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Acid Rain Cooperation in Europe. The Problem Svante Oden (1968): The Acidification of Air and Precipitation and its Consequences. Svante Oden (1968):

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Presentation on theme: "Acid Rain Cooperation in Europe. The Problem Svante Oden (1968): The Acidification of Air and Precipitation and its Consequences. Svante Oden (1968):"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acid Rain Cooperation in Europe

2 The Problem Svante Oden (1968): The Acidification of Air and Precipitation and its Consequences. Svante Oden (1968): The Acidification of Air and Precipitation and its Consequences. SOx, NOx -> transported over the continent - >form acids in precipitation or dry form SOx, NOx -> transported over the continent - >form acids in precipitation or dry form Damage to health, forests, lakes, soils, ecosystems – particularly in Sweden, Norway Damage to health, forests, lakes, soils, ecosystems – particularly in Sweden, Norway International environmental externality International environmental externality

3 The Actors Leaders: Sweden, Norway Leaders: Sweden, Norway –1972 Conference on the Human Environment Laggards: UK, Germany, Communist Eastern Europe Laggards: UK, Germany, Communist Eastern Europe

4 The Breakthrough 1975 Helsinki Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 1975 Helsinki Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe –USSR and US interested in détente –Environment the most convenient object of cooperation –Scandinavians saw an opportunity, so did Canada –The UN Economic Commission for Europe –lead agency Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (LRTAP), 1979 Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (LRTAP), 1979 EMEP Protocol (1984) EMEP Protocol (1984)

5 More Lead Actors West Germany: the death of the Black Forest West Germany: the death of the Black Forest 30% club: Scandinavians, W. Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Canada, France 30% club: Scandinavians, W. Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Canada, France The First Sulfur Protocol (1985): The First Sulfur Protocol (1985): –30% of 1980 emissions by 1993

6 The Protocols The Nitrogen Oxides Protocol (1988) The Nitrogen Oxides Protocol (1988) –Freeze emissions at 1987 levels by 1995 VOC Protocol (1991) VOC Protocol (1991) –30% of emissions (base b/w 1984 and 1990) by The Second Sulfur Protocol (1994) The Second Sulfur Protocol (1994) –Differentiated targets bases on critical loads for acidification for 2000 and 2010;technology standards The Protocol on Heavy Metals (1998 ) The Protocol on Heavy Metals (1998 ) The Protocol on POPs (1998) The Protocol on POPs (1998) Gothenburg Multipollutant Protocol (1999) Gothenburg Multipollutant Protocol (1999)

7 Regulatory Innovation Critical loads: the highest load that will not cause chemical changes leading to long-term harmful effects on the most sensitive ecological ecosystems (Levy 1995, p. 61). Critical loads: the highest load that will not cause chemical changes leading to long-term harmful effects on the most sensitive ecological ecosystems (Levy 1995, p. 61). Why negotiate on the basis of critical loads estimates?

8 Critical Loads for Acid Deposition (red-high sensitivity, blue –low)

9 The RAINS Model Integrate science in international policy Emissions module Emissions module Cost module Cost module Dispersion module Dispersion module Effects module (critical loads) Effects module (critical loads)

10 Second Sulfur Protocol: Correlation of SO2 Emission Ceilings and RAINS Recommendations

11 Second Sulfur Protocol (1994) 60% gap closure against critical loads 60% gap closure against critical loads Differentiated targets Differentiated targets Requirement to apply Best Available Technology (BAT), achieve up to 90% desulfurization of emissions from large sources Requirement to apply Best Available Technology (BAT), achieve up to 90% desulfurization of emissions from large sources

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13 The Gothenburg Protocol (1999) Multiple effects: Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone Multiple effects: Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone Multiple pollutants: emission ceilings for SOx, NOx, VOCs and ammonia (NH3) by 2010 Multiple pollutants: emission ceilings for SOx, NOx, VOCs and ammonia (NH3) by 2010 Based on RAINS outputs Based on RAINS outputs Emission limits for large combustion sources, dry cleaning, cars, trucks based on BAT Emission limits for large combustion sources, dry cleaning, cars, trucks based on BAT If implemented, Europes sulfur emissions should be cut by 63%, its NOx by 41%, VOC by 40%, and ammonia by 17% compared to If implemented, Europes sulfur emissions should be cut by 63%, its NOx by 41%, VOC by 40%, and ammonia by 17% compared to 1990.

14 Gothenburg Protocol: Correlation of SO2 emission ceilings and RAINS Recommendations Model Input vs. Protocol: SO J1 (final scenario from RAINS) Protocol (accepted terms) Poland Bulgaria Romania Spain German y France Italy Hungary UK Greece

15 EU Directives Large Combustion Plant Directive (1988) Large Combustion Plant Directive (1988) Large Combustion Plant Directive II (2001) Large Combustion Plant Directive II (2001) National Emissions Ceilings Directive (2001) National Emissions Ceilings Directive (2001)

16 Acid Rain Cooperation in Europe Success or least common denominator agreements?

17 Emissions in the EC NOx-24%; SO2 -58%

18 Air Pollution in the US

19 Growth vs. Acidifying Emissions: Central and Eastern Europe

20 Growth and Acidifying Emissions: Commonwealth of Independent States

21 Conclusions -What facilitates cooperation? -Why some regimes ratchet up while other do not?


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