Presentation on theme: "What do you think?: Should we increase minimum wage? CIE3M Price Controls."— Presentation transcript:
What do you think?: Should we increase minimum wage? CIE3M Price Controls
What are they? Government policies that attempt to hold the price of certain goods/services at a disequilibrium value But why would the government do that?! The government imposes these policies for specific reasons in each case, usually to help a disadvantaged group or society as a whole
Disequilibrium Prices When forces hold a price at some disequilibrium value... what determines the quantity actually traded on the market?
Types of Price Controls Price FloorsPrice Ceilings
Price Floors The minimum price that can be charged for a particular good/service Government may think the price is too low, may want to assist producers Only binding/effective when set above the equilibrium price
Price Floors Draw a graph at equilibrium, then draw a price floor above this equilibrium What is the effect on the market?
Price Floors Effect: Leads to excess supply (a surplus) in the market Often the government will buy this excess supply from producers The government might stockpile the goods Destroy the goods Sell or give it away to other countries
Example: Labour Market Minimum Wage rate is considered a price floor government imposed minimum price that must be paid for labour When the rate increases (above equilibrium) it will cause excess supply of labour (people want to work) but many employers will not hire more workers When there is excess supply in the labour market this generates unemployment
Price Ceilings The maximum price that can be charged for a particular good/service Government may want to lower a price, or restrict production Only binding/effective when set below the equilibrium price
Price Ceilings Draw a graph at equilibrium, then draw a price ceiling below this equilibrium What is the effect on the market?
Price Ceilings Effect: Leads to excess demand (a shortage) in the market Often consumers will wait in lines to get items of high demand and low supply Some producers may pick and choose who they sell the scarce goods to (sellers preferences) The government may choose to ration goods (method often used during world wars)
Price Ceilings May also lead to: Black Markets Goods are sold illegally at higher prices Profit can be made by selling in the black market Emergence of black markets causes problems with the governments intentions
Price Ceiling: Example Rent Controls Government imposes a maximum price that landlords can charge Idea is to protect vulnerable groups looking for affordable housing Since a price ceiling causes excess demand, what does this mean for housing?
Price Ceiling: Example Sports team Salary Caps A maximum each team can spend to pay all of its players Why would the NHL implement a team salary cap? Disperse the highly paid players to many teams Teams unable to stockpile talent
Buffer Stock Schemes An organization (usually run by producers or the government) that attempts to smooth out fluctuations in prices & producer incomes by the purchase and sale of stocks of particular goods
Buffer Stock Manager Buys and sells in the market to manipulate demand and supply to stabilize prices