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THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF FIRE SERVICE INSTRUCTORS Electronic INSTRUCT-O-GRAM Program 2005-9 Flashover Recognition and Survival.

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Presentation on theme: "THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF FIRE SERVICE INSTRUCTORS Electronic INSTRUCT-O-GRAM Program 2005-9 Flashover Recognition and Survival."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF FIRE SERVICE INSTRUCTORS Electronic INSTRUCT-O-GRAM Program Flashover Recognition and Survival

2 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Objectives 1.The firefighter shall describe the early warning signs of an impending flashover. 2.The firefighter shall describe the importance of fire behavior as it relates to flashover. 3.The firefighter shall describe survival techniques used should a firefighter become caught by a flashover. 1.The firefighter shall describe the early warning signs of an impending flashover. 2.The firefighter shall describe the importance of fire behavior as it relates to flashover. 3.The firefighter shall describe survival techniques used should a firefighter become caught by a flashover.

3 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Objectives 4.The firefighter shall describe various factors that may affect the development of a flashover. 5.The firefighter shall describe the proper method for fire stream penciling. 6.The firefighter shall describe techniques used to prevent / delay a flashover. 4.The firefighter shall describe various factors that may affect the development of a flashover. 5.The firefighter shall describe the proper method for fire stream penciling. 6.The firefighter shall describe techniques used to prevent / delay a flashover.

4 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flashover Definition IFSTA Definition Flashover: Stage of a fire at which all surfaces and objects within a space have been heated to their ignition temperature, and flame breaks out almost at once over the surface of all objects in the space. IFSTA Definition Flashover: Stage of a fire at which all surfaces and objects within a space have been heated to their ignition temperature, and flame breaks out almost at once over the surface of all objects in the space.

5 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flashover Definition National Fire Academy Definition Flashover: The ignition of combustibles in an area heated by convection and radiation, or a combination of the two. The combustible substances in a room are heated to their ignition point and almost simultaneous combustion of the material occurs. National Fire Academy Definition Flashover: The ignition of combustibles in an area heated by convection and radiation, or a combination of the two. The combustible substances in a room are heated to their ignition point and almost simultaneous combustion of the material occurs.

6 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Fire Behavior of Flashover Flashover is the transition between the growth stage and the fully developed stage During the development of a fire the upper atmosphere is heated causing radiant heating of combustible contents in room / area The radiant heat cause pyrolysis in the combustible contents Flashover is the transition between the growth stage and the fully developed stage During the development of a fire the upper atmosphere is heated causing radiant heating of combustible contents in room / area The radiant heat cause pyrolysis in the combustible contents

7 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Fire Behavior of Flashover Fire gases produced by the heated contents reach their ignition temperature and ignite One of the most common gases produced by this heated process is carbon monoxide Ignition temperatures for fire gases range from approximately 900 – 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit Fire gases produced by the heated contents reach their ignition temperature and ignite One of the most common gases produced by this heated process is carbon monoxide Ignition temperatures for fire gases range from approximately 900 – 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit

8 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Time / Temperature Curve TEMPERATURETEMPERATURE TEMPERATURETEMPERATURE TIME Growth Stage Fully Developed Stage Decay Stage FLASHOVER COLLAPSE

9 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Methods of Heat Transfer Conduction – The transfer of heat through a solid medium Convection – The transfer of heat by the movement of heated liquids or gases Radiation – Transfer of heat by electromagnetic wave without an intervening medium In a flashover, re-radiated heat increases room temperature causing contents to reach ignition temperature quicker Conduction – The transfer of heat through a solid medium Convection – The transfer of heat by the movement of heated liquids or gases Radiation – Transfer of heat by electromagnetic wave without an intervening medium In a flashover, re-radiated heat increases room temperature causing contents to reach ignition temperature quicker

10 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flammable Gases of Smoke Carbon Monoxide (CO) primary component of incomplete combustion (smoke) Flammable gases collects up near ceiling level Thick dark pressurized smoke reaches ignition temperature Ignition temperature of CO – 1128 degrees Fahrenheit Carbon Monoxide (CO) primary component of incomplete combustion (smoke) Flammable gases collects up near ceiling level Thick dark pressurized smoke reaches ignition temperature Ignition temperature of CO – 1128 degrees Fahrenheit

11 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flammable Range Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) Above the UEL, fire cannot occur because there is too much fuel and not enough oxygen Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) Below the LEL, fire cannot occur because there is not enough fuel and too much oxygen Combustion occurs between the UEL and LEL Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) Above the UEL, fire cannot occur because there is too much fuel and not enough oxygen Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) Below the LEL, fire cannot occur because there is not enough fuel and too much oxygen Combustion occurs between the UEL and LEL

12 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flammable Range of CO Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) 74% - 100% Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) 0% % Combustion occurs between the 12.5% and 74% 1% = 10,000 PPM 12.5% = 125,000 PPM Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) 74% - 100% Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) 0% % Combustion occurs between the 12.5% and 74% 1% = 10,000 PPM 12.5% = 125,000 PPM

13 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Increased Exposure to Flashover Better personal protective equipment Faster notification Better insulated buildings and energy efficient windows Combustible contents have changed from wood to plastics / synthetics Better personal protective equipment Faster notification Better insulated buildings and energy efficient windows Combustible contents have changed from wood to plastics / synthetics

14 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flashover Variables Room size – the smaller the room the faster the fire will develop Openings in room – the number and size of openings will allow heat to escape possibly delaying or preventing a flashover Heat released – the amount of BTUs given of by burning materials Room size – the smaller the room the faster the fire will develop Openings in room – the number and size of openings will allow heat to escape possibly delaying or preventing a flashover Heat released – the amount of BTUs given of by burning materials

15 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flashover Variables Insulation qualities – walls, ceilings, and windows are energy efficient to allow heat from escaping, with flashover these insulation qualities keeps heat in Combustible contents – contents and wall surfaces allow for rapid fire development due to their physical properties, wood vs. plastic Insulation qualities – walls, ceilings, and windows are energy efficient to allow heat from escaping, with flashover these insulation qualities keeps heat in Combustible contents – contents and wall surfaces allow for rapid fire development due to their physical properties, wood vs. plastic

16 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Flashover Variables Ceiling height – low ceilings allow heat and smoke to build quicker whereas high ceilings may allow the flashover to go undetected without the indicators of rapid rise in heat and build-up of thick smoke Ventilation – venting to delay a flashover allowing gases to escape, not venting may starve the fire from oxygen and delaying the build-up Ceiling height – low ceilings allow heat and smoke to build quicker whereas high ceilings may allow the flashover to go undetected without the indicators of rapid rise in heat and build-up of thick smoke Ventilation – venting to delay a flashover allowing gases to escape, not venting may starve the fire from oxygen and delaying the build-up

17 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Signs of Flashover Free-burning fire in a contained area or compartment within a structure Free-burning fire of rooms contents Rapid rise in heat (Intense) Thick, dark, pressurized smoke Rollover / Flameover Snakes, ribbons of flame in smoke Free-burning fire in a contained area or compartment within a structure Free-burning fire of rooms contents Rapid rise in heat (Intense) Thick, dark, pressurized smoke Rollover / Flameover Snakes, ribbons of flame in smoke

18 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Rollover / Flameover Flames move through or across the unburned gases during a fires progression Distinguished from flashover by involvement only with the fire gases and not the contents of the room / area Flameover / Rollover occurs during growth stage as hot gases form near upper portions of room / area Flames move through or across the unburned gases during a fires progression Distinguished from flashover by involvement only with the fire gases and not the contents of the room / area Flameover / Rollover occurs during growth stage as hot gases form near upper portions of room / area

19 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Attacking Flashover Size-up and evaluate room or area involved – forecast for potential rapid fire development Determine the safest most effective route for fire attack in relation to current and predicted flame spread area Protect entry / egress route Size-up and evaluate room or area involved – forecast for potential rapid fire development Determine the safest most effective route for fire attack in relation to current and predicted flame spread area Protect entry / egress route

20 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Attacking Flashover Maintain constant awareness of your surroundings (six sided approach) Survey room / area for victims Maintain constant awareness of your surroundings (six sided approach) Survey room / area for victims

21 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Reality of Flashover Occupants who have not escaped from fire room / area before flashover occurs are NOT likely to survive Increased risk to firefighters operating in this environment Search and rescue without the protection from a hoseline is extremely dangerous Flashover is unpredictable Occupants who have not escaped from fire room / area before flashover occurs are NOT likely to survive Increased risk to firefighters operating in this environment Search and rescue without the protection from a hoseline is extremely dangerous Flashover is unpredictable

22 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Penciling Technique Short duration bursts of water using a straight stream directed at the upper portions of the walls and ceilings Penciling technique allows for temperature reduction in fire area not allowing fire gases to reach ignition temperature Short duration bursts of water using a straight stream directed at the upper portions of the walls and ceilings Penciling technique allows for temperature reduction in fire area not allowing fire gases to reach ignition temperature

23 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Penciling Technique Preventing a flashover from occurring using the penciling technique allows suppression crews to advance to the seat of the fire and enable personnel to direct water at the base of the fire achieving knockdown / extinguishment

24 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Penciling Technique CAUTION! The penciling technique is used to PREVENT a flashover and should NOT be used as a primary means of fire attack

25 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Using T.I.C. to Detect Flashover Detect high heat and gases accumulating in voids, high ceilings, smoke filled rooms / areas Use T.I.C. from an area of safe haven to scan ahead to detect heat and flame Detect high heat and gases accumulating in voids, high ceilings, smoke filled rooms / areas Use T.I.C. from an area of safe haven to scan ahead to detect heat and flame

26 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Delay / Prevent Flashover Apply water – WATER KILLS FLASHOVER! Applying water into the superheated atmosphere may delay or eliminate to progression of rapid fire development Ventilate – create openings in room / area allowing hot fire gases to escape Get out! – immediately leave area / room Apply water – WATER KILLS FLASHOVER! Applying water into the superheated atmosphere may delay or eliminate to progression of rapid fire development Ventilate – create openings in room / area allowing hot fire gases to escape Get out! – immediately leave area / room

27 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Point of No Return Firefighter in full PPE without a hoseline can travel approximately 2.5 feet per second Escape time during a flashover is no more than 2 seconds Maximum safe distance to entry and search is 5 feet Full room / area involvement of flame causes firefighter to become disoriented Firefighter in full PPE without a hoseline can travel approximately 2.5 feet per second Escape time during a flashover is no more than 2 seconds Maximum safe distance to entry and search is 5 feet Full room / area involvement of flame causes firefighter to become disoriented

28 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ Survival Techniques Recognize warning signs Use defensive search procedures to protect against flashover Avoid disorientation Note secondary escape routes Enter / leave thru same door Remain calm DO NOT remove your facepiece Wear full PPE Recognize warning signs Use defensive search procedures to protect against flashover Avoid disorientation Note secondary escape routes Enter / leave thru same door Remain calm DO NOT remove your facepiece Wear full PPE

29 ~ International Society of Fire Service Instructors ~ References Delisio, Christian, Knapp, Jerry (1996) Flashover Survival Strategy, Fire Engineering Dunn, Vincent (1994) Safety and Survival: Flashover, Firehouse IFSTA (1998) Essentials of Firefighting (4 th Edition) Kentucky State Fire / Rescue Training (2000) Flashover Recognition and Survival – Student handout Sendelbach, Timothy (2003) Flashover Survival, FETN Delisio, Christian, Knapp, Jerry (1996) Flashover Survival Strategy, Fire Engineering Dunn, Vincent (1994) Safety and Survival: Flashover, Firehouse IFSTA (1998) Essentials of Firefighting (4 th Edition) Kentucky State Fire / Rescue Training (2000) Flashover Recognition and Survival – Student handout Sendelbach, Timothy (2003) Flashover Survival, FETN


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