Presentation on theme: "Romanesque and Gothic Art The period of medieval art referred to as Romanesque began in the 11th century. The Christian Church was gaining tremendous power."— Presentation transcript:
Romanesque and Gothic Art The period of medieval art referred to as Romanesque began in the 11th century. The Christian Church was gaining tremendous power throughout Europe; the Crusades were initiated to take back the Holy Land in the Middle East from the Muslims. This ongoing holy war required many people to travel across the continent, which created an exchange of ideas and artistic styles. The art of this period was mainly religious in theme, employing an emotional and expressive style intended to evoke powerful responses in the viewer.
Saint-Madeleine Vezelay, 1120 The outside of Romanesque churches provided many areas for relief sculpture. This elaborately decorated church is in France. More pictures follow...
Saint-Madeleine Tympanum, 1120 The TYMPANUM is an arched area below the arch and above the lintel of a doorway. This large space could be filled with sculpture which would be seen by everyone entering the church. This elaborately decorated church is in France. More pictures follow...
Saint-Madeleine Tympanum, 1120 The Mission of Apostles: Jesus Christ is shown sending his disciples to preach to the entire world. The lintel and other areas around the central group are filled with grotesque people representing those who have not yet embraced Christianity.
Saint-Madeleine Tympanum, 1120 The lintel and other areas around the central group are filled with grotesque people representing those who have not yet embraced Christianity. Some people are depicted with animal heads and distorted facial features.
Saint-Madeleine Interior, 1120 The church interior is designed with tall, vaulted (arched) ceilings which evoke the glory and awe of God.
Church Design The floor plan was in the shape of a cross. The long area where people assembled for worship is called the nave. They face the apse, where the priest conducts the service. The area crossing the nave is called the transept. Above the crossings are towers, or domes. Ambulatories are walkways built around the apse for large processions.
The wooden roofs of earlier ages were replaced by masonry barrel vaults. Masonry: Stone or brickwork These vaults produced better acoustic sound, but were extremely heavy and required large exterior buttresses and thick walls for support.
Worms Cathedral, 1016, Germany The towers in this Romanesque church resemble the turrets used in castles. The building is heavy and fortress-like. More views of this church follow...
Worms Cathedral, 1016, Germany The towers in this Romanesque church resemble the turrets used in castles. The building is heavy and fortress-like.
Worms Cathedral, 1016, Germany The interior features very tall vaulted ceilings, intended to evoke a feeling of awe and the glory of God.
St. Sernin, 1080, Toulouse, France This was a pilgrimage church, where travelers stopped while journeying to sacred shrines in other places.
Notre-Dame la Grande in Poiters, France, 1162 This low and wide church has more sculpture than many Romanesque churches. The frieze above the entrance contains figures illustrating the life of Christ.
Complex at Pisa, Italy, 1063 The grandest Italian Romanesque cathedral is the complex at Pisa. All the structures are made of white marble. The campanile is the famous leaning bell tower, seen at the right and in the following slide.
Leaning Tower of Pisa Italy 1063 The campanile is the famous leaning bell tower, which started leaning during construction. It is eventually expected to collapse as it continues to settle on unstable ground.
Marksburg Castle, Braubach, Germany, 1100s This fortified castle stands on a cliff 495 feet above the Rhine River. Its design resembles churches of the same era.
Romanesque Sculpture Most sculpture in this period was large and was attached to architecture. It was expressive in nature, emphasizing emotion rather than realism. This is the tympanum of the church of St. Lazare at Autun, France. Created in 1130, the relief sculpture depicts The Last Judgement the moment at the end of the world when Christians believe the dead will rise and be judged worthy of heaven or hell. Details of this relief sculpture follow...
Tympanum: A carved or decorated space over the door and under the arch of a church façade. Tympanum of the church of St. Lazare at Autun, France, 1130 AD. The dead are shown rising up from their graves. Demons grab those sent to hell by the central figure of Jesus, the Divine Judge. Many of the scenes are horrific and frightening, intended to keep people true to strong religious faith.
Tympanum of the church of St. Lazare at Autun, France.
Romanesque Painting and Crafts In addition to the popularity of fresco painting, stories were also told on wool embroidered, woven tapestries. The Bayeux Tapestry in France, created in 1073 and 20 high, shows the famous 1066 Battle at Hastings when WIlliam the Conqueror invaded England.
Romanesque Painting and Crafts Many works were crafted to service the church. The Chalice of Abbot Suger, 1140, was created from an ancient Roman cup and lined with silver and gems. It was made for Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis in Paris.
Gothic Art and Architecture During the 12 and 13th centuries, Europeans moved from the countryside into towns and cities. Cathedrals became the religious, cultural and social centers of the growing cities. A memorable features of Gothic architecture is the flying buttress. These are support structures, visible on the outside of churches. Employing separate support structures enabled the use of thinner church walls which contained very large, beautiful stained glass windows, as seen on the following slides.
Chartres Cathedral, 1194, France The interior features huge vaulted ceilings and beautiful stained glass windows.
Chartres Cathedral, 1194, France The rose window is circular, with stone tracery radiating from its center. Tracery: Ornamental stonework in a decorative pattern, with a lace-like effect.
Chartres Cathedral, 1194, France This cathedral used the flying buttress design innovation, and has beautiful stained glass windows, seen in the next slide...
Chartres Cathedral, 1194, France The exterior features more than two thousand carved figures.
Chartres Sculpture France, 1150, Stone These figures are extremely elongated; the clothing is stylized, the figures are stiff, and the feet appear to be floating rather than resting on the sloped platforms.
Notre-Dame, Paris, France, 1163 The huge windows and wide openings between columns on the inside of this cathedral are made possible by the use of flying buttresses, seen on the exterior.
Notre-Dame, Paris, France, 1163 The huge windows and wide openings between columns on the inside of this cathedral are made possible by the use of flying buttresses, supporting the buildings structure on the exterior.
Late Gothic Painting GIOTTO (1267-1337) Living in Florence, Italy, Giotto revolutionized painting by reviving the practice of working from nature, instead of creating images based purely on religious symbolism. His art began to look more realistic than had been the custom during the Middle Ages. He painted a famous series of frescoes on the walls of the Arena Chapel in Padua, Italy, seen in the following slides.
Giottos Lamentation 1305 Figures are in active, natural poses: leaning, holding, sitting and bending. They are solidly constructed, and appear to exist in real space through the artists use of overlapping planes. Foreshortening occurs in some angels. Sorrow is expressed in the peoples faces as they gaze upon Mary, grieving over the crucified body of her dead son Jesus.
Giottos Kiss of Judas Giotto has created monumental figures who really appear to occupy space. He has added an emotional depth to the scene: at the center is the face to face confrontation of Judas and Christ. Judas's sinister embrace is met with an all-knowing expression of absolute forgiveness by Christ.
Duccios Madonna in Majesty Tempera on Panel This great altarpiece (7 X 13 ) was commissioned by the Cathedral of Siena for the high altar. Duccio worked on it between 1308 and 1311. Overlapping bodies and diminishing size suggest spatial depth.
Duccio: Back panels of altarpiece This great altarpiece (7 X 13') was commissioned by the Cathedral of Siena for the high altar. Duccio worked on it between 1308 and 1311.
Duccios Staircase Altarpiece panel Notice how objects possess space and volume, even though perspective has not been refined at this point in time. Overlapping planes help create the illusion of space.
Simone Martini 1284-1344) Annunciation 1333 Tempera and gold on wood panel, 10 tall Martini was Duccios pupil.
Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1427) The Adoration of the Magi, 1423 Tempera on panel, 9 x 9, Uffizi Gallery, Florence Gentile was influenced by French artists, and is representative of the International Style. His work is filled with richly colored and patterned fabrics, and great attention to detail. Notice how different sized figures suggest space.