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EASA FTL 2016 Understanding EASA FTL 2016

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1 EASA FTL 2016 Understanding EASA FTL 2016
A Generic Interpretation Understanding EASA FTL 2016 Flight and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. Version 1.2 Welcome to the presentation of FAR 117 – A generic interpretation This presentation should serve as an introductory lesson plan to the new FAR’s. [Click] Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

2 Disclaimer The documentation is provided “AS IS” and is solely intended to provide a general understanding of the author’s interpretation of the new EASA FTL as amended on 29-Jan-2014. The author makes no representations and disclaims any and all responsibility for the completeness or accuracy of the documentation. The author reserves the right, at his discretion, to change or modify the documentation as deemed appropriate. Copyright © , Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation. All rights reserved. Introduction Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

3 Module 2: Concept Model What is the FNPRM?
The FAA published the final notice of proposed rulemaking on Jan – 4th 2012 The rule established Pilot – Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. When do the Airlines have to comply? 04-Jan-2014, two years since publication. What do the Airlines have to do to comply? Develop scheduling policies and training programs. Update their Operations Specification and have approval from the FAA. Upgrade scheduling software, including planning and tracking software. [Click] Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

4 Basic Definitions Local Day
means a 24-hour period commencing at 00:00 local time. Duty means any task that a crew member performs for the operator, including flight duty, administrative work, giving or receiving training and checking, positioning, and some elements of standby. Rest period means a continuous, uninterrupted and defined period of time, following duty or prior to duty, during which a crew member is free of all duties, standby and reserve. Sleep opportunity means a period of time when a crewmember is provided and allowed to be in a suitable accommodation to rest in. Suitable accommodation means, for the purpose of standby, split duty, and rest, a separate room for each crew member located in a quiet environment and equipped with a bed, which is sufficiently ventilated, has a device for regulating temperature and light intensity, and access to food and drink. Definitions as applied to FAR 117. Calendar day Duty Report time Rest period [Click] Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

5 Acclimatization A CM who is in an acclimated state remains in an acclimated state as long as they remain within a zone +/-2 hours either side of the time zone in which the CM is acclimated to. State of Acclimatization: (D) Acclimated to Departure - occurs when a CM has spent sufficient time within a timezone to become acclimated to the timezone for departure. (B) Acclimated to Previous Acclimated Time Zone – occurs when a CM has spent insufficient time within a timezone to begin the acclimatization process. (X) Unknown - when a CM has entered a new timezone and has begun the acclimatization process but has not spent sufficient time to adjust to the local timezone. [Click] Acclimatization: The FAR will apply the concept of a theater, which is a zone 60 degrees either side of the departure station of a duty period. If we examine a Duty period that begins in JFK and ends in SFO, we see that there is only a 49 degree longitudinal difference, thereby; the crewmember has not exited the theater. If we examine a Duty period that begins in JFK and ends in CDG, we see that there is a 75 degree longitudinal difference, thereby, the crewmember has exited the theater and is no longer in an acclimated state. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

6 Acclimatization Example: a CM acclimated to Paris (UTC + 1), remains acclimated as long as they remain within the following time zones: UTC -1, UTC, UTC + 1, UTC + 2, UTC + 3 at the conclusion of the duty period. Jeddah (UTC + 3) is acclimated, while Tehran (UTC + 3:30) will require the crewmember to become acclimated. [Click] Acclimatization: The FAR will apply the concept of a theater, which is a zone 60 degrees either side of the departure station of a duty period. If we examine a Duty period that begins in JFK and ends in SFO, we see that there is only a 49 degree longitudinal difference, thereby; the crewmember has not exited the theater. If we examine a Duty period that begins in JFK and ends in CDG, we see that there is a 75 degree longitudinal difference, thereby, the crewmember has exited the theater and is no longer in an acclimated state. Paris Tehran Jeddah Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

7 Acclimatization Acclimatisation process is also known as re-adaptation. Flying across time zones exposes the circadian body clock to sudden shifts in the day/night cycle. Because of its sensitivity to light and (to a lesser extent) social time cues, the circadian body clock will eventually adapt to a new time zone. The acclimatisation process follows Table 1 defined in ORO.FTL.105 Definitions  [Click] To become acclimated one of two things must occur, Either 36 hours with a specific theater Or The crewmember has remained within that theater for at least 72 hours. A FCM begins at JFK in an acclimated state and flies to CDG. Upon release the FCM is in an un-acclimated state. At the start of the 2nd duty period, Since the crewmember has not had 36 hours continuous rest and has not been in the theater for 72 hours, the FCM is still un-acclimated. The FCM is permitted the operated the FDP under the following conditions: The reference time zone is set to where the FCM was last in an acclimated state (JFK) The FDP will apply a 30 minute penalty to the permissible scheduled FDP limitations At the start of the 3rd duty period, The FCM is now in an acclimated state, since the >= 36 hours continuous rest may be found. The reference time zone is now set to CDG and the FDP limitations may be applied with no further penalty. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

8 Acclimatization Time difference between reference time zone and local time, is simply the difference between the time zone where the CM was last acclimated to, and the time zone where a crewmember will begin the next duty. Example: CM is acclimated to Paris (UTC + 1) (Reference Time) and will begin the next duty period in Chicago (UTC -6), whereby the Time Difference is 7:00. The time elapsed since reporting at reference time to the time of report of the next duty. A conversion to UTC date time will be required to calculate the elapsed time. A Report in Paris on 15-Feb-2017 at 10:00 (Local) is 15-Feb-2017 at 09:00 (UTC), the next report in Chicago is on 16-Feb-2017 at 20:00 (Local) is 17-Feb-2017 at 02:00 (UTC), whereby the time elapsed is 40:00. Case #1: Since the elapsed time is less than 48:00 (Row 3, Column 1) the crewmember remains acclimated to Paris time (UTC + 1).acclimated. Case #2: Had the departure in Chicago been postponed 24 hours, the elapsed time would be 64:00, the CM has now moved into an unknown state of acclimatization (x) (Row 3, Column 2). Case #3: Had the departure in Chicago been postponed 60 hours, the elapsed time would be 100:00, the CM has now moved into an acclimated state of acclimatization (Row 3, Column 4). Observations concerning the FNPRM. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

9 Acclimatization Reference Time for the next departure is defined as follows: When a CM begins the next duty period in an (B) Acclimated to Previous Acclimated Time Zone state to the reference time is the time zone where that cm was last acclimated to. When a CM begins the next duty period in an (X) Unknown state there is no reference time. When a CM begins the next duty period in an (D) Acclimated to Departure state the reference time is the local time zone where the duty period begins. Should the CM remain within the zone of acclimatisation, the reference time is the local time zone where the duty period begins. Author’s note: Best practices suggest that operators use the time zone where the CM is currently acclimated to when evaluating under conditions 1 and 4 above. [Click] Acclimatization has an impact upon: Daily FDP Limitations Daily Flight Time Limitations Rest Requirements Application of WOCL Rules Application of Night Duty Rules Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

10 Window of Circadian Low (WOCL):
Window of circadian low means the period between 02:00 and 05:59 hours in the time zone to which a crew member is acclimatised Shall be based upon the OCM's reference time zone (RTZ). [Click] The FAR contains definitions for: Physiological night’s rest Occurs between adjusted for acclimatization. Window of circadian low (WOCL) Period of max sleepiness that occurs from 0200 to 0559 during the Physiological night. These will impact Rest Requirements Consecutive Nighttime Operations Reserve Limitations Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

11 Flight Duty Period (FDP)
Release Time Report Time Duty Time Arrive Time FDP Note: Difference between Duty Time and FDP Operational Operational Ferry DHD Note the difference between Duty Time and FDP. [Click] While duty time is measured from report to release, FDP is measured from Report to arrival of the last aircraft movement performed by a flight crewmember. Flight Time between rest periods - Is the sum of the Block for all legs contained within the duty period. For an OCM assigned to a duty period that contains flight time: The start of the FDP is at the report time (UTC) of the duty period. The end of the FDP is at the arrival time of the last operating (working) flight (UTC) before the start of a rest period. Ferry Flights are considered working flights. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

12 Rest Period and Breaks Rest Period:
A Rest Period begins when a crew member is released from duty until the crew member reports for the next duty. When the airline is responsible to provide a rest accommodation, Travel time to/from the accommodation, Physiological needs and Sleep opportunity must be considered. [Click] Rest Requirements While a Rest Period has retained its common definition as a period of time from release to report free from duty. A Sleep opportunity must be given in a Suitable Accommodation such as a Hotel and must occur within the rest period. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

13 Rest Period and Breaks Break:
A Break - is not considered a Rest Period, it is used to extend FDP limitations using Split Duty rules. The minimum time for a Duty Break is 3 hours. Author’s note: The operator should specify the times in its Operations Manual (OM) the minimum durations of: Post-Flight Duty Pre-Flight Duty Travel Time to/from accommodation, The operator should consider airport, time of day, aircraft type when specifying the minimums above. The absolute minimum ground time between to flights that may be considered a break is 3:30, Break = Ground Time – (Post-Flight Duty + Pre-Flight Duty + Travel Times) 3:00 = 3:30 – 0:30, However the ground time will most likely increase due to values in the OM, Example: 3:00 = 5:00 – (0:30 + 1:00 + 0:15 + 0:15) [Click] Rest Requirements While a Rest Period has retained its common definition as a period of time from release to report free from duty. A Sleep opportunity must be given in a Suitable Accommodation such as a Hotel and must occur within the rest period. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

14 Rest Period and Breaks Local Night Rest (LNR): Must include:
8 consecutive hours that starts at or before 00:00 (local time) and ends at or after 06:00 (local time) Example 1 – show a 10 hours rest period from 22:00 to 08:00, this qualifies as a LNR. Example 2 – has a 10 hour rest period with 8 hours during the LNR period from 00:00 to 08:00, the rest from 08:00 to 10:00 is not applied towards the LNR. Example 3 – has a 10 hour rest period with 8 hours during LNR period from 22:00 to 06:00, the rest from 20:00 to 22:00 is not applied towards the LNR Example 4 – has a rest period from 01:00 to 06:00 the following day, the rest from 01:00 to 08:00 is not applied towards the LNR since it is insufficient in duration, the rest from 08:00 to 22:00 also is not applied towards the LNR, the rest from 22:00 to 06:00 the next days is applied toward the LNR, it falls within the window and is of sufficient duration. Example 5 – has a rest period from 07:00 to 06:00 the following day, the rest from 07:00 to 08:00 is not applied towards the LNR since it is insufficient in duration, the rest from 08:00 to 22:00 also is not applied towards the LNR, the rest from 22:00 to 06:00 the next days is applied toward the LNR, it falls within the window and is of sufficient duration. [Click] Rest Requirements While a Rest Period has retained its common definition as a period of time from release to report free from duty. A Sleep opportunity must be given in a Suitable Accommodation such as a Hotel and must occur within the rest period. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

15 Rest Period and Breaks [Click] Rest Requirements
Example 6 – has a rest period from 06:00 to 05:00 the following day, the rest from 06:00 to 08:00 is not applied towards the LNR since it is insufficient in duration, the rest from 08:00 to 22:00 also is not applied towards the LNR, the rest from 22:00 to 05:00 the next days is not applied towards the LNR since it is insufficient in duration. Example 7 – has a rest period from 11:00 to 06:00 the following day, the rest from 11:00 to 22:00 is not applied towards the LNR, the rest from 22:00 to 06:00 the next days is applied toward the LNR, and it falls within the window and is of sufficient duration. Example 8 – has a rest period from 00:00 to 12:00 the following day, the rest from 00:00 to 08:00 is applied towards the LNR since it is of sufficient in duration, the rest from 08:00 to 22:00 is not applied towards the LNR , the rest from 22:00 to 08:00 the next days is applied toward the LNR, it falls within the window and is of sufficient duration, the rest from 08:00 to 12:00 is not applied toward the LNR.  The total amount of rest is 36 hours with 2 LNR‘s. Example 9 – has a rest period from 01:00 to 13:00 the following day, the rest from 01:00 to 08:00 is not applied towards the LNR since it is of insufficient in duration, the rest from 08:00 to 22:00 is not applied towards the LNR , the rest from 22:00 to 08:00 the next days is applied toward the LNR, it falls within the window and is of sufficient duration, the rest from 08:00 to 13:00 is not applied toward the LNR. The total amount of rest is 36 hours with 1 LNR [Click] Rest Requirements While a Rest Period has retained its common definition as a period of time from release to report free from duty. A Sleep opportunity must be given in a Suitable Accommodation such as a Hotel and must occur within the rest period. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

16 Rest Period and Breaks Extended Recurrent Recovery Rest (ERRR):
Is a rest period at base that meets the following conditions: It is no less than 36 hours in duration and It contains 2 consecutive LNR’s It is always given at Base [Click] Rest Requirements While a Rest Period has retained its common definition as a period of time from release to report free from duty. A Sleep opportunity must be given in a Suitable Accommodation such as a Hotel and must occur within the rest period. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

17 Applied Crew Schemes Standard Flightcrew: Augmented Flightcrew:
Flight operations which operate with only one (1) Captain (CA) and one (1) First Officer (FO) Any aircraft that lacks a Class 1, 2 or 3 on-board rest facility, or Any FDP scheduled with more than three (3) operational flights. Augmented Flightcrew: All flight operations within the FDP must operate with at least, two (2) Captains (CA) and one (1) First Officer (FO) Augmented Flightcrew must be assigned to an aircraft that has a Class 1, 2 or 3 on-board rest facility. Augmented Flightcrew must be assigned to a FDP scheduled with less than four (4) operational flights. Heavy Flightcrew: All flight operations within the FDP must operate with two (2) Captains (CA) and two (2) First Officers (FO) Heavy Flightcrew must be assigned to an aircraft that has a Class 1, 2 or 3 on-board rest facility. Heavy Flightcrew must be assigned to a FDP scheduled with less than four (4) operational flights. Standard Cabin crew: Flight operations, which operate with the minimum required cabin crew, based upon seating capacity and operating requirements. Any aircraft that lacks a Class 1, 2 or 3 on-board rest facility. or Augmented Cabin crew: Flight operations which operate with the minimum required cabin crew based upon seating capacity and operating requirements plus additional cabin crew and allows for each cabin crewmember to be relieved of required tasks during a flight in accordance to CS FTL Flight Duty Period (FDP) (c)(3) Augmented Cabin crew must be assigned to a FDP scheduled with less than four (4) operational flights. Augmented flightcrew restrictions include: At least one flightcrew member with a PIC type rating must be present and alert on the flight deck at all times. A limitation of 3 scheduled flight segments in any FDP. Ninety consecutive minutes are available for in-flight rest for the pilot performing monitoring duties during landing. The flightcrew member who will be landing the aircraft on the final leg of the FDP is required to have two hours of uninterrupted rest in the second half of the FDP. [Click] Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

18 Applied Crew Schemes Applied Flightcrew Member Schemes
All operational flights contained within a FDP shall be evaluated to determine the minimum applied scheme as follows: This will avoid circumvention of Flight Time / Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. FDP with more than 3 legs scheduled, must apply 2 Pilot Schemes (Un-augmented). The applied flight schemes will determine if augmentation may be applied at all, or too what degree augmentation will be permitted. An FDP scheduled with more than three operational flight legs scheduled is not permitted to apply augmented crew schemes. [Click] Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

19 In-flight Rest Requirements
Permits extension above scheduled FDP limits. May not be combined with Split Duty Extensions. Augmented and Heavy Flightcrew Schemes: An inflight rest period is only applied during cruise, not during the take-off or landing phases of a flight. Takeoff phase - is generally the first 30 to 45 minutes of a flight. Landing phase - is generally the last 30 to 45 minutes of a flight. An inflight rest period for each flightcrew member must allow for 90 minutes of rest. Best practices suggest that the inflight rest periods also allow for the impacts of 'sleep inertia', minutes. An inflight rest period for the flightcrew members performing the aircraft landing on the last flight in the FDP must allow for two (2) hours of continuous inflight rest. In-flight Rest Facilities: ‘Class 1 rest facility’ means a bunk or other surface that allows for a flat or near flat sleeping position. It reclines to at least 80° back angle to the vertical and is located separately from both the flight crew compartment and the passenger cabin in an area that allows the crew member to control light, and provides isolation from noise and disturbance; ‘Class 2 rest facility’ means a seat in an aircraft cabin that reclines at least 45° back angle to the vertical, has at least a pitch of 55 inches (137.5 cm), a seat width of at least 20 inches (50 cm) and provides leg and foot support. It is separated from passengers by at least a curtain to provide darkness and some sound mitigation, and is reasonably free from disturbance by passengers or crew members; ‘Class 3 rest facility’ means a seat in an aircraft cabin or flight crew compartment that reclines at least 40° from the vertical, provides leg and foot support and is separated from passengers by at least a curtain to provide darkness and some sound mitigation, and is not adjacent to any seat occupied by passengers. [Click] The first example displays the legal application of an inflight rest period for the flight crewmember performing the landing on the final flight leg. The in-flight rest is between the take-off and landing phases. The in-flight rest is within the 2nd half of the FDP. The 2nd example displays the illegal application of an inflight rest period, it will not permit an in-flight rest within the 2nd half of the FDP. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

20 Early Start / Late Finish
Night Duty Early Start / Late Finish Night Duty Period (NDP): Night Time is defined as 02:00 and 04:59 in the time zone to which the crewmember is acclimatised. Is a Duty Period, which infringes upon any portion of Night Time. Consecutive NDPs are those, which occur during the Night Time on consecutive calendar days. [Click] Consecutive Nighttime Operations A Nighttime FDP (NFDP): Is a FDP, which infringes upon any portion of the WOCL The FDP must start Overlap Or End within the WOCL Consecutive NFDPs are those, which occur during the WOCL on consecutive calendar days In the depiction we see that the WOCL on days 1, 2 3 are consecutive but the FDP ending in the WOCL on day 5 is not considered consecutive since the WOCL on day 4 is not infringed by an FDP. A duty break is a period in which a Flightcrew member is given a sleep opportunity in a suitable accommodation of at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00 (local time). Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

21 Early Start / Late Finish
Night Duty Early Start / Late Finish Early Start: Is dependent upon the type of disruptive schedule being used: For Early Type: Early Time is defined as 05:00 and 05:59 in the time zone to which the crewmember is acclimatised. For Late Type: Early Time is defined as 05:00 and 06:59 in the time zone to which the crewmember is acclimatised. Is a Duty Period which starts (Reports) during the period of Early Time. [Click] A flightcrew member is not allowed to be assigned to more than 3 consecutive NFDPs – unless the following conditions are met … All of the NFDPs must contain a duty break (minimum of 2 hours) The Flightcrew member may be assigned a maximum of 5 consecutive NFDPs. NFDP limitations are applied to un-augmented and augmented flight crews. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

22 Early Start / Late Finish
Night Duty Early Start / Late Finish Late Finish: Is dependent upon the type of disruptive schedule being used: For Early Type: Late Time is defined as 23:00 and 01:59 in the time zone to which the crewmember is acclimatised. For Late Type: Late Time is defined as 00:00 and 01:59 in the time zone to which the crewmember is acclimatised. Is a Duty Period which ends (Releases) during the period of Late Time. [Click] A flightcrew member is not allowed to be assigned to more than 3 consecutive NFDPs – unless the following conditions are met … All of the NFDPs must contain a duty break (minimum of 2 hours) The Flightcrew member may be assigned a maximum of 5 consecutive NFDPs. NFDP limitations are applied to un-augmented and augmented flight crews. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

23 Split Duty Period Arrival of Last Operating Flight Report WOCL FDP
Break Split Duty: Is a FDP which contains a Break of at least 3 hours in a ground rest facility. May be applied to a FDP at any time of the day. Break is less than a Required Rest Period. Break is considered FDP as well as Duty. Break requires a Suitable Accommodation if the Break is 6 hours or more, or touches the WOCL. FDP is measured from Report to Arrival of Last Operating Flight. Is only applied to duties that operate under Standard Crew Schemes. Permits extensions above the scheduled FDP limits by 50 % of the break that does not touch the WOCL with a maximum extension of 3:00 when a suitable accommodation is not provided. Permits extensions above the scheduled FDP limits by 50 % of the break when a suitable accommodation is provided. [Click] Split Duty: Is a duty that contains a duty break. Is only applied to un-augmented flightcrews. Duty Break: Is a span of time in which an individual is in a suitable accommodation (Hotel) for no less than 3:00 and not more than a required rest period. A duty break must occur between 22:00 and 05:00 (Local) A duty break is NOT considered a rest period. A duty break is scheduled prior to the start of the FDP. The duty break will occur after the first flight segment The actual duty break given must be no less than the scheduled duty break. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

24 Cumulative Flight Time and Cumulative Duty time
Today Day 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 8 Day 9 Is a Lookback from point of evaluation Uses Actual values for previously performed activities. Scheduled values for activities to be completed [Click] Cumulative Limitations are applied to Flight Time and FDP. Are always done as a lookback from a point of evaluation, usually on arrival of a flight, using a consistent reference time zone (Base Time) Use actual values for activities that have previously been performed. And scheduled values for activities to be completed. All cumulative values are across calendar periods. Only the portion of the Duty Time or Flight Time that falls within the calendar period specified. Duty time is accumulated across 7, 14 and 28 calendar day periods. Flight Time is accumulated across 28 calendar days, and across 12 calendar months and 1 calendar year. Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

25 EASA FTL 2016 Understanding EASA FTL 2016
A Generic Interpretation Understanding EASA FTL 2016 Flight and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. Version 1.2 Welcome to the presentation of FAR 117 – A generic interpretation This presentation should serve as an introductory lesson plan to the new FAR’s. [Click] Copyright © Understanding EASA FTL 2016 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.


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