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Understanding FAR Part 117

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1 Understanding FAR Part 117
A Generic Interpretation Understanding FAR Part 117 Flight and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements: Flightcrew Members. Version 1.16 Welcome to the presentation of FAR 117 – A generic interpretation This presentation should serve as an introductory lesson plan to the new FAR’s. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

2 Introduction What is the FNPRM? When do the Airlines have to comply?
The FAA published the FNPRM (Final Notice of Proposed Rule Making) on 04Jan2012 in the Federal Register. The regulations establish: Pilot - Flight / Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. When do the Airlines have to comply? Simply put, 04Jan2014, this date is two years since the publication date. What do the Airlines have to do to comply? Develop scheduling policies. Develop training programs. Update their Operations Specification (OPSPEC). Upgrade crewmember scheduling software, including crew planning and crew tracking software. What is the FNPRM? The FAA published the final notice of proposed rulemaking on Jan – 4th 2012 The rule established Pilot – Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. When do the Airlines have to comply? 04-Jan-2014, two years since publication. What do the Airlines have to do to comply? Develop scheduling policies and training programs. Update their Operations Specification and have approval from the FAA. Upgrade scheduling software, including planning and tracking software. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

3 Intent of this presentation
To summarize the following sections of the FNPRM. Applicability. Definitions. Flight time limitation. Flight duty period: Un-augmented operations. Flight duty period: Split duty. Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew. Flight duty period extension. Reserve status. Cumulative duty limitations. Rest period. Consecutive nighttime operations. The presentation shall summarize the following sections of the FNPRM. Applicability. Definitions. Flight time limitation. Flight duty period: Un-augmented operations. Flight duty period: Split duty. Flight duty period: Augmented flightcrew. Flight duty period extension. Flightcrew members assigned to Reserve status. Cumulative Flight time / Flight duty time limitations. Rest period Requirements. Consecutive nighttime operations. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

4 Not included in this presentation
The following sections of the FNPRM. Fitness for duty Fatigue risk management system Fatigue education and training program Emergency and government sponsored operations Intentional Omissions from this Presentation: Fitness for duty Fatigue risk management system Fatigue education and training program Emergency and government sponsored operations [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

5 Major Changes Applicability:
Part 121 passenger operations must apply FAR part 117 for all operations conducted under - Domestic (subpart Q) or Flag (subpart R) or Supplemental (subpart S) Part 121 All cargo operations may still operate under FAR 121 subparts Q, R or S Part 121 passenger operations must apply FAR part 117 for all operations conducted under - Domestic (subpart Q) or Flag (subpart R) or Supplemental (subpart S) Part 121 All cargo operations Are still permitted to operate under FAR 121 subparts Q, R or S [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

6 New scheduling concepts include:
Major Changes New scheduling concepts include: Flight Duty Period (FDP) Acclimatization Window of Circadian Low (WOCL) Part 91 Flights are now considered the same as Part 121 Flights when conducted during a series of FDP operating under 117. New scheduling concepts with respect to the FAR’s include: Flight Duty Period (FDP) Acclimatization Window of Circadian Low (WOCL) Part 91 Flights Are now considered the same as Part 121 Flights when conducted during a series of FDP operating under 117. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

7 Cumulative Limitations for:
Major Changes Cumulative Limitations for: Flight Duty Period Flight Time (Block) Extended Flight Duty Periods Consecutive Nighttime Operations The FAA has now established Cumulative Limitations for: Flight Duty Period Flight Time (Block) Extended Flight Duty Periods Consecutive Nighttime Operations [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

8 Does not include at this time
Part 135 operations Part 91 Subpart K operations Part 121 Flight Attendants Airlines may elect to apply these rules to FA’s FAR 117 is not to be applied to: Part 135 operations Part 91 Subpart K operations Part 121 Flight Attendants The Airlines may elect to apply these regulations to FA’s [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

9 Basic Definitions Calendar day
means a 24-hour period from 0000 through 2359 using Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or local time (Base time). Duty means any task that a flightcrew member performs as required by the certificate holder, including but not limited to flight duty period, flight duty, pre- and post-flight duties, administrative work, training, deadhead transportation, aircraft positioning on the ground, aircraft loading, and aircraft servicing. Report time means the time that the certificate holder requires a flightcrew member to report for an assignment. Rest period means a continuous period determined prospectively during which the flightcrew member is free from all restraint by the certificate holder, including freedom from present responsibility for work should the occasion arise. Definitions as applied to FAR 117. Calendar day Duty Report time Rest period [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

10 Basic Definitions Scheduled
means to appoint, assign, or designate for a fixed time. Sleep opportunity means a period of time when a crewmember is provided and allowed to be in a suitable accommodation to rest in. Suitable accommodation means a temperature-controlled facility with sound mitigation and the ability to control light that provides a flightcrew member with the ability to sleep either in a bed, bunk or in a chair that allows for flat or near flat sleeping position. Suitable accommodation only applies to ground facilities and does not apply to aircraft onboard rest facilities. Unforeseen operational circumstance means an unplanned event of insufficient duration to allow for adjustments to schedules, including unforecast weather, equipment malfunction, or air traffic delay that is not reasonably expected. Scheduled Sleep opportunity Suitable accommodation Unforeseen operational circumstance [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

11 Flight Duty Period (FDP)
Release Time Report Time Duty Time Arrive Time FDP Note: Difference between Duty Time and FDP 121 121 91 DHD Note the difference between Duty Time and FDP. [Click] While duty time is measured from report to release, FDP is measured from Report to arrival of the last aircraft movement performed by a flight crewmember. Flight Time between rest periods - Is the sum of the Block for all legs contained within the duty period. Block Flight Time Between Rest Periods Flight Time between rest periods - is the sum of the Block for all legs contained within the duty period. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

12 Augmentation The use of Augmentation is restricted under the following conditions: At least one flightcrew member with a PIC type rating must be present and alert on the flight deck at all times. A limitation of 3 flight segments in any FDP. Ninety consecutive minutes are available for in-flight rest for the pilot performing monitoring duties during landing. The flightcrew member who will be landing the aircraft on the final leg of the FDP is required to have 2 hours of uninterrupted rest in the second half of the FDP. Augmented flightcrew restrictions include: At least one flightcrew member with a PIC type rating must be present and alert on the flight deck at all times. A limitation of 3 scheduled flight segments in any FDP. Ninety consecutive minutes are available for in-flight rest for the pilot performing monitoring duties during landing. The flightcrew member who will be landing the aircraft on the final leg of the FDP is required to have two hours of uninterrupted rest in the second half of the FDP. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

13 Augmentation Rest facility means a bunk or seat accommodation installed in an aircraft that provides a flightcrew member with a sleep opportunity. Class 1 rest facility means a bunk or other surface that allows for a flat sleeping position and is located separate from both the flight deck and passenger cabin in an area that is temperature-controlled, allows the flightcrew member to control light, and provides isolation from noise and disturbance. Class 2 rest facility means a seat in an aircraft cabin that allows for a flat or near flat sleeping position; is separated from passengers by a minimum of a curtain to provide darkness and some sound mitigation; and is reasonably free from disturbance by passengers or flightcrew members. Class 3 rest facility means a seat in an aircraft cabin or flight deck that reclines at least 40 degrees and provides leg and foot support. Sufficient number of individual in-flight rest facilities must be provided. A rest facility (either a bunk or seat installed on the aircraft) are classified as: Class 1 – Bunk – isolated from flight deck, passenger cabin, noise and other disturbances, with temperature and lighting control. Class 2 – Seat permitting flat/near flat surface, separated from passengers and flight crewmembers offering some darkness and sound mitigation. Class 3 – seat that reclines at least 40 degrees and provides leg and foot support. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

14 Augmentation Applied Flightcrew Member Schemes
All operational flights contained within a FDP shall be evaluated to determine the minimum applied scheme as follows: This is consistent with current FAR interpretations, to avoid circumvention of Flight Time / Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements. FDP with more than 3 legs scheduled, must apply 2 Pilot Schemes (Un-augmented). The applied flight schemes will determine if augmentation may be applied at all, or too what degree augmentation will be permitted. An FDP scheduled with more than three operational flight legs scheduled is not permitted to apply augmented crew schemes. [Click] Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

15 Augmentation Report Time 4:30 Duty Time Release Time Arrive Time DHD
1700 Example 1 Example 2 4:30 Duty Time Release Time Arrive Time DHD 1:15 2nd Half FDP ( 12:00) Takeoff / Landing Operational Flight Inflight Rest 4:30 1:15 4:30 2:00 4:30 4:30 [Click] The first example displays the legal application of an inflight rest period for the flight crewmember performing the landing on the final flight leg. The in-flight rest is between the take-off and landing phases. The in-flight rest is within the 2nd half of the FDP. The 2nd example displays the illegal application of an inflight rest period, it will not permit an in-flight rest within the 2nd half of the FDP. 1st Half Example 1: legal, complies with the requirement for 2 hrs inflight rest in the 2nd half of the FDP, for the pilot who will perform the landing on the final flight. Example 2: illegal, no 2 hr continuous rest in the 2nd half of the FDP can be found. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

16 Augmentation Report Time Release Time Duty Time Arrive Time
1700 Example 1 Example 2 Release Time Duty Time Arrive Time FDP (12:00) Takeoff / Landing Operational Flight Inflight Rest 1:30 8:00 DHD 1:30 2:00 1:30 1:30 1:30 4:15 DHD [Click] The first example displays the legal application of an inflight rest period for the flight crewmember performing the monitoring duties during landing for a 3 or 4 pilot flight crew. The in-flight rest is between the take-off and landing phases. The in-flight rest permits the pilot performing the landing on the final leg of the FDP to also have a 2:00 in-flight rest in the 2nd half of the FDP. The 2nd example displays the legal application of an inflight rest period for the flight crewmember performing the monitoring duties during landing for a 4 pilot flight crew only. The in-flight rest must be performed with an overlap to the in-flight rest for the flight crew member performing the landing; this will require two separate in-flight rest facilities. 2:00 1st Half 2nd Half Example 1: legal for a 3 or 4 pilot flightcrew, complies with the requirement for 2 hrs inflight rest in the 2nd half of the FDP and a 90 minute inflight rest for the pilot performing monitoring duties during landing. Example 2: legal for a 4 pilot flightcrew only, the inflight rest periods must overlap. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

17 Acclimatization A Theater is a zone 60 degrees wide, relative to the departure station of the duty period. JFK 073 deg West SFO 122 deg West CDG 002 deg East JFK to SFO is in the same Theater. 49 deg difference JFK to CDG Exits the Theater. 75 deg difference 60 Deg 60 Deg CDG SFO [Click] Acclimatization: The FAR will apply the concept of a theater, which is a zone 60 degrees either side of the departure station of a duty period. If we examine a Duty period that begins in JFK and ends in SFO, we see that there is only a 49 degree longitudinal difference, thereby; the crewmember has not exited the theater. If we examine a Duty period that begins in JFK and ends in CDG, we see that there is a 75 degree longitudinal difference, thereby, the crewmember has exited the theater and is no longer in an acclimated state. JFK Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

18 Theater 2 un-acclimated
Acclimatization A crewmember is deemed to be acclimated whenever that individual has either: At least 36 hours continuous rest within a specific theater or Has remained in a specific theater for at least 72 hours. Otherwise the individual is NOT acclimated. JFK - CDG CDG – ATH - CDG CDG - JFK Rest < 36 Rest >= 36 [Click] To become acclimated one of two things must occur, Either 36 hours with a specific theater Or The crewmember has remained within that theater for at least 72 hours. A FCM begins at JFK in an acclimated state and flies to CDG. Upon release the FCM is in an un-acclimated state. At the start of the 2nd duty period, Since the crewmember has not had 36 hours continuous rest and has not been in the theater for 72 hours, the FCM is still un-acclimated. The FCM is permitted the operated the FDP under the following conditions: The reference time zone is set to where the FCM was last in an acclimated state (JFK) The FDP will apply a 30 minute penalty to the permissible scheduled FDP limitations At the start of the 3rd duty period, The FCM is now in an acclimated state, since the >= 36 hours continuous rest may be found. The reference time zone is now set to CDG and the FDP limitations may be applied with no further penalty. Time in Theater < 72 Theater 1 acclimated Theater 2 un-acclimated Theater 2 acclimated Crewmember will remain un-acclimated until the 36 hour rest period has been received. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

19 Acclimatization The FAA issued a letter of interpretation on 30-November-2012 The revised final rule states that theater is the geographical area in which the distance between the FCM's departure and arrival point differ by no more that 60 degrees. You could have a scenario where a pilot starts a series of FDPs and heads west 60 degrees, lays over, flies east to the point of origination, lays over and then continues going east 60 degrees. In this case, the FCM is still within a theater that is technically 120 degrees wide. Observations concerning the FNPRM. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

20 Acclimatization Acclimatization effects: Daily FDP Limitations
Daily Flight Time Limitations Rest Requirements Application of WOCL Rules Application of Night Duty Rules [Click] Acclimatization has an impact upon: Daily FDP Limitations Daily Flight Time Limitations Rest Requirements Application of WOCL Rules Application of Night Duty Rules Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

21 Daily Flight Time Limitations
Un-Augmented Operations: Limited to flight time limitations in Table A for that duty period. The start time is relative to the Report time of that duty period. Augmented Operations: Limited to 13:00 flight time for that duty period for 3 pilot flight crew Limited to 17:00 flight time for that duty period for 4 pilot flight crew Time of Report (Acclimated) Maximum Flight Time (hours) 8 9 Table A [Click] Daily Flight Time Limitations Un-Augmented operations: Table A contains a diurnal variation based upon the start time of the FDP (adjusted for acclimatization). Either 8 or 9 hour limitations. Augmented operations: Is based upon the flightcrew scheme applied to the FDP. 13 hours for 3 pilots 17 hours for 4 pilots Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

22 Daily Flight Time Limitations
No certificate holder may schedule and no flightcrew member may accept an assignment or continue an assigned flight duty period if the total flight time: Will exceed the limits specified in Table A of this part if the operation is conducted with the minimum required flightcrew. Will exceed 13 hours if the operation is conducted with a 3 pilot flightcrew. Will exceed 17 hours if the operation is conducted with a 4 pilot flightcrew. (Currently under 121 Regulations this is a scheduled flight time limit) [Click] The ‘Legal to Start Legal / Legal to Finish’ cliché no longer applies. Daily Flight time limitations are ‘Hard Limits’. In the example depicted, a FCM is scheduled for 8:40 total flight time. Legal, when within the 9:00 limitation. Due to a late arrival on the 1st flight, it is now expected that the FDP will have a total flight time of 9:01. Since this exceeds the 9:00 limit the FCM will not be permitted to operate the 2nd flight. 4:20 4:20 Total scheduled flight time 8:40 4:41 4:20 Total flight time 9:01 (due to late arrival on leg 1) Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

23 Daily FDP Limitations Un-Augmented FDP: Based upon
the Time of Report and the scheduled number of (operational) flight segments The scheduled FDP may not exceed the limits in Table B. Non-Acclimated FDPs shall reduce the limits in Table B by 0:30 [Click] Un-Augmented Daily FDP Limitations: Use Table B Based upon the Time of Report (adjusted to point of acclimatization) and the scheduled number of (operational) flight segments The scheduled/re-scheduled FDP may not exceed the limits in Table B. Non-Acclimated FDPs shall reduce the limits in Table B by 0:30 Table B Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

24 Scheduled Time of Start
Daily FDP Limitations Augmented FDP: Based upon: the Time of Report and the number of flight crew and the type of in-flight rest facility on board, The scheduled FDP may not exceed the limits in Table C. Non-Acclimated FDPs shall reduce the limits in Table C by 0:30 Scheduled Time of Start (Acclimated Time) Maximum Flight Duty Period (hours) Based on Rest Facility and Number of Pilots Class 1 Rest Facility Class 2 Rest Facility Class 3 Rest Facility 3 Pilots 4 Pilots 15 17 14 15.5 13 13.5 16 18.5 16.5 14.5 19 18 [Click] Augmented Daily FDP Limitations: Use Table C Based upon the Time of Report (adjusted to point of acclimatization) and the number of flightcrew The type of in-flight rest facility onboard The scheduled/re-scheduled FDP may not exceed the limits in Table C. Non-Acclimated FDPs shall reduce the limits in Table C by 0:30 Table C Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

25 Daily FDP Limitations Un-Augmented FDP: Augmented FDP:
May be extended up to 2:00 Augmented FDP: FDP extensions beyond 0:30 may not occur more than once in any 168:00 period unless an intervening rest period of 30 hours may be found. FDP extensions beyond 0:30 will also require consent of the FCM. FDP extensions beyond the Daily Scheduled Limitation in table B/C are further limited should the extension exceed the Cumulative FDP Limitations in FAR (c). [Click] Extension of Daily FDP beyond the scheduled FDP limits. Both Un-Augmented and Augmented FDP’s are permitted to be extended for unforeseen reasons before takeoff. The maximum permitted extension is 2:00. Extensions beyond 0:30 are restricted: May not occur more than once in any 168 hr period unless and intervening rest period of 30 hrs continuous rest has been provided And the FCM has provided his/her consent. Under no circumstances may a FDP be permitted to be extended beyond the scheduled FDP limitations in Table B/C if the Cumulative FDP limits will be exceeded. Extensions beyond any of these limitations due to circumstances after takeoff are only permitted to safely land the aircraft at the destination / alternate. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

26 Time since extended FDP greater than 0:30 Time since 30 hr rest period
Daily FDP Limitations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 hour rest 30 hour rest Time since extended FDP greater than 0:30 Start of Extended FDP End of Extended FDP Time since 30 hr rest period End of 30 hr Rest Period [Click] Lookback is from the start of a FDP on day 8. A FDP that had been extended more than 0:30 beyond the scheduled limits is found on day 2 An intervening rest period with 30 hrs continuous rest is found on day 3 into day 4 In this situation, the FDP on day 8 may be extended upto to 2:00. 168 hour lookback Application of FDP extensions greater than 0:30 in any 168 hour period Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

27 Time since 30 hr rest period
Daily FDP Limitations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 30 hour rest 30 hour rest Time since extended FDP greater than 0:30 End of Extended FDP Start of Extended FDP Time since 30 hr rest period End of 30 hr Rest Period [Click] Lookback is from the start of a FDP on day 8. A rest period with 30 hrs continuous rest is found ending on day 3 A FDP that had been extended more than 0:30 beyond the scheduled limits is found on day 4 In this situation, the FDP on day 8 may be extended upto to 0:30, due to the fact that the last 30 hr rest occurred earlier than the last FDP extended more than 0:30. 168 hour lookback FDP on day 8 is illegal if it is extended more than 0:30 beyond the scheduled FDP limit Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

28 WOCL Physiological night’s rest means 10 hours rest that encompasses the hours of 0100 and 0700 at the crewmember’s home base, unless the individual has acclimated to a different theater. If the crewmember has acclimated, the rest must encompass the hours of 0100 and 0700 at the acclimated location. Window of circadian low means a period of maximum sleepiness that occurs between 0200 and 0559 during a physiological night. [Click] The FAR contains definitions for: Physiological night’s rest Occurs between adjusted for acclimatization. Window of circadian low (WOCL) Period of max sleepiness that occurs from 0200 to 0559 during the Physiological night. These will impact Rest Requirements Consecutive Nighttime Operations Reserve Limitations Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

29 Split Duty Period Split Duty: Duty Break: Check-In Time Check-Out Time
Is a duty that contains a duty break. Is only applied to un-augmented flightcrews. Duty Break: Is a span of time in which an individual is in a suitable accommodation (Hotel) for no less than 3:00 and not more than a required rest period. A duty break must occur between 22:00 and 05:00 (Local) A duty break is NOT considered a rest period. A duty break is scheduled prior to the start of the FDP. The actual duty break given must be no less than the scheduled duty break. [Click] Split Duty: Is a duty that contains a duty break. Is only applied to un-augmented flightcrews. Duty Break: Is a span of time in which an individual is in a suitable accommodation (Hotel) for no less than 3:00 and not more than a required rest period. A duty break must occur between 22:00 and 05:00 (Local) A duty break is NOT considered a rest period. A duty break is scheduled prior to the start of the FDP. The duty break will occur after the first flight segment The actual duty break given must be no less than the scheduled duty break. Check-In Time Duty Break Check-Out Time Ground Time Arrival Time Depart Time Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

30 Split Duty Period Split Duty:
The Total of the FDP’s Before and After the Duty Break – must not exceed the limits in Table B. Check-In Time Duty Break Check-Out Time Ground Time Arrival Time Depart Time [Click] Split Duty: The Total of the FDP’s before and After the Duty Break – must not exceed the limits in Table B. FDP – Before Break FDP – After Break Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

31 Split Duty Period Split Duty:
The Total of the FDP’s Before and After the Duty Break – must not exceed the limits in Table B. Scheduled Time of Start (Acclimated Time) Maximum Flight Duty Period (hours) for Lineholders Based on Number Of (Operational) Flight Segments 1 2 3 4 5 6 7+ 9 10 12 11.5 11 10.5 13 14 12.5 [Click] Here is Table B for your reference. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

32 Combined FDP’s and Duty Break
Split Duty Period Split Duty: The Combined FDP and Duty Break may not exceed 14:00 Check-In Time Duty Break Check-Out Time Ground Time Arrival Time Depart Time [Click] The Combined FDP’s and Duty Break may not exceed 14:00. Combined FDP’s and Duty Break FDP – Before Break FDP – After Break Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

33 Night Duty Night Flight Duty Period (NFDP):
Is a Flight Duty Period which infringes upon any portion of the WOCL. 1 2 3 4 5 6 WOCL Consecutive NFDPs are those which occur during the WOCL on consecutive calendar days. A duty break is a period in which a Flightcrew member is given a sleep opportunity in a suitable accommodation of at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00 (local time). Note: A sleep opportunity greater than or equal to 2 hours but less than 3 hours will not qualify a FCM to operate under Split duty limitations (FAR ) [Click] Consecutive Nighttime Operations A Nighttime FDP (NFDP): Is a FDP, which infringes upon any portion of the WOCL The FDP must start Overlap Or End within the WOCL Consecutive NFDPs are those, which occur during the WOCL on consecutive calendar days In the depiction we see that the WOCL on days 1, 2 3 are consecutive but the FDP ending in the WOCL on day 5 is not considered consecutive since the WOCL on day 4 is not infringed by an FDP. A duty break is a period in which a Flightcrew member is given a sleep opportunity in a suitable accommodation of at least 2 hours between 22:00 and 05:00 (local time). Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

34 Night Duty Night Flight Duty Period (NFDP):
A flightcrew member is not allowed to be assigned to more than 3 consecutive NFDPs – unless the following conditions are met … 1 2 3 4 5 6 WOCL [Click] A flightcrew member is not allowed to be assigned to more than 3 consecutive NFDPs – unless the following conditions are met … All of the NFDPs must contain a duty break (minimum of 2 hours) The Flightcrew member may be assigned a maximum of 5 consecutive NFDPs. NFDP limitations are applied to un-augmented and augmented flight crews. All of the NFDPs must contain a duty break. The Flightcrew member may be assigned a maximum of 5 consecutive NFDPs. NFDP limitations are applied to un-augmented and augmented flight crews. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

35 suitable accommodation
Rest in a suitable accommodation Suitable accommodation: Shall only be applied to ground facilities and not to aircraft onboard rest facilities. Example – Hotel Rest Period: Sleep opportunity: Measured from Release to Report. Measured from Hotel Check-in to Hotel Check-out. Check-In Sleep Opportunity Check-Out [Click] Rest Requirements While a Rest Period has retained its common definition as a period of time from release to report free from duty. A Sleep opportunity must be given in a Suitable Accommodation such as a Hotel and must occur within the rest period. Release Rest Period Report Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

36 Rest Requirements Minimum Rest before a FDP or Reserve:
Rest Period of 10:00 and Sleep opportunity of 8:00 (117.25(e) refers) Minimum Rest after a DHD that exceeds The FDP limit in table B: Rest Period of max of DHD time or 10:00 ( (g) refers) Required Rest in 168:00 all operations: At least one rest period of 30:00 must be found in the previous 168:00 measured from the scheduled start of the Reserve or FDP. Required Rest at Base after a change in Theater for a series of FDP that exceed 168:00: 3 Physiological night’s rest with a minimum rest period of 56 hours. [Click] Minimum Rest immediately before a FDP or Reserve: Rest Period of 10:00 and Sleep opportunity of 8:00 Required Rest in 168:00 all operations: At least one rest period of 30:00 must be found in the previous 168:00 measured from the scheduled start of the Reserve or FDP. Minimum Rest after DHD transportation that exceeds the FDP limit in table B: Required Rest Period is the max of DHD time or 10:00 Required Rest at Base after a change in Theater for a series of FDP that exceed 168:00: 3 Physiological night’s rest with a minimum rest period of 56 hours. A sleep opportunity must be able to guarantee 8 hours of un-interrupted rest (117.25(f) refers) Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

37 Rest Requirements 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Rest period > = 30 30 hr 168 hour lookback from start of FDP / Reserve - legal 168 hour lookback from start of FDP / Reserve - illegal [Click] In the first situation depicted: Looking back from the start of the FDP on day 8 We find a 30 hour rest period that begins on day 1 and continues until the FDP starting on day 3. Since the full 30 hr rest is within the 168 hr lookback the FCM is legal. In the second situation depicted: Looking back from the start of the FDP on day 9 Since only a portion of the 30 hr rest is within the 168 hr lookback the FCM is illegal. Duty Period Rest Period FDP Application of 30 hour rest period within the past 168 consecutive hours. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

38 Is a Lookback from point of evaluation
Cumulative Limitations Today Day 7 Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 8 Day 9 Is a Lookback from point of evaluation [Click] Cumulative Limitations are applied to Flight Time and FDP. Are always done as a lookback from a point of evaluation, usually on arrival of a flight, using a consistent reference time zone (Base Time) Use actual values for activities that have previously been performed. And scheduled values for activities to be completed. Uses Actual values for previously performed activities. Scheduled values for activities to be completed Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

39 Cumulative Limitations
Flight Time Limitations: May not exceed 100:00 in 672:00 May not exceed 1000:00 in 365 Calendar Days (Base Time) Two checks required for legs that cross midnight FDP Limitations: May not exceed 60:00 in 168:00 May not exceed 190:00 in 672:00 Extended FDP before takeoff may NOT cause a violation of Cumulative FDP Limits ( (a)(3) refers) Lookback is from arrival time of leg or Midnight. Lookback is from arrival time of leg. [Click] Cumulative Flight Time limitations are 100 hrs in any 672 hrs 1000 hrs in any 365 Calendar days. Cumulative FDP limitations are 60 hrs in any 168 hrs 190 hrs in any 672 hrs Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

40 Reserves Airport Standby (ASB): Short Call Reserve (SC):
Occurs when a crewmember reports for flight duty at a specific location to await assignment to a trip. Is considered duty as well as flight duty period. Is subject to flight duty limitations. Is subject to rest requirements Short Call Reserve (SC): means a period of time in which a crewmember does not receive a required rest period following notification by the certificate holder to report for a flight duty period. Is subject to flight duty limitations when assigned to a FDP. Long Call Reserve (LC): Is NOT considered duty OR flight duty period. Will require an intervening rest period prior to being assigned to a SC Reserve or FDP when a flightcrew member is notified by the certificate holder to report for duty. [Click] The FAA has classified Reserves as: Airport Standby (ASB) Is considered duty as well as FDP. Is subject to FDP limitations. Is subject to rest requirements Short Call Reserve (SC): Is subject to FDP limitations when assigned to a FDP. Long Call Reserve (LC): Will require an intervening rest period prior to being assigned to a SC Reserve or FDP when a flightcrew member is notified by the certificate holder to report for duty. Is NOT considered FDP and is NOT considered Rest Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

41 Reserve Limitations Report Arrive Time Airport Reserve
FDP Airport Reserve FDP for Airport Reserve (ASB): Is measured from Report of the Reserve to the later of Release from the Reserve or the last operating Flight in the 1st FDP. FDP Limits: Is from Table B/C, using the Report time of the Reserve and the number of flights/Number of FCM’s and Class of Rest facilities. If the ASB is not assigned a trip the FDP shall be limited using 1 Flight segment and Table B. [Click] FDP for Airport Reserve (ASB): Is measured from Report of the Reserve to the later of Release from the Reserve or the last operating Flight in the 1st FDP. FDP Limits: Is from Table B/C, using the Report time of the Reserve and the number of flights/Number of FCM’s and Class of Rest facilities. If the ASB is not assigned a trip the FDP shall be limited using 1 Flight segment and Table B. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

42 Reserve Limitations Reserve Availability Period(RAP): Start of SC
Arrive Time Report of Trip FDP Short Call Reserve Reserve Availability Period(RAP): Is 14:00 maximum this is the time frame that an air carrier may contact, require a flightcrew member to report to a trip. [Click] A crewmember assigned to a Short-Call Reserve (SC) is considered to be on Reserve Availability Period Reserve Availability Period (RAP): Is 14:00 maximum This is the time frame that an air carrier may contact; require a flightcrew member to report to a trip. FDP’s and SC assigned outside the RAP require a minimum rest period of 10:00 with a minimum sleep opportunity of 8:00. Trips assigned outside the RAP require a minimum rest period of 10:00 with a minimum sleep opportunity of 8:00. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

43 Combined RAP and FDP Limit
Reserve Limitations Combined RAP and FDP for Short Call Reserve (SC): Is measured from start of the reserve to the later of release from the reserve the last operating Flight in the 1st FDP. Combined RAP and FDP Limit Arrive Time Start of SC Report of Trip FDP Short Call Reserve [Click] Combined RAP and FDP for Short Call Reserve (SC): Is measured from start of the reserve to the later of release from the reserve the last operating Flight in the 1st FDP. Combined RAP and FDP Limits Un-Augmented Operations: Is the lesser of: 16:00 Table B + 4:00 Use the Start Time of the FDP to find the FDP limit from Table B + 4:00. applied to the start time of the RAP Combined RAP and FDP Limits Un-Augmented Operations: Is the lesser of: 16:00 Table B + 4:00 applied to the start time of the RAP Use the Start Time of the FDP to find the FDP limit from Table B + 4:00. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

44 Combined RAP and FDP Limit
Reserve Limitations Combined RAP and FDP for Short Call Reserve (SC): Is measured from Report of the reserve to the later of Release from the reserve or the last operating Flight in the 1st FDP. Combined RAP and FDP Limit Start of SC Arrive Time Report of Trip FDP Short Call Reserve [Click] Combined RAP and FDP Limits Augmented Operations: Is the lesser of: Table C + 4:00 Use the Start Time of the FDP to find the FDP limit from Table C + 4:00. applied to the start time of the RAP Combined RAP and FDP Limits Augmented Operations: Is Table C + 4:00, applied to the start time of the SC. Use the Start Time of the FDP to find the FDP limit from Table C + 4:00 Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

45 Reserve Limitations 0500 1700 1900 Scheduled FDP Limit – 4 Landings – 1200 (0500 – 1700) Extension Assigned FDP is scheduled to end by 1600 0300 RAP / FDP LIMIT – 1600 ( scheduled never exceed limit from (c)(3)) [Click] Reserves and Extensions In this example, the FCM is strictly limited by the permitted extensions for the FDP assigned during RAP, where No extension beyond 19:00 will be permitted. In this example, the FCM is strictly limited by the permitted extensions for the FDP assigned during RAP, where No extension beyond 1900 will be permitted. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

46 Reserve Limitations 0600 1800 2000 Extension
Scheduled FDP Limit – 4 Landings – 1200 (0600 – 1800) Extension Assigned FDP is scheduled to end by 1600 0300 1900 Extension RAP / FDP LIMIT – 1600 ( scheduled never exceed limit from (c)(3)) [Click] In this example, the FCM is strictly limited by the permitted extensions of the FDP assigned during the RAP, and no further extension beyond 20:00 will be permitted if the condition is known before takeoff. As you can see the FDP is extended beyond the combined RAP and FDP limit of 16:00. In this example, the crewmember is strictly limited by the permitted extensions of the FDP assigned during the RAP, and no further extension beyond 20:00 will be permitted if the condition is known before takeoff. As you can see the FDP is extended beyond the combined RAP and FDP limit of 16:00. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

47 Reserve Limitations 0700 2000 2200 Extension
Scheduled FDP Limit – 4 Landings – 1300 (0700 – 2000) Extension Assigned FDP is scheduled to end by 1600 0300 1900 2100 Extension RAP / FDP LIMIT – 1600 ( scheduled never exceed limit from (c)(3)) [Click] In this example, we can see how the combined RAP and FDP limitation is now the controlling factor. Since the Combined RAP and FDP, requires a scheduled end of the FDP by 19:00, it will only be permitted to be extended by 2:00 until 21:00, even though the FDP assigned during the RAP would permit the extension to 22:00. Extension rules that are still in effect are previous extensions beyond 0:30 within the previous 168:00 without an intervening rest greater than or equal to 30:00, and Cumulative FDP limitations. In this example, we can see how the combined RAP and FDP limitation is now the controlling factor. Since the Combined RAP and FDP, requires a scheduled end of the FDP by 19:00, it will only be permitted to be extended by 2:00 until 21:00, even though the FDP assigned during the RAP would permit the extension to 22:00. Extension rules that are still in effect are previous extensions beyond 0:30 within the previous 168:00 without an intervening rest greater than or equal to 30:00, and Cumulative FDP limitations. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

48 Reserve Limitations Required Rest period after Long Call Reserve (LC):
WOCL Release from (End of) LC Report of Trip Long Call Reserve Rest Period Time of Notification >= 12:00 [Click] Long Call Required Rest period provided after a Long Call Reserve (LC): Is 10:00 when the FCM is assigned to a FDP or SC reserve. If the following FDP starts before 02:00 and Operates into the WOCL: The FCM must have at least 12:00 notification prior to the report of the FDP. Required Rest period after Long Call Reserve (LC): Is 10:00 if assigned to a Trip, SC reserve, ASB reserve. If the following Flight Duty Period Operates Into the WOCL: The FCM must have at least 12:00 notification prior to the report of the FDP. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

49 Re-Scheduling FDP Start Time
Long–Call Method Rest Period WOCL At Time of Notification it must provide for a Rest Period of 10 hours and a Sleep Opportunity of 8 hours. Time of Notification Sleep opportunity Time of Notification [Click] Re-scheduling and FDP start time is only permitted using either of two methods: Long-Call Short-Call Long-Call Method At time of notification the FCM is placed into Long-Call Reserve. The FCM is notified of a revised FDP start time. The FDP must be preceded by a Rest period of 10 hrs with a sleep opportunity of 8 hrs. Should the revised FDP now operate into the WOCL, the minimum amount of notification of 12 hours must be respected. Notification At least 12 notice must be given if the FDP will operate into the WOCL it must provide a Rest Period of 10 hours and a Sleep Opportunity of 8 hours. Sleep opportunity Re-Scheduled FDP start time. Daily FDP limitations Table-B/C with permitted extensions will use the Re-Scheduled FDP start time. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

50 Re-Scheduling FDP Start Time
Short–Call Method Rest Period At Time of Notification it must provide for a Rest period of 10 hours with a Sleep opportunity of 8 hours. Time of Notification Notification Sleep opportunity Original FDP start time. Time from Original FDP start Time to Re-Scheduled FDP start time is considered to be Time on Short-Call Reserve. [Click] Short-Call Method At time of notification the FCM is placed into Short-Call Reserve that will begin at the original FDP start time. Time from Original FDP start Time to Re-Scheduled FDP start time is considered to be Time on Short-Call Reserve (RAP) The combined RAP / FDP limitations must be respected. Re-Scheduled FDP start time. Daily FDP limitations Table-B/C with permitted extensions will use the Re-Scheduled FDP start time. The time considered to be on Short-Call Reserve will not be considered towards the Cumulative FDP Limits in 168 / 672 hours, however it must adhere to the limitations for Short-Call Reserve in Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

51 Re-Scheduling FDP Start Time
Without using Long/Short Call Reserve Due to a delay. Rest Period Time of Release from the Duty Period The Time of Release from the Previous Duty period must provide for a Rest period of 10 hours with a Sleep opportunity of 8 hours. Sleep opportunity Reserve status. Original FDP start time. Re-Scheduled FDP start time. Daily FDP limitations Table-B/C with permitted extensions will use the Original Scheduled FDP start time. The time considered from the original scheduled FDP start to the Re-Scheduled FDP start time will Not be considered towards the Cumulative FDP Limits in 168 / 672 hours. The Rest Period / Sleep Opportunity will be permitted to overlap the time from scheduled Start of the FDP to the Re-Scheduled start of the FDP. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

52 Understanding FAR Part 117
A Generic Interpretation Understanding FAR Part 117 Flight and Duty Time Limitations and Rest Requirements: Flightcrew Members. Version 1.16 [Click] Thank you for viewing this presentation. Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.

53 Disclaimer The documentation is provided “AS IS” and is solely intended to provide a general understanding of the author’s interpretation of the new FAA mandated FAR Regulations. The author makes no representations and disclaims any and all responsibility for the completeness or accuracy of the documentation. The author reserves the right, at his discretion, to change or modify the documentation as deemed appropriate. Copyright © , Understanding FAR Part 117 – A Generic Interpretation. All rights reserved. Introduction Copyright © Understanding FAR 117 – A Generic Interpretation All rights reserved.


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