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27 October 2005 AQM-European Experience: Addressing Industrial Air Pollution Magnus Gislev European Commission Delegation in.

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Presentation on theme: "27 October 2005 AQM-European Experience: Addressing Industrial Air Pollution Magnus Gislev European Commission Delegation in."— Presentation transcript:

1 27 October 2005 AQM-European Experience: Addressing Industrial Air Pollution Magnus Gislev European Commission Delegation in China

2 27 October 2005 Contents of the presentation 1.Background 2. EU Air Quality Legislation and National Emission Ceilings 3. EU Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive 4. European taxes, charges and emissions trading 5. The new EU Air Pollution Strategy

3 27 October 2005 Background to EU AQM policy l European citizens are estimated to die prematurely every year due to bad air quality l Air pollution is also causing severe damage to ecosystems through acid rain and deposition of eutrophying substances l Worrying trends (energy, transport) l Air does not respect borders l Internal EU market + global economy

4 27 October 2005 Loss in life expectancy attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter 2000

5 27 October 2005 EU Air Pollution Legislation Mobile Sources Stationary sources National emissions ceilings IPPC LCPs Road Non-roadFuels Quality Framework Directive 1 St Daughter 2 nd Daughter 3 rd Daughter Exchange Information 4 th Daughter ConcentrationsEmissions IncinerationVOCs

6 27 October 2005 EU Air Quality Framework Directive l Directive 96/62: Framework obligations u capacity building u define zones and agglomerations u Perform assessment : Measurement/modelling u Inform the public u Report to the Commission u Management : Maintain air quality where good If Conc>Limit Value + Margin of tolerance: Prepare, implement plans and programmes

7 27 October 2005 EU Air Quality Daughter Directives l Air quality standards, minimum monitoring requirements, stations criteria, reference methods l Directive 99/30: u limit values for PM 10, NO x, SO 2 and lead l Directive 2000/69: u limit values for benzene and CO l Directive 2002/3: u Target values for Ozone u Monitoring of ozone precursors (NO2, VOCs) l Directive 2004/107: u Target values BaP, HM (excluding Hg)

8 27 October 2005 National Emission Ceilings (1)

9 27 October 2005 National Emission Ceilings (2) l Objective : u To set total national ceilings for pollutants causing acidification and eutrofication and for ozone precursors for the protection of the environment and human health u Reduce areas with critical loads at least 50% compared to 1990 u Ground level ozone by 2/3 (health) 1/3 (eco) l Management : u national programme has to be prepared and communicated to the Commission u implemented to stay below ceiling by 2010

10 27 October 2005 NEC – required reductions

11 27 October 2005 IPPC permit system Permit IPPC = Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Directive, 96/61/EC in force since October 1999

12 27 October 2005 Scope of IPPC The IPPC Directive covers 1. Prevention of pollution caused by production u selection of raw materials u cleaner production processes 2. Control of pollution caused by production u end-of-pipe abatement techniques It does not cover - Pollution caused by products

13 27 October 2005 IPPC: Activities covered l Energy industries l Production and processing of metals l Mineral industry l Chemical industry l Waste management l Other activities u Production of pulp and paper u Pre-treatment of textiles u Tanning of hides u Slaughterhouses and processing of food products u Disposal of animal waste u Rearing of poultry or pigs u Printing, coating, degreasing, waterproofing etc. u Production of carbon or electrographite Annex I: CATEGORIES OF INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES

14 27 October 2005 IPPC: Key provisions l integrated, decentralised permit procedure l public participation and access to information including an emission register l emission limit values based on Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Environmental Quality Standards l exchange of information on BAT and associated monitoring l existing EU emission limit values are minimum requirements

15 27 October 2005 Best Available Techniques most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole Best developed on a scale to be implemented in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, advantages balanced against costs the technology used and the way the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned AvailableTechniques

16 27 October 2005 BAT reference document Best Available Techniques reference document on large combustion plants available on Internet: What is it? What not?

17 27 October 2005 Pollutant Emission Register l Principal emissions (37 air and 26 water pollutants 50 in total) and IPPC sources responsible l Published every 3 years l First occasion in February 2004 (EU-15) European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER)

18 27 October 2005 Pollutant Emission Register Example: PM10 emissions in 2001 from IPPC sources

19 27 October 2005 Pollutant Emission Register Example: 10 highest SOx emitting installations in EU (2001) l CENTRAL TERMICA AS PONTES 315, t l PPC S.A., SES MEGALOPOLIS A' (I, II, III) 161, t l Unidad de Producción Térmica Teruel 152, t l CENTRALE TERMOELETTRICA DI PORTO TOLLE 72, t l CENTRAL TERMICA DE MEIRAMA 70, t l EDF ENERGY (COTTAM POWER) LTD 70, t l EDF ENERGY (WEST BURTON POWER) LTD 68, t l Scottish Power Generation uk 68, t l UPT COMPOSTILLA 61, t l BRITISH ENERGY PLC 59, t

20 27 October 2005 Emissions trading in Europe l EU greenhouse gas emissions trading: first economic instrument at EU level l National CO 2 systems in UK and Denmark l NO x trading in Netherlands l SO2 trading in Slovakia l More plans triggered by the National Emission Ceilings Directive?

21 27 October 2005 Dutch NOx emissions trading scheme l Introduced in the Netherlands in parallel with EU CO2 trading scheme l Triggered by national ceilings of -50% by 2010 and -75% by 2020 l Major considerations include: - local effects - application of Best Available Techniques - monitoring and environmental management systems - cooperation by industry and enforcement

22 27 October 2005 Emission taxes and charges l Sweden has highest S, N taxes in the World: SO2 tax 2 $ /kg l Sweden has a NOx charge of 6 $ /kg, 99% of revenues are refunded according to useful energy output l Since 1990 specific NOx emissions in Sweden have dropped by over 40% to lowest levels world-wide l Other EU countries also have taxes (e.g. Denmark on SO2 and individual Spanish regions on SO2)

23 27 October 2005 Environmental taxes and charges l Environmental tax bases and applications are spreading steadily in Europe l Design important: exemptions, recycling of revenues in exchange for good performance l Very few attempts to base tax rates on external costs l Little evidence of less competitiveness

24 27 October 2005 Policy mixes l From optimal instrument to optimal mix l Mixes are rule not the exception l Many combinations found l Balance of effectiveness and efficiency/costs

25 27 October 2005 New EU Strategy on Air Pollution l Euro 5 for cars and vans l Euro 6 for Heavy Duty Engines l Revision of the National Emission Ceilings l Small scale combustion l Ship NOx engine standards l Agriculture l Revise Air quality legislation

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