Presentation on theme: "Supply, Demand, and Government Policies"— Presentation transcript:
1Supply, Demand, and Government Policies 6Supply, Demand, and Government Policies
2Supply, Demand, and Government Policies In a free, unregulated market system, market forces establish equilibrium prices and exchange quantities.While equilibrium conditions may be efficient, it may be true that not everyone is satisfied.One of the roles of economists is to use their theories to assist in the development of policies.22
3CONTROLS ON PRICESAre usually enacted when policymakers believe the market price is unfair to buyers or sellers.Result in government-created price ceilings and floors.33
4CONTROLS ON PRICES Price Ceiling Price Floor A legal maximum on the price at which a good can be sold.Price FloorA legal minimum on the price at which a good can be sold.44
5How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes Two outcomes are possible when the government imposes a price ceiling:The price ceiling is not binding if set above the equilibrium price.The price ceiling is binding if set below the equilibrium price, leading to a shortage.55
6Figure 1 A Market with a Price Ceiling (a) A Price Ceiling That Is Not BindingPrice ofIce-CreamConeSupplyDemand€4Priceceiling3100EquilibriumpriceQuantity ofIce-CreamEquilibriumquantityCones
8How Price Ceilings Affect Market Outcomes Effects of Price CeilingsA binding price ceiling createsshortages because QD > QS.Example: Rent controls in New York restrict new buildingnon-price rationingExamples: Long queues; discrimination by sellers1114
9CASE STUDY: Rent Control in the Short Run and Long Run Rent controls are ceilings placed on the rents that landlords may charge their tenants.The goal of rent control policy is to help the poor by making housing more affordable.One economist called rent control “the best way to destroy a city, other than bombing.”Speaking in 1989, Vietnam’s Foreign Minister said: "The Americans couldn't destroy Hanoi, but we have destroyed our city by very low rents. We realized it was stupid and that we must change policy."Discrimination; big shortages in the long run2
12Rent controls in New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles NYC: over 1 million apartments are rent-regulated“Rent control limits the price a landlord can charge a tenant for rent and also regulates the services the landlord must provide.”"Rent control allows some people to stay in artificially cheap apartments, but only by forcing the people who would have rented them into some other, less desirable place.”“And no one wants to build any new housing except luxury units which will not be controlled.”Deterioration of quality
13How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes When the government imposes a price floor, two outcomes are possible.The price floor is not binding if set below the equilibrium price.The price floor is binding if set above the equilibrium price, leading to a surplus.1215
16How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes A price floor prevents supply and demand from moving toward the equilibrium price and quantity.When the market price hits the floor, it can fall no further, and the market price equals the floor price.1524
17How Price Floors Affect Market Outcomes A binding price floor causes . . .a surplus because QS > QD.non-price rationing is an alternative mechanism for rationing the good, using discrimination criteria.Examples: The minimum wage, agricultural price supports1525
18The Minimum WageAn important example of a price floor is the minimum wage. Minimum wage laws dictate the lowest price for labour that any employer may pay.
21TAXES Governments levy taxes to raise revenue for public projects. 20 29
22How Taxes on Buyers (and Sellers) Affect Market Outcomes Taxes discourage market activity.When a good is taxed, the quantity sold is smaller.Buyers and sellers share the tax burden.2230
23Elasticity and Tax Incidence Tax incidence is the manner in which the burden of a tax is shared among participants in a market.Tax incidence is the study of who bears the burden of a tax.Taxes result in a change in market equilibrium.Buyers pay more and sellers receive less, regardless of whom the tax is levied on.2131
28Elasticity and Tax Incidence In what proportions is the burden of the tax divided?How do the effects of taxes on sellers compare to those levied on buyers?The answers to these questions depend on the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply.2939
31ELASTICITY AND TAX INCIDENCE So, how is the burden of the tax divided?The burden of a tax falls more heavily on the side of the market that is less price elastic.3041
32Luxury tax On yachts, private planes, furs The D for yachts is quite elasticThe S not so elasticBurden borne by yacht suppliers
33Controlling quantities—licensing and import restrictions Limit the number of firms in a market by the number of business licenses issued.Taxis, dry cleaners, barsImport restriction—limit the quantity of a good that can be imported—quota
34ExerciseIn the equilibrium in the powdered milk market, the quantity is 100 million units and the price is $9. The price elasticity of D is .80 and the price elasticity of S is Suppose the gov’t imposes a minimum price (price floor) of $9.90.Draw a graph to show the effects of price floorAt the price floor, the quantity of powdered milk supplied is___, the Q demanded is___, and the excess supply is_____.
35ExerciseThe equilibrium price of gasoline is $3 and the equilibrium quantity is 100 million gallons. Suppose the government sets a price ceiling of $2.90. For producers, each $0.01 change in price changes quantity supplied by 3 million gallons. For consumers, each $0.01 change in price changes Q demanded by 2 million.Draw a graph to show the effects of the price ceiling on the gasoline market.With a price ceiling, find the quantity supplied, Q demanded and the shortage.
36Medallions in BostonIn 1997 there were 1500 taxi medallions in Boston, each generating a profit of $14000 per year. In 1998 the city announced that it would issue 300 new medallions, auctioning the new medallions to the highest bidders. Even with the new medallions, the number of taxis in the city would still be less than the number in an unregulated market. Your job is to predict the annual profit per medallion after the new medalions are issued.
37AssumeThe cost of providing taxi service is constant at $2 per mile of serviceThe initial P of taxi service (with 1500 medallions) is $2.14 per mile.Each taxi (medallion) provides miles of service per year, so 300 new medallions increase the total Q of taxi service from 150 million miles to 180.The slope of the demand curve is per million miles.Compute the new price of taxi serviceCompute the new profit per medallion.
38Luxury Boat TaxSuppose the luxury boat industry employs 1000 workers and produces 100 boats per month. Suppose a tax on luxury boats increases the equilibrium price from $300,000 to 345,000. The price elasticity of demand for luxury boats is 2.0.The luxury tax increases the equilibrium P of boats by ___%, so it decreases the Q of boats demanded from 100 to___. If builders continue to employ 10 workers per boat, the number of boat workers decreases from 1,000 to___.
39Summary Price controls include price ceilings and price floors. A price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price of a good or service. An example is rent control.A price floor is a legal minimum on the price of a good or a service. An example is the minimum wage.
40Summary Taxes are used to raise revenue for public purposes. When the government levies a tax on a good, the equilibrium quantity of the good falls.A tax on a good places a wedge between the price paid by buyers and the price received by sellers.
41SummaryThe incidence of a tax refers to who bears the burden of a tax.The incidence of a tax does not depend on whether the tax is levied on buyers or sellers.The incidence of the tax depends on the price elasticities of supply and demand.The burden tends to fall on the side of the market that is less price elastic.