / Mental and psychiatric / Intellectual and developmental / Learning difficulties.In the UK the Disability Act handles these areasStereotyping and discrimination often mean that disabled people have difficulty:Finding workApplying their skills and talentsRetaining workDisability is increasingly seen as a problem that individuals face in society rather than one that they have.
11 Table 10.1 – Employer-related difficulties in integrating workers with disabilities - USA
12 Social ClassClass involves hierarchy and the features of power and control of resources associated with managerial and other elitesHowever, 'class' is a difficult concept to define…Classification can involve culture/status – including socio-economic (wealth) or professional status (job)Views of class categorization vary; theories include Marx’s, Weber’s and those from Cultural StudiesIt is felt, however, that class differences are rooted in economic and employment differencesClass is not always apparent; it can be low or high profile...
13 Table 10.2 - International Earnings Ratios This figure shows the widely varying wage ratios in developed countries
14 UnionsUnions express the institutional interests of subordinate groups and pursue their interestsThey resolve ‘vertical’ tensions but leave aside the team-based ‘horizontal’ tensionsThey can alleviate the difficulties of minorities and increase pay etc.This is particularly the case in France/Germany and ScandinaviaIn contrast, recent trends in the US/UK have reduced the efficiency/influence of the unionsMainstream economic theory (as presented in the Reagan/Thatcher years) exacerbated the anti-union aspect of the 'market‘ in the US/UKHowever.. Our view is that good economic and employment needs healthy unions