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1 TROX TROX USA Chilled Beams for Laboratory HVAC Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "1 TROX TROX USA Chilled Beams for Laboratory HVAC Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 TROX TROX USA Chilled Beams for Laboratory HVAC Applications

2 2 Chilled Ceilings and Beams Early 1980s Chilled Ceilings Advent of personal computers Buildings well insulated for heating Need to remove heat from space Limited space available

3 3 Principle of Operation Chilled Ceiling Panels CWS = 59 to 62ºFCWR = 62 to 66ºF 55% Convective 45% Radiant

4 4 Radiant Effect on Occupants Chilled Ceiling Panels 77° F 74.5° F Dry Bulb Temp. Effective Radiant Temp.

5 5 Chilled Ceiling Systems Improved thermal comfort –Typically combined with displacement ventilation system –Low turbulence intensity decreases draft risks

6 6 Chilled Ceiling Systems Improved thermal comfort Minimal space requirements –No additional space required in ceiling cavity –Easy to install in retrofit applications

7 7 Chilled Ceiling Systems Improved thermal comfort Minimal space requirements Low energy cooling solution –High heat transfer efficiencies using water –Low transport costs

8 8 Cooling Capacity Comparison 1 : 327 Flow Cross Section Ratio 18 x 18 Air Duct 1 diameter Water Pipe

9 9 Chilled Ceiling Systems Improved thermal comfort Minimal space requirements Low energy cooling solution Limited Cooling Capacity –25 BTUH/FT 2 of active panel –18 BTUH/FT 2 of floor area (based on 70% active ceiling)

10 Chilled Ceilings Passive Beams Greater occupant densities Increased equipment loads Inadequate perimeter cooling Chilled Ceilings and Beams Early 1990s Technology revolution

11 11 Passive Chilled Beams Ceiling manufacturers begin to sell high free area perforation panels competitively Convective coils replace ceiling panels

12 12 Concrete soffit Passive Chilled Beams

13 13 Passive Chilled Beam Air Distribution Pattern

14 14 Passive Chilled Beams Recessed Beams Exposed Beams

15 15 Passive Beam Components Heat Transfer Coil Separation Skirt Support Rods Optional Cabinet

16 16 Passive Chilled Beams Interior Area Installation B B x 2 Z H is between 4 and 12 in. Z should be 0.33B H

17 17 Passive Chilled Beams Perimeter Installation B B x 1.5

18 18 Passive Beam Installations

19 19 Passive Beam Installations

20 Chilled Ceilings Passive Beams Active Beams Greater occupant densities Continually increasing sensible loads Gypsum board tiles become common Combine cooling and ventilation Chilled Ceilings and Beams Mid 1990s

21 21 Concrete soffit Primary air supply Suspended Ceiling Active Chilled Beams

22 22 Active Chilled Beam Air Distribution Pattern

23 23 Active Chilled Beams Sensible loads up to 70 BTUH/FT 2 Primary air delivered at conventional (50 to 55ºF) temperatures at or near minimum ventilation flow rate Can be used with fiberglass ceiling tiles or without any ceiling

24 24 Active Beam Installation

25 25 Active Beam Installation

26 26 Comparative Energy Costs VAV System Passive Beam with Displacement Ventilation Chilled Ceiling with Natural Ventilation Typical Annual HVAC Energy Cost ($/FT 2 ) $1.50 $0.48 $0.80 Cost to chill water Cost to transport water Cost to cool air Cost to transport air LEGEND $1.00 Active Chilled Beam

27 Chilled Ceilings Passive Beams Active Beams Active Chilled Beams For Laboratory HVAC Applications Active Beams for Lab HVAC

28 28 Laboratory Design Issues Space sensible heat gains of 60 to 70 BTUH/FT 2 Space ventilation requirements of 6 to 8 ACH -1 Laboratories where chemicals and gases are present require 100% OA All air systems require 18 to 22 ACH -1 to satisfy sensible load

29 29 Active Chilled Beams in a General Use Laboratory Sensible Heat Gain = 65 BTUH/FT 2 Ventilation Rate = 8 ACH -1

30 30 Active Chilled Beams in a General Use Laboratory Sensible Heat Gain = 65 BTUH/FT 2 Ventilation Rate = 8 ACH -1 All Air Solution = 18 ACH -1 Air-Water Solution = 8 ACH -1

31 31 Laboratory Design for Pharmaceutical Company –Location: St. Louis, MO –Outdoor Design Conditions: 94DB/75WB –Laboratory Space: 54,000 FT 2 –Minimum Ventilation Rate: 8 ACH -1 –Space Sensible Heat Gain: 72 BTUH/FT 2 Case Study

32 32 Equipment Conventional VAV Active Chilled Beam Air Handling Units180,000 CFM72,000 CFM Cooling1,477 Tons587 Tons Heating21,617 lbs/hr8,588 lbs/hr Duct Distribution285,493 lbs.214,120 lbs. Control Points800 Chilled Beams1,056 Piping Distribution4,200 LF Sensible Cooling Chiller System 200 Tons Equipment Requirements

33 33 Cooling Energy RequirementExample TOTAL COOLING ENERGY (kW) OUTDOOR TEMPERATURE (°F) Chilled beam water side cooling Chilled beam air side cooling TOTAL ENERGY, AIR-WATER SOLUTION TOTAL ENERGY, ALL AIR SOLUTION 1000 FT 2 LAB (10 CLGS)TSHG = 70 BTUH/FT 2 VENTILATION = 8 ACH %

34 34 Active Chilled Beam (Parallel Sensible Cooling) –Reduced fan power – 32 % from Base VAV –Reduced cooling energy – 46 % from Base VAV –Reduced ductwork sizes – ACPH to 6-8 ACH -1 –Higher Pumping energy – 15% - Offset by other savings –Higher cooling system efficiencies Overall 35% Reduction in Energy Costs Energy Comparisons Case Study, 93/75F Outdoor Design

35 35 Active Chilled Beam (Parallel Sensible Cooling) –Reduced fan power – 32 % from Base VAV –Reduced cooling energy – 30 % from Base VAV –Reduced ductwork sizes – ACPH to 6-8 ACH -1 –Higher Pumping energy – 15% - Offset by other savings –Higher cooling system efficiencies Overall 25% Reduction in Energy Costs Energy Comparisons Modified for 80/64F Outdoor Design

36 36 EquipmentConventional VAVActive Chilled Beams Air Handling Units$2,264,335$899,610 Cooling$1,627,799$646,717 Heating$244,267$97,046 Duct Distribution$1,481,709$1,111,282 Control Points$1,200,000$1,140,000 Chilled Beams$1,652,984 Piping Distribution$266,444 Sensible Cooling Chiller System $265,373 Totals$6,818,109$6,079,456 Equipment Requirements

37 37 TROX TROX USA Chilled Ceilings and Beams


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