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Exterior Walls- Framing & Structural Components. Framing/Construction Techniques u General Terms & Methodology u Platform Framing u Balloon Framing u.

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Presentation on theme: "Exterior Walls- Framing & Structural Components. Framing/Construction Techniques u General Terms & Methodology u Platform Framing u Balloon Framing u."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exterior Walls- Framing & Structural Components

2 Framing/Construction Techniques u General Terms & Methodology u Platform Framing u Balloon Framing u Energy-Efficient Framing u Post & Beam(Timber) u Steel Framing u Concrete Masonry Construction u Floor Framing Terms u Wall Framing Terms u Exterior Finishes

3 General Exterior Wall Construction u Walls support vertical loads from –roof –ceiling –floors u Must also resist later forces due to –wind –earthquakes

4 Typical Wall Construction u One and two story framing –Generally walls are 2 x 4 @ 16 O.C. –Occasionally 2 x 6 @ 16, 19.2 and 24 O.C. associated with cold climates u Three story framing(load bearing walls) –lower floor = 2 x 6 @ 16 O.C. –other floors = 2 x 4 @ 16 O.C.

5 Platform Framing Foundation Sill Floor Joist Girder Subfloor Platform Framing Dbl Plate Blocking Sway Bracing Rafter or Truss 1. Also called Western Framing 2. Most common today 3. Platform provide area to build walls Sheathing Ledger (corner bracing) Floor Joist Ceiling Joist

6 Balloon Framing Two story length studs 1. Studs extend from sill to roof line 2. Also called Eastern Framing 3. Terms similar to Platform Framing. Ribbon Firestop 4. Additional Terms: Ribbon Firestop Balloon Framing

7 Balloon Framing Terms u Ribbon u Firestop

8 Balloon Framing u Used primarily for 2 story construction u Less chance of shrinkage or movement –recommended for masonry veneer & stucco u 2nd floor supported by wall with –let-in 1x4 called a ribbon u Less overall material u Longer members usually more costly u Firestop blocking and ribbons required

9 Framing Construction at Corners Two studs and dry wall clips (see class sample) u 3 full studs –good with super insulated buildings u 3 full studs and blocking u 3 full studs and 1/2 shim

10 Energy-Efficient Framing u Advanced framing techniques (AFT) u Altering traditional framing methods –see text for examples u Eliminate nonstructural wood with insulation (Wood = R1/inch, Insulation = R3.5 to R8.3/inch) –insulation at corners, insulation at exterior wall behind partition intersections, and insulated headers u Stud spacing (24 OC) u One level height limitation set by code u Structural insulated panels (SIP)

11 Post & Beam (Timber) 1. Relatively new and less common in residential construction 2. Larger members placed further apart 3. Used in heavy timber construction for years post beam Beam and Post typically 8 OC T&G planks 2x6 or 2x8

12 Post &Beam Construction u Provides vaulted (sloped) ceilings and a more open feeling in the space T

13 Post and Beam Framing using Tongue & Groove Planking u Used for Roof or Floor when structure is space 24 or more O.C.

14 Steel Framing u Alternate method of framing –lower energy cost –higher strength –better insurance rates and considerations u Similar to platform framing in construction –steel studs –base/plates –steel trusses

15 Concrete Masonry Construction u Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) –durable, economical material, excellent structural values, poor insulation values u Classifications –hollow –load bearing (ASTM C 90) –solid load-bearing –nonload-bearing (solid or hollow) u Solid Masonry = 75% solid material in cross-section –positions: solider, rowlock, sailor, stretcher, header shiner

16 Concrete Masonry Shapes

17 Solid Masonry (Brick) Positions

18 Structural Components u Floor Systems –conventional framing (Stick Built) –terminology u Floor Bracing –Mid span –End bracing u Framed Wall Construction –bearing walls –nonbearing walls –exterior finishes

19 Conventional Floor Framing u Conventional (Stick) framing basic terms –mud sill –sole plate(sill) –floor joist –rim joist –anchor bolt u Floor Joist –Solid –TJI –Open web

20 Floor Bracing u End Bracing –Rim Joist –Blocking

21 Floor Bracing u Bracing at midspan –solid blocking –cross blocking »wood »metal

22 Framed Wall Construction u Definition: Bearing walls u Definition: Nonbearing walls

23 Window/Door Framing Terms u Header –supports structure above windows u Header Jack (trimmer) –supports header u Cripple Studs (jack stud) u Double Plate u Rough Sill(sub sill) u King stud –additional stud to trim out window Double Plate Cripple Stud or Jack Stud Header Header Jack or Trimmer

24 Framed Wall Construction Shear Wall Design u Resistance to lateral forces resulting from earthquakes or wind u Connections: –1 sheathing to joist –2 joist to top wall –3 edge nailing –4 tie-down straps –5 anchor/shear bolts

25 Exterior Finishes u Wood Siding u Cement Board Siding u Steel Siding u Vinyl Siding u Stucco u Exterior Insulation Finish System (EIFS)

26 Wood Siding u Various sizes and Shapes –Solid wood –T1-11(plywood) »4x8 sheets –Masonnite Lapboard »8-12 x 16

27 Cement Board Siding u Has texture and look of wood siding but is more weather resistant.

28 Steel & Vinyl Siding u Higher in Cost and Lower in Maintenance –no painting u A variety of wood textures and patterns u Longer lasting than wood but some Concerns: –expansion –denting –cracking –rusting

29 Cement Stucco Least expensive building paper wire fabric lath furring nails drip screed sheathing vs. open frame 3 coats of plaster brown finish scratch

30 Exterior Insulated Finish System (EIFS)

31 Roof Construction u Basic terms: –slope/pitch--incline of roof –roof member terms--structure of roof –eave/cornice--detail showing wall to roof const –fascia--visible member attached to end of rafters –ridge--top of roof –sheathing--material covering the top of rafters –rafter/ceiling joist--structure framing of roof –soffit--underneath side of roof overhang –vents--in soffit, allows air circulation in attic

32 Eave and Cornice Detail Terms

33 Slope vs. Pitch u Slope = Rise/Run –expressed as a ratio –always a base of 12 –placed on dwg. 12 4 Slope symbol Text book error (noted as pitch symbol) Pitch = Rise/Span expressed as fraction reduce to smallest fraction not placed on drawing, helpful to carpenter

34 Roof Member Terminology VALLEY JACK RAFTER

35 Metal Framing Connectors Keeps structural members from separating

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