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Introduction to the WIAT-III Presented by George McCloskey, Ph.D. Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the WIAT-III Presented by George McCloskey, Ph.D. Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the WIAT-III Presented by George McCloskey, Ph.D. Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

2 WIAT-III: Whats New? New Age Range (temporary): 4-0 to Adult Norms planned for 2010

3 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Record Form – Longer – 52 pages, but space is well-used to improve ease of administration – All administration and item directions are in the Record Form; no need to refer to the manual during testing

4 Quick Administration Guide for Each Subtest on Record Form

5 General Directions for Each Subtest on Record Form

6 Correct Answer Key for Each Subtest Item on Record Form

7 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Stimulus Booklet – Only one booklet, not two – Contains only items; no subtest directions in easel – Items on both sides of easel pages; work through one side then flip over to continue – More durable construction

8 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Oral Reading Fluency Booklet – Durable, reusable, washable booklet; student reads from this booklet Word Reading and Pseudoword Decoding Cards – New items but no design changes

9 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Response Booklet – Longer - 32 pages – Used for 9 different Subtests – Improved Item layout for Numerical Operations

10 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Examiners Manual – Administration and scoring; analysis and interpretation – Not used for test administration – Appendices contain expanded scoring guidelines for specific subtests

11 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Technical Manual on CD only – Contains Norms Tables – Information about psychometric properties

12 WIAT-III: Whats New? Materials Scoring Assistant – Provided as part of basic kit – Expanded capabilities Item Scoring (interactive scoring guide for Essay Composition) Item skill analyses Goal & Objective statements

13

14 Derived Scores for Composites and Subtests Standard Score Percentile Rank Normal Curve Equivalent Stanines Grade Equivalent Age Equivalent Growth Scale Values Status Scores Growth Scores

15 15 Assessment in a Three Tier Model Educators need to be aware of psychometric pitfalls in attempting to assess response to intervention using standard scores from norm- referenced tests.

16 ? Attempting to Assess Response to Intervention Using Standard Scores Time 1Time 2

17 Attempting to Assess Response to Intervention Using Standard Scores Time 1Time 2

18 ? Attempting to Assess Response to Intervention Using Standard Scores Time 1Time 2

19 19 Time 1Time Attempting to Assess Response to Intervention Using Standard Scores

20 20 The score graphs demonstrate the fact that the use of age- or grade- referenced standard scores to monitor performance across time will not effectively characterize progress in situations where the amount of progress made is less than the average amount of progress made by same-age or same-grade peers. Attempting to Assess Response to Intervention Using Standard Scores

21 K Constructing Grade Equivalents Interpolate

22 22 Time 1 11/03 Grade 4.3 Time 2 6/04 Grade 5.10 Time 3 3/06 Grade (1.6) (6.3) (7.1) Word Reading Subtest

23 WIAT-III: Whats New? Growth Scale Values Growth Scale Values can be used to monitor progress instead of Standard Scores or Grade Equivalent Grow Scale Values are psychometrically sound and reflect change in a more accurate manner than Grade Equivalents

24 Assessing Response to Intervention Using Growth Scale Values Time 1Time 2

25 WIAT-III: Whats New? Growth Scale Values When interpreting student performance: Use Standard Scores to report how the student is performing compared to same age or same grade peers Use Growth Scale Values to reflect intra-individual growth

26 Subtest Administration Order Whenever possible, subtests should be administered according to the order of subtests in the Record Form – Simply skip any unwanted subtests Alterations to the order should be based on clinical need (not examiner preference) Every effort should be made to administer subtests in one session.

27 Start and Stop Points Generally acceptable to choose an earlier or later start point if the grade- appropriate start point is too easy/difficult HOWEVER – If you choose an earlier start point and then child gets credit on grade- appropriate start item and next 2 items – THEN full credit is rewarded on all items preceding grade-appropriate start point

28 ERASERS - WHY NOT??? The student must write his or her responses using a pencil without an eraser. Students who participated in the standardization sample were required to use pencils without erasers because erasure marks can make the students response difficult to read and score. FOR THIS REASON, STUDENTS MUST CORRECT ERRORS BY MARKING OUT AND REWRITING.

29 WIAT-III: Whats New? Subtests and Scores Reading – 5 Subtests; 9 Scores Oral Language – 2 Subtests; 7 Scores Written Expression – 4 Subtests; 9 Scores Mathematics – 5 Subtests; 5 Scores

30 Reading Subtests

31 Word Reading Pseudoword Decoding Early Reading Skills Word Reading Pseudoword Decoding Reading Comprehension Oral Reading Fluency Reading Comprehension

32 Reading Scores Early Reading Skills Word Reading Pseudoword Decoding Reading Comprehension Oral Reading Fluency OR Accuracy OR Rate Word Reading Rate Pseudoword Decoding Rate

33 Written Expression Subtests

34 Spelling Written Expression Spelling Alphabet Writing Fluency Sentence Composition Essay Composition

35 Written Expression Scores Word Count Spelling Alphabet Writing Fluency Sentence Composition Essay Composition Theme Dev & Text Org Grammar & Mechanics Sentence Combining Sentence Building

36 Oral Language Subtests

37 Listening Comprehension Oral Expression Listening Comprehension Oral Expression

38 Oral Expression Scores Expressive Vocabulary Listening Comprehension Oral Expression Oral Word Fluency Sentence Repetition Receptive Vocabulary Oral Discourse Comprehension

39 Mathematics Subtests

40 Math Subtests Numerical Operations Math Reasoning Numerical Operations Math Problem Solving Math Fluency - Addition Math Fluency - Subtraction Math Fluency - Multiplication

41 Math Scores Numerical Operations Math Problem Solving Math Fluency - Addition Math Fluency - Subtraction Math Fluency - Multiplication

42 Copyright 2007 George McCloskey, Ph.D.42 Achievement Testing vs Diagnostic Skill Assessment Achievement testing indicates overall level of performance in a very global manner Diagnostic skills assessment identifies specific component skill strengths and weaknesses

43 Copyright 2007 George McCloskey, Ph.D.43 Achievement Testing vs Diagnostic Skill Assessment Achievement testing focuses on composite scores Diagnostic skills assessment focuses on subtest and process scores

44 Copyright 2007 George McCloskey, Ph.D. 44 Task Cognitive Capacities Level Item Level Subtest Level Specific Composite Indexes / Clinical Clusters Level Global Composite Level Interpretive Levels Framework

45 Reading Subtests

46 Early Reading Skills Item types originally included on WIAT-II Word Reading Subtest (Items 1-47): – Letter Names (Items 1-11) – Letter-Sound Relationship (Items 12, 13, 27-29) – Rhyming (Items 14-17) – Sound Awareness (Items 18-24) – Sound Blending (Items 25, 26) – Orthographic Awareness (Items 30-34)

47 Early Reading Skills Grades PK-3 34 Items (47 Items on WIAT-II) All students start with Sample A and Item 1 Administer ALL subtest items Use routinely for PK-1, for low functioning in grades 2 & 3 Total Raw Score to Standard Score

48 Word Reading Grades Items (84 Items on WIAT-II) All students start with Item 1 Discontinue after 4 items (7 on WIAT-II) Time and Record number of items completed in first 30 seconds

49 Word Reading Student are told to read words aloud but not to read as quickly as possible Students can use their fingers but do not provide materials for place marking Credit should be given for regional or dialectal pronunciations of words Pronunciations must be fluent to receive credit. For dysfluent attempt, say Say it all together. If 2 nd attempt not fluent, score 0.

50 Word Reading Total Raw Score to Standard Score Words Read in 30 seconds to Word Reading Speed Cumulative Percentage

51 Pseudoword Decoding Grades Items (55 Items on WIAT-II) Items revised to measure a broader range of symbol-sound relationships All students start with Item 1 Discontinue after 4 items (7 on WIAT-II) Time and Record number of items completed in first 30 seconds

52 Pseudoword Decoding Student are told to decode words aloud but not to decode as quickly as possible Students can use their fingers but do not provide materials for place marking Credit should be given for regional or dialectal pronunciations of words Pronunciations must be fluent to receive credit. For dysfluent attempt, say Say it all together. If 2 nd attempt not fluent, score 0.

53 Pseudoword Decoding Total Raw Score to Standard Score Nonsense Words Decoded in 30 seconds to Pseudoword Decoding Speed Cumulative Percentage

54 Reading Comprehension Grades Items (140 Items on WIAT-II) Pre-passage items replaced with a new lower level reading passage All other passages retained from WIAT-II Oral reading sentence items deleted Supplemental scores dropped Administered in item sets like WIAT-II

55

56 Reading Comprehension Start administration with grade level item set; administer all items in the set Can start one set lower if student is known to be a very poor reader; otherwise, use reverse rule Can reverse only a maximum of 3 levels below grade level Reverse Rule: less than 2 points earned on items from 1 st passage

57 Reading Comprehension Total Raw Score to Weighted Raw Score to Standard Score Note: The Weighted Raw Score Table is reversed from WIAT-II; Weighted Scores in outside column; Raw scores in body of table

58 Reading Comprehension

59 If the student performs poorly on lower item set – Probably means they have a weakness in comprehension OR If the student performs well on lower item set – Probably means they have a weakness in word identification and/or decoding and/or vocabulary

60 Reading Comprehension While Reading Comprehension Subtest Scores, in general, correlate highly between measures such as the WIAT-III, KTEA-II, and WJ-III, scores for individual students can vary greatly due to: Differences in Output Demands (free response [WIAT-II, KTEA-II] vs cloze [WJ-III]) Differences in Processing Demands (e.g., literal vs inferential item types and passage length variations resulting in different demands for reasoning, reading speed, working memory, and executive functions)

61 Oral Reading Fluency Grades 1-12 Student reads two passages Administer grade level passages Can start one grade level lower if student is known to be a very poor reader; otherwise, use reverse rule Reverse rule: If reading of 1 st passage takes longer than the reverse rule time limit go back one level

62 Oral Reading Fluency Provide unknown words after 5 seconds A comprehension question is asked after the reading; these questions are not scored formally; the items are used to cue the student to read at a level that engages comprehension Student reads entire passage; record the total reading time per passage Keep track of and record word addition errors and other word reading errors

63 Oral Reading Fluency Oral Reading Fluency Administration Steps: 1. Begin timing as student begins reading 2. Record errors as student reads Addition Errors: Any word added Other Errors: Words supplied after 5 of attempted reading of word (mark with G for given); mispronunciations, substitutions, omissions and transpositions

64 Oral Reading Fluency

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66 Oral Reading Fluency Administration Steps: 3. End timing as student finishes passage and record stop time 4. Repeat administration steps for 2 nd passage 5. Transfer Completion Time, Addition Errors, Other Errors, and Word Count Totals to the ORF Passage Subtotal Raw Scores Table on Page 46

67 Oral Reading Fluency Oral Reading Fluency Administration Steps: 6. Calculate Oral Reading Fluency Total Raw Score, Oral Reading Accuracy Total Raw Score, and Oral Reading Rate Total Raw Score 7. Use Total Raw Scores to find Weighted Raw Scores in Appendices A.2, A.3 and A.4 8. Convert Weighted Raw Scores to Standard Scores using Table B.1 or C.1

68

69 Written Expression Subtests

70 Alphabet Writing Fluency Grades PK-3 Only Student writes letters of the alphabet for 30 Raw Score is number of legible letters produced in 30 If all letters are made before 30 record completion time

71 Alphabet Writing Fluency Scoring Criteria are in Appendix B.1 Scoring Criteria are extremely flexible in order to reduce scoring time and difficulty Typically used for Grades PK-2, can be used for lower functioning 3 rd graders

72

73 Spelling Grades K-12 First 5 items are pre-spelling skills (12 items on WIAT-II) 63 Items (53 Items on WIAT-II) Start at Grade Level Start Point Can start 1 level below but give full credit if basal at Grade Level Start Point is met

74 Spelling Basal: score of 1 on all of the first three items in Start Point Set Reverse Rule: Incorrect on any of first 3 items administered; give items in reverse order until basal is met Discontinue after 4 items (7 on WIAT-II) Raw Score to Standard Score Intra-item error analysis optional

75 Sentence Composition Grades Sentence Combining Items (Most from WIAT-II) and 7 Sentence Building Items (Write a sentence using the word ___) All students start with Sentence Combining Sample A and Items 1 and 2 Discontinue Sentence Combining if score of 0 on first 2 items

76 Sentence Composition If at least 1 point is earned on first 2 items, administer ALL remaining Sentence Combining items After completing Sentence Combining, ALL students take Sentence Building Sample A and Items 1 and 2 Discontinue Sentence Building if score of 0 on first 2 items

77 Sentence Composition If at least 1 point is earned on first 2 item, administer ALL remaining Sentence Building items Separate Raw Scores and Standard Scores for Sentence Combining and Sentence Building Add SC and SB standard scores and use as Raw Score to obtain Sentence Composition Standard Score

78 Sentence Composition Sentence Composition Scoring: Appendix B.2 provides Basic Rules of Written Grammar and Mechanics Sentence Combining Scoring (Appendix B.3): Prerequisite Scoring Criteria – Does response include essential information? – Does response simply restate original sentences? – Does response have more than one sentence, run-on sentence or sentence fragment?

79 Sentence Composition Sentence Combining: If a sentence does not meet all 3 Prerequisite Criteria, score the sentence 0 Sentence Combining: If a sentence does meet all 3 Prerequisite Criteria, use the additional scoring criteria to determine the raw score for each scoring criterion: – Semantics & Grammar – Mechanics – Extra Credit

80 Sentence Composition Sentence Building Scoring (Appendix B.4): Prerequisite Scoring Criteria Does response include the target word? Is the response a fragmented sentence? Is the target word use in a title or as the subject or object of the sentence? Sentence Building: If a sentence does not meet all 3 Prerequisite Criteria, score the sentence 0

81 Sentence Composition Sentence Building: If a sentence does meet all 3 Prerequisite Criteria, use the additional scoring criteria to determine the raw score for each scoring criterion: – Semantics & Grammar – Mechanics The Scoring Workbook provides unscored and scored samples

82 Essay Composition Grades 3-12 Writing from a prompt; identical to the WIAT-II Paragraph sub-item (My favorite game is…) All students write using same prompt 10 minutes maximum time Scoring Criteria in Appendix B.5 and B.6

83 Essay Composition Essays are scored for: – Word Count – Theme Development and Organization Introduction (0-2) Conclusion (0-2) Paragraphs (0-5) Transitions (0-5) Reasons Why (0-3) Elaborations (0-3) – Grammar and Mechanics

84 Essay Composition The Scoring Workbook provides unscored and scored samples The Scoring Assistant Includes an interactive scoring guide that can be used to complete the scoring process

85 Essay Composition Raw Scores for Word Count, Theme Development & Text Organization (TDTO) and Grammar & Mechanics are converted into Standard Scores using B.1 or C.1 Word Count and TDTO Standard Scores are summed to derive the Essay Composition Raw Score to obtain the Essay Composition Standard Score in B.1 of C.1

86 Oral Language Subtests

87 Listening Comprehension Grades PK-12 Receptive Vocabulary retained – 19 items (16 items on WIAT-II) Oral Discourse Comprehension (27 items) replaces Sentence Comprehension format (10 items) Expressive Vocabulary moved to Oral Expression Subtest

88 Listening Comprehension ALL students start with Receptive Vocabulary (RV) Item 1 Discontinue RV after 4 consecutive scores of 0 All students go on to Oral Discourse Comprehension (ODC) ODC administered best using the audio CD

89 Listening Comprehension Grades PK-3 start with Item 1; Grades 4-12 start with Item 6 All items scored objectively 0 or 1 Apply Reverse Rule for Grades 4-12, move backward until 3 consecutive scores of 1 are obtained Discontinue ODC after 4 consecutive scores of 0

90 Listening Comprehension Raw Scores for RV and ODC are converted into Standard Scores for each using B.1 or C.1 RV and ODC Standard Scores are summed to derive the Listening Comprehension Raw Score to obtain the Listening Comprehension Standard Score in B.1 of C.1

91 Oral Expression Grades PK-12 Oral Word Fluency Expanded into a sub-area (2 items instead of 1) Sentence Repetition expanded to 15 items (9 items on WIAT-II) Expressive Vocabulary expanded to 17 items and moved to OE from LC

92 Oral Expression ALL students start with Expressive Vocabulary (EV) Item 1 Discontinue EV after 4 consecutive scores of 0 ALL students go on to Oral Word Fluency (OWF) and take both items ALL students go on to Sentence Repetition (SR) and start with Sample A and Item 1

93 Oral Expression Discontinue SR after 4 consecutive scores of 0 Raw Scores for EV and OWF and SR are converted into Standard Scores for each using B.1 or C.1 EV and OWF and SR Standard Scores are summed to derive the Oral Expression Raw Score to obtain the Oral Expression Standard Score in B.1 of C.1

94 Mathematics Subtests

95 Math Problem Solving Grades PK-12 Name changed from Math Reasoning Items increased to 72 (67 items on the WIAT-II) Pencil and paper are permitted, but calculators are not

96 Math Problem Solving Start points vary based on Grade Level Basal: score of 1 on first three items in Start Point Set Reverse Rule: Incorrect on any of first 3 items administered; give items in reverse order until basal is met. Discontinue after 4 items (6 on WIAT-II) Raw Score to Standard Score

97 Numerical Operations Grades K-12 Items increased to 61 (54 items on the WIAT-II) Starts with 7 Pre-calculation concept items for Grades K-1 Start points vary based on Grade Level Items completed in Response Booklet

98 Numerical Operations Basal: score of 1 on first three items in Start Point Set Reverse Rule: Incorrect on any of first 3 items administered; give items in reverse order until basal is met. Discontinue after 4 items (6 on WIAT-II) Raw Score to Standard Score

99 Math Fluency Addition and Subtraction Grades 1-12; Multiplication Grades 3-12 Items completed in Response Booklet Administer only 1 item set of each Fluency Subtest; 60 second time limit for all item sets

100 Referenced Resources Berninger, V. & Richards, T. (2003). Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists. Academic Press Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock (2001). Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Improving Student Achievement. ASCD


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