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How much grammar do I need to know? www.geoffbarton.co.uk.

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Presentation on theme: "How much grammar do I need to know? www.geoffbarton.co.uk."— Presentation transcript:

1 How much grammar do I need to know? www.geoffbarton.co.uk

2 1 - Sentence types (co-ordination & subordination) 2 -Modification 3 - Cohesion GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS -

3 SENTENC E TYPES GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS - 1 -

4 There are 3 types of sentences: Simple sentences Compound sentences Complex sentences Using a variety of sentences will improve your writing.

5 1: SIMPLE SENTENCES Seamus is asleep Seamus likes warmth Old Seamus used to be fun Old Seamus is positively knackered Seamus smells rather badly Seamus has a chronic haemorrhoid problem Essential ingredients: Subject Verb chain Tells us about one thing

6 Modification GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS - 2 -

7 Simple sentences dont need to be short, if we use modification.. Modifying a noun with an adjective: The house is menacing old musty smelly revolting

8 Modifying an adjective with an adverb: The house is menacing old really horribly very too Simple sentences dont need to be short, if we use modification..

9 Modifying a verb with an adverb: The wolf yawns in his sleep lazily uneasily frighteningly imperceptibly Simple sentences dont need to be short, if we use modification..

10 Modification in action...

11 The Other Side of the Dale County Hall was a large, grey, stone mansion of an edifice...The interior was like a museum, hushed and cool, with long echoey, oak-pannelled corridors, high ornate ceilings, marble figures and walls full of gilt-framed portraits of former councillors, mayors, aldermen, leaders of the Council, high sheriffs, lord lieutenants, members of parliament and other dignitaries. It was really quite a daunting place. Gervase Phinn

12 The Other Side of the Dale County Hall was a large, grey, stone mansion of an edifice...The interior was like a museum, hushed and cool, with long echoey, oak-pannelled corridors, high ornate ceilings, marble figures and walls full of gilt-framed portraits of former councillors, mayors, aldermen, leaders of the Council, high sheriffs, lord lieutenants, members of parliament and other dignitaries. It was really quite a daunting place. Gervase Phinn

13 The Other Side of the Dale County Hall was a large, grey, stone mansion of an edifice...The interior was like a museum, hushed and cool, with long echoey, oak-pannelled corridors, high ornate ceilings, marble figures and walls full of gilt-framed portraits of former councillors, mayors, aldermen, leaders of the Council, high sheriffs, lord lieutenants, members of parliament and other dignitaries. It was really quite a daunting place. Gervase Phinn

14 COMPOUND SENTENCES / CCORDINATION GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS - 1 -

15 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES Essential ingredients: Simple sentences joined by the conjunctions And But Or

16 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES This creates coordination I like fish and I enjoy chips I adore fish but I hate chips I enjoy fish, or I did as a child

17 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES This creates coordination I like fish and I enjoy chips I adore fish but I hate chips I enjoy fish, or I did as a child

18 2: COMPOUND SENTENCES VISUAL GRAMMAR

19 Compound sentences in context... Create longer sentences Coordinate ideas (equal weighting) Can become repetitive Can sound colloquial, conversational Can feel uncontrolled if overdone, so...

20 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES This creates subordination Remember coordination …? I like fish and I enjoy chips

21 The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

22 The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES MAIN CLAUSE

23 The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

24 Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

25 Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES MAIN CLAUSE

26 Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

27 He moves upwards because he senses danger. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

28 He moves upwards because he senses danger. SUBORDINATION 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

29 He moves upwards because he senses danger. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES MAIN CLAUSE

30 He moves upwards because he senses danger. 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

31 3: COMPLEX SENTENCES VISUAL GRAMMAR

32 MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

33 MAIN CLAUSESUBORDINATE CLAUSE Conjunction: because although as

34 MAIN CLAUSESUBORDINATE CLAUSE Conjunction: because although as

35 MAIN CLAUSESUBORDINATE CLAUSE -Ing verb: Make sure the subject agrees Walking Thinking Hoping

36 MAIN CLAUSESUBORDINATE CLAUSE -ed verb: Make sure the subject agrees Frustrated Destroyed Undermined

37 MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE relative pronoun: Who Which That

38 Coordinating conjunctions And, but, or Subordinating conjunctions after, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, if, in case, once, since, than, that, though, until, unless, when, whenever, where, wherever, whereas, while Handy Conjunctions

39 COMPLEX SENTENCES... Have a main clause and a subordinate clause linked by... Conjunction - as, until, after … -ing verb -ed verb Relative pronoun - who, which, that..

40 COHESION: Pronouns and other connectives GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS - 3 -

41 COHESION Cohesion is the way we show the reader the direction of a text using... PRONOUNS: she / he / it / they / we / us CONNECTIVES: Before, later, on the other hand, despite this, however...

42 SPOT THE COHESION DEVICES At around £1 for a large fruit, the pineapple is no longer the special-occasion fruit it was in my childhood. (If there is a pineapple in the fruit bowl, then it must be Christmas.) More recently, in the lush, tropical heat of Goa, the fruit became a daily ritual during a beach-bum holiday. Armed with a plump pineapple, chosen for its ripeness and stripped of its inedible skin by the stallholders fearsome machete, we would wander far along the deserted beach to make the most of the fruit and its sticky juice. Six months later, in the frost-covered gardens of Versailles, the statues and urns wrapped up for the winter, such a fruit seemed even more welcome, cheering us up as our teeth chattered and we dripped juice into the snow as we walked. It is this fruits impeccable timing, turning up sweet and gold in the depths of winter, that probably makes it so popular. Nigel Slater, Real Good Food

43 SPOT THE COHESION DEVICES At around £1 for a large fruit, the pineapple is no longer the special-occasion fruit it was in my childhood. (If there is a pineapple in the fruit bowl, then it must be Christmas.) More recently, in the lush, tropical heat of Goa, the fruit became a daily ritual during a beach-bum holiday. Armed with a plump pineapple, chosen for its ripeness and stripped of its inedible skin by the stallholders fearsome machete, we would wander far along the deserted beach to make the most of the fruit and its sticky juice. Six months later, in the frost-covered gardens of Versailles, the statues and urns wrapped up for the winter, such a fruit seemed even more welcome, cheering us up as our teeth chattered and we dripped juice into the snow as we walked. It is this fruits impeccable timing, turning up sweet and gold in the depths of winter, that probably makes it so popular. Nigel Slater, Real Good Food Pronouns

44 SPOT THE COHESION DEVICES At around £1 for a large fruit, the pineapple is no longer the special-occasion fruit it was in my childhood. (If there is a pineapple in the fruit bowl, then it must be Christmas.) More recently, in the lush, tropical heat of Goa, the fruit became a daily ritual during a beach-bum holiday. Armed with a plump pineapple, chosen for its ripeness and stripped of its inedible skin by the stallholders fearsome machete, we would wander far along the deserted beach to make the most of the fruit and its sticky juice. Six months later, in the frost-covered gardens of Versailles, the statues and urns wrapped up for the winter, such a fruit seemed even more welcome, cheering us up as our teeth chattered and we dripped juice into the snow as we walked. It is this fruits impeccable timing, turning up sweet and gold in the depths of winter, that probably makes it so popular. Nigel Slater, Real Good Food connectives

45 And thats all there is to it...

46 1 - Sentence types (co-ordination & subordination) 2 -Modification 3 - Cohesion GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS -


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