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Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Flying the Weather And Not Letting the Weather Fly You Written for the Notre Dame.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Flying the Weather And Not Letting the Weather Fly You Written for the Notre Dame."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates! Flying the Weather And Not Letting the Weather Fly You Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

2 RoadmapRoadmap Weather Reports Weather Problems Weather Briefing Sources Weather Reports Weather Problems Weather Briefing Sources

3 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) Components of METARs South Bend 17 th day of the month, taken at 1551 Zulu Time (GMT) Wind from 080° at 15 gusting to 20 Knots 10 Statute Miles Visibility Few clouds at 3000 feet, scattered 6000, overcast 8500 Temp 13° C / Dewpoint 7°C inches of Hg 2 nd level ASOS / Rain began 22 minutes after the hour and ended 38 minutes past the hour Components of METARs South Bend 17 th day of the month, taken at 1551 Zulu Time (GMT) Wind from 080° at 15 gusting to 20 Knots 10 Statute Miles Visibility Few clouds at 3000 feet, scattered 6000, overcast 8500 Temp 13° C / Dewpoint 7°C inches of Hg 2 nd level ASOS / Rain began 22 minutes after the hour and ended 38 minutes past the hour KSBN Z 08015G20KT 10SM FEW030 SCT060 OVC085 13/07 A3028 RMK AO2 RAB22E38 Day/ Time Wind Airport VisibilityClouds Temp/ Dewpnt AltimeterRemarks

4 METAR Examples METAR KSBN Z 30010KT 10SM OVC045 M04/M11 A3002 RMK AO2 SLP178 METAR KSBN Z 30010KT 10SM FEW037 OVC050 M04/M09 A3002 RMK AO2 SNE0355B25E28 METAR KSBN Z 31012KT 9SM -SN BKN029 OVC038 M03/M08 A3003 RMK AO2 SNE16B34 SPECI KSBN Z 31011KT 10SM BKN031 BKN040 OVC055 M04/M08 A3002 RMK AO2 SNE0355 METAR KIAD Z AUTO/COR 21019G27KT 1/2SM R04R/3000FT -SN FG SCT011 OVC015 01/M02 A2945 RMK PK WND 19029/16 SLP045 T METAR KSBN Z 30010KT 10SM OVC045 M04/M11 A3002 RMK AO2 SLP178 METAR KSBN Z 30010KT 10SM FEW037 OVC050 M04/M09 A3002 RMK AO2 SNE0355B25E28 METAR KSBN Z 31012KT 9SM -SN BKN029 OVC038 M03/M08 A3003 RMK AO2 SNE16B34 SPECI KSBN Z 31011KT 10SM BKN031 BKN040 OVC055 M04/M08 A3002 RMK AO2 SNE0355 METAR KIAD Z AUTO/COR 21019G27KT 1/2SM R04R/3000FT -SN FG SCT011 OVC015 01/M02 A2945 RMK PK WND 19029/16 SLP045 T

5 Terminal Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) Components of TAF South Bend 17 th day of the month, predicted at 1145 Zulu Time (GMT) Valid from on the 17th Wind variable at 3 knots 2 Statute Miles Visibility Scattered 3000, Broken 8000 Temporarily between Rain Showers From 2200 Wind 130 at 9 Kts, 1 SM visibility, overcast 3000 Between , No Significant Weather, Ceiling Broken 3000 Components of TAF South Bend 17 th day of the month, predicted at 1145 Zulu Time (GMT) Valid from on the 17th Wind variable at 3 knots 2 Statute Miles Visibility Scattered 3000, Broken 8000 Temporarily between Rain Showers From 2200 Wind 130 at 9 Kts, 1 SM visibility, overcast 3000 Between , No Significant Weather, Ceiling Broken 3000 Day/ Time WindAirportVisibilityCeilingsTemporarily TAF KSBN Z VRB03KT 2 SM SCT030 BKN080 TEMPO 1517 SHRA FM KT 1SM OVC030 BECMG0210 NSW BKN030 Valid Wind / Visibility / CeilingBecomingFrom Wx / Ceiling

6 TAF Examples TAF KSBN Z KT P6SM OVC040 FM KT P6SM BKN040 FM KT P6SM SCT040 BKN100 TAF KORD Z KT P6SM BKN035 FM KT P6SM SCT035 SCT250 FM KT P6SM SCT150 BKN200 FM G22KT P6SM BKN150 FM KT P6SM SCT015 TAF KAZO Z KT P6SM -SHSN OVC050 TEMPO SM -SHSN SCT015 BKN025 FM G22KT 5SM -SHSN BKN035 OVC100 FM KT P6SM -SHSN BKN035 TAF KSBN Z KT P6SM OVC040 FM KT P6SM BKN040 FM KT P6SM SCT040 BKN100 TAF KORD Z KT P6SM BKN035 FM KT P6SM SCT035 SCT250 FM KT P6SM SCT150 BKN200 FM G22KT P6SM BKN150 FM KT P6SM SCT015 TAF KAZO Z KT P6SM -SHSN OVC050 TEMPO SM -SHSN SCT015 BKN025 FM G22KT 5SM -SHSN BKN035 OVC100 FM KT P6SM -SHSN BKN035

7 Pilot Report (PIREP) Components of PIREPs Gipper Reported at 2200 Zulu Time (GMT) Flight Level 090 (9000 Feet) Piper Cherokee Broken Layer between 800 and 1600 feet Temp -3° C Wind from 270° at 25 Light Turbulence / Negative Icing Components of PIREPs Gipper Reported at 2200 Zulu Time (GMT) Flight Level 090 (9000 Feet) Piper Cherokee Broken Layer between 800 and 1600 feet Temp -3° C Wind from 270° at 25 Light Turbulence / Negative Icing /OV GIJ /TM 2200 /FL090 TP/PA28 /SK 008 BKN 016 /TA -3 /WV2725 /TB LGT /IC NEG Time Flight Level Over Type A/C Sky Cover Temp Aloft Wind Aloft Turbulence Icing

8 PIREP Examples UA /OV FLW090022/TM 0534/FL095/TP C172/SK SKC/WX FV99SM/TB NEG UA /OV MZB/TM 0547/FL295/TP MD80/TA M43/WV 27211KT/TB NEG UA /OV HYP090028/TM 0639/FL220/TP MD80/TB MDT UA /OV FRA320015/TM 0604/FL200/TP A320/TB MDT/RM NORCAL UA /OV FLW090022/TM 0534/FL095/TP C172/SK SKC/WX FV99SM/TB NEG UA /OV MZB/TM 0547/FL295/TP MD80/TA M43/WV 27211KT/TB NEG UA /OV HYP090028/TM 0639/FL220/TP MD80/TB MDT UA /OV FRA320015/TM 0604/FL200/TP A320/TB MDT/RM NORCAL

9 Winds Aloft Forecast ******** FD Winds Aloft Forecast ******** DATA BASED ON Z VALID Z FOR USE Z. TEMPS NEG ABV FT FWA JOT MKG First 2 Digits: TRUE Wind Direction Second 2 Digits: Wind Speed Third 2 Digits: Temperature ******** FD Winds Aloft Forecast ******** DATA BASED ON Z VALID Z FOR USE Z. TEMPS NEG ABV FT FWA JOT MKG First 2 Digits: TRUE Wind Direction Second 2 Digits: Wind Speed Third 2 Digits: Temperature

10 AIRMET (WA) Warn of hazards primarily to small aircraft Classifications Tango – Turbulence Sierra – IFR Weather & Mountain Obscuration Zulu - Icing Warn of hazards primarily to small aircraft Classifications Tango – Turbulence Sierra – IFR Weather & Mountain Obscuration Zulu - Icing

11 AIRMET Example ******** AIRMETs ******** CHIS WA AMD AIRMET SIERRA UPDT 1 FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL AIRMET IFR...MN IA...UPDT FROM 30WNW MSP TO 50W ODI TO 50SE MCW TO 20SSW MCW TO 40NE RWF TO 30WNW MSP OCNL CIG BLW 010 AND/OR VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR. CONDS ENDG 05-07Z.. AIRMET IFR...LM MI IN FROM 50NNE MKG TO 30NE GRR TO 20ENE GIJ TO 30WSW GIJ TO 30NW MKG TO 50NNE MKG OCNL CIG BLW 010 AND/OR VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR. CONDS ENDG 07-09Z. ******** AIRMETs ******** CHIS WA AMD AIRMET SIERRA UPDT 1 FOR IFR AND MTN OBSCN VALID UNTIL AIRMET IFR...MN IA...UPDT FROM 30WNW MSP TO 50W ODI TO 50SE MCW TO 20SSW MCW TO 40NE RWF TO 30WNW MSP OCNL CIG BLW 010 AND/OR VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR. CONDS ENDG 05-07Z.. AIRMET IFR...LM MI IN FROM 50NNE MKG TO 30NE GRR TO 20ENE GIJ TO 30WSW GIJ TO 30NW MKG TO 50NNE MKG OCNL CIG BLW 010 AND/OR VIS BLW 3SM PCPN/BR. CONDS ENDG 07-09Z.

12 SIGMET (WS) and Convective SIGMET (WST) SIGMET Warn of conditions that could be dangerous to all aircraft Severe Icing Severe Turbulence Convective SIGMET Observations and/or forecasts that warn of conditions associated with thunderstorms Tornados Large Hail Embedded Thunderstorms SIGMET Warn of conditions that could be dangerous to all aircraft Severe Icing Severe Turbulence Convective SIGMET Observations and/or forecasts that warn of conditions associated with thunderstorms Tornados Large Hail Embedded Thunderstorms

13 Additional Weather Services Area Forecasts (FA) Summary of weather over a large area Issued 3 times a day 12 hour forecast, + 6 hour categorical outlook 4 Sections: Product Header, Precautionary Statements, Synposis, VFR Clouds/Weather Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) Route forecast covering 25 miles either side of a particular route Hazardous In-Flight Weather Advisory Services (HIWAS) Continuous broadcast of in-flight weather advisories Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) Continuous broadcast of recorded information at certain airports containing weather information, runway(s) in use, and other pertinent remarks Area Forecasts (FA) Summary of weather over a large area Issued 3 times a day 12 hour forecast, + 6 hour categorical outlook 4 Sections: Product Header, Precautionary Statements, Synposis, VFR Clouds/Weather Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) Route forecast covering 25 miles either side of a particular route Hazardous In-Flight Weather Advisory Services (HIWAS) Continuous broadcast of in-flight weather advisories Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) Continuous broadcast of recorded information at certain airports containing weather information, runway(s) in use, and other pertinent remarks

14 Weather Charts Weather Depiction Chart Information from METARs Broad overview of flying conditions Surface Analysis Chart Location of pressure systems and fronts Isobars Radar Summary Chart Shows areas and direction of heavy precipitation Low-Level Significant Weather Prognostic Chart 4 Panels Forecasts of surface and weather up to 24,000 MSL Weather Depiction Chart Information from METARs Broad overview of flying conditions Surface Analysis Chart Location of pressure systems and fronts Isobars Radar Summary Chart Shows areas and direction of heavy precipitation Low-Level Significant Weather Prognostic Chart 4 Panels Forecasts of surface and weather up to 24,000 MSL

15 Weather Charts Convective Outlook (AC) Forecasts possibility for general, as well as severe, thunderstorm activity during the following 24 hours Radar Weather Reports (SD) Textual position and intensity of thunderstorm cells Convective Outlook (AC) Forecasts possibility for general, as well as severe, thunderstorm activity during the following 24 hours Radar Weather Reports (SD) Textual position and intensity of thunderstorm cells

16 Sources of Aviation Weather Aviation sources FSS 800-WX-BRIEF DUAT(S) AOPA ADDS Aviation Digital Data Service adds.aviationweather.gov Aviation sources FSS 800-WX-BRIEF DUAT(S) AOPA ADDS Aviation Digital Data Service adds.aviationweather.gov Non Aviation-sources Weather channel Accuweather Intellicast Unisys Non Aviation-sources Weather channel Accuweather Intellicast Unisys

17 BriefingsBriefings Standard Briefing Full Briefing See Table 18-1 on p. 395 Outlook Briefing More than 6 hours away Abbreviated Briefing Intended to supplement or update previous information Standard Briefing Full Briefing See Table 18-1 on p. 395 Outlook Briefing More than 6 hours away Abbreviated Briefing Intended to supplement or update previous information

18 Aviation Weather Problems VFR Problems Low Ceilings Low Ceilings Forecast trends Forecast trends Few (<10%) Few (<10%) Scattered (10-15%) Scattered (10-15%) Broken (60-90%) Broken (60-90%) Overcast (>90%) Overcast (>90%) Low Visibility Low Visibility Temp/Dewpoint spread Temp/Dewpoint spread High Winds High Winds Pressure gradient Pressure gradient Spacing of isobars Spacing of isobars VFR Problems Low Ceilings Low Ceilings Forecast trends Forecast trends Few (<10%) Few (<10%) Scattered (10-15%) Scattered (10-15%) Broken (60-90%) Broken (60-90%) Overcast (>90%) Overcast (>90%) Low Visibility Low Visibility Temp/Dewpoint spread Temp/Dewpoint spread High Winds High Winds Pressure gradient Pressure gradient Spacing of isobars Spacing of isobars IFR Problems Structural ice Structural ice Above freezing level Above freezing level Rime ice Rime ice Clear ice Clear ice T-storms T-storms Embedded Embedded Need radar or stormscope Need radar or stormscope Fog Fog IFR Problems Structural ice Structural ice Above freezing level Above freezing level Rime ice Rime ice Clear ice Clear ice T-storms T-storms Embedded Embedded Need radar or stormscope Need radar or stormscope Fog Fog

19 Problems for both IFR/VFR Thunderstorms Avoid by 20 nm Turbulence Caused by: Unstable air Warming from the ground Friction with the ground Ridge effects Mountain waves Frontal effects Carburetor ice Thunderstorms Avoid by 20 nm Turbulence Caused by: Unstable air Warming from the ground Friction with the ground Ridge effects Mountain waves Frontal effects Carburetor ice

20 What can the prudent pilot do? While still on the ground Get actual weather (overall & hourly) Check trends (wind direction, ceiling, visibility.) Is actual similar to forecast? In the air Always have an out 180 degree turn Climb/descend Know terrain Maintain basic instrument skills Explain your problem to ATC & ask for help Call Flight Watch for WX updates While still on the ground Get actual weather (overall & hourly) Check trends (wind direction, ceiling, visibility.) Is actual similar to forecast? In the air Always have an out 180 degree turn Climb/descend Know terrain Maintain basic instrument skills Explain your problem to ATC & ask for help Call Flight Watch for WX updates Call Flight Watch on between 0600L and 2200L when above 5000 MSL!

21 Wind Shear Pix

22 Not so nICE


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