Presentation on theme: "CA 104 Regional French Cuisine"— Presentation transcript:
1CA 104 Regional French Cuisine Pays de Loire / Centre
2Pays de LoirePays de la Loire is one of the regions created in the late 20th century to serve as a zone of influence for its capital, Nantes, one of a handful so-called "balancing metropolises" . Other examples of "artificially created" regions include Rhône-Alpes (Lyon), and Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse).
3Pays de Loire consist of various former historical departments: Loire-Atlantique and it’s capital Nantes formerly belonged to Brittany.The former province of Anjou.The former province of Maine, which is now further divided into the departments Mayenne and Sarthe.Parts of Poitou.Part of Perche.A small part of Touraine.The Pays de Loire forms a region in western France. It is bounded to the north-west by Brittany and in the north by Normandy, while to the east, the center of France the Loire Valley and to the south-east by Poitou-Charentes.The Pays de Loire region consists of eight departments:Loire-Atlantique Maine et LoireSarthe MayenneVendeeThe name “Pays de Loire (Lands of the Loire river) was chosen by the government and not based on historical development.
4History in briefAfter displacing the powerful Cenomanni and Carnute tribes during the Iron Age, the Romans occupied what is now Pays de la Loire in 52 BC.They created the towns of Angers and Le Mans.Starting in 313, Christianity gained the ascendancy and the following centuries witnessed a series of invasions, notably the Vikings (9th century).The end of the first millennium saw the rise of the counts of Maine and Anjou – the most famous being Henri Plantagenet, who was to become King of England.Returned to the French crown in 1202, the region became a platform for Renaissance ideas, including the cult of beauty in all fields: architecture, literature and music in the 16th century.The region was not spared during the Wars of Religion ( ) but the reign of King Louis XIV restored peace and order.The 1789 French Revolution met with fierce resistance in Maine and Anjou, which rejected the religious and administrative reforms that were imposed. Local armies rallied in support of the church and the king under the white flag (the royal color) and captured Saumur and Angers.In 1804 Napoleon founded La-Roche-sur-Yon as a stronghold to prevent further uprisings.
5Pays de Loire – Land of the Loire – Cuisine Food and Gastronomy in Pays de la Loire are based on the geography of this Western region of France, the Atlantique ocean and the rich lands.Pays de la Loire's cuisine in French gastronomy is both important and influential. Some of the very staples in French cuisine come from this region:Beurre Blanc sauceRillettes and pork specialties from Le MansHams and brioche from VendeeMache lettuce and early vegetables from the Nantes ValleyFree range chicken an duck from Challans and LouéSeafood from the Atlantic coast – oysters, mussels, shellfish and fishCandies such as the Berlingots nantais, quernons d'ardoise in AnjouShortbreads in Retz or from Sablé-sur-SarthePetit Beurre cookies from the famed LU factory, exported all over the world
6Products – Pays de Loire Fish & SeafoodVegetablesPike perchAsparagusPikeOnionEelLeekSardines from Croix-de-VieTomatoesMussels from AnguillonRed radishOysters from VendeeShallots (gris-grey)Pleurote – Oyster mushroomsMeat & PoultryCornette d’Anjou (lettuce)Farmhouse chicken from LouePigeonFruitsBeef (a l’herbe) from MaineCassisRillettes from MansStrawberriesDuck (Challans)RaspberriesPoultry (black) from ChallansPears from ComiceCaponApples (Reinette)Goose (white) from PoitouMelon from PoitouDairyButter (AOC) Echire
7Products of Pays de Loire – Challans poultry Le canard de Challans (Duck of Challans)Under the reign of king Phillip IV of Spain ( ), many exiled Spaniards came to live in exile settled in Vendée & Brittany. They drained the land in order to started to breed ducks on it.These Challans duck ( a cross breed between wild and domesticated ducks) were supplied to Nantes in the early 18th century.The traditional method of breeding leaves the ducks free throughout the farm and canals.The females mate not only with the ducks of the farm but also with wild ducks passing.The ducklings are either left to the female or given to the care of a dwarf hen.As they are growing, the ducklings are fed with what the farm provides but also with what they find - caterpillars, insects, slugs, snails and more.At 8 weeks (of age) they are kept in a pen for intensive fattening.
8Products of Pays de Loire – Challans poultry The farming area of Challans duck is relatively narrow and extends into the coastal marshes. 35 kilometers along the coast and 15 kilometers inland north Vendee. This region is well suited to this animal because of its temperate climate, its soil in wetland fed by water channels that descend from the Loire Valley and Lake Grand Place and the minerals present in water and soil.It was at La Tour d'Argent, one of the most famous Parisian restaurants, the duck Challans has acquired its letters of nobility.The specialty of the Supreme Leader Claude Terrail is the "Duck Blood", served for over a hundred years to the restaurant table.On June 21, 1921, Hiro Hito, then Emperor of Japan, has tasted the duck and they have also been used in historical events, such as the marriage of Prince Rainier and Grace Kelly and a gala dinner on board the liner "France-Norway”.
10Products of Pays de Loire – Echire Butter (AOC) Échiré unsalted butter owes its subtle, delicate taste and soft texture to the local soil and the traditional production process.The famed butter is produced in the small villages of Poitiers & La Rochelle, won AOC protected status, and is produced until today mostly by hand.Local people have reared cows in this remote corner of France since time immemorial. The milk from these cows produces butter which has a subtle and exquisite taste, quite unlike anything else.The name Échiré first appears in records dating from the year 1208.85% of the production of Echire butter is kept in France and only 15% of it’s production is exported.
12Beurre Blanc – White Butter Sauce It is said that the invention of the Beurre Blanc in 1887 is due to the Chef Clemence Lefeuvre’s oversights and shortcomings. At the time he was working for the Marquis de Goulaine and was supposed to prepare a Bearnaise. However he forgot the tarragon in the first place and did not whip the eggs ahead of incorporating the butter. What resulted is considered the first Beurre Blanc.The recipe for a basic beurre blanc has stayed essentially the same ever since:Reduction of vinegar and wine (acidity to balance the butter) with aromatics (parsley stem, peppercorn, bay leaf, shallots and herbs as preferred)“Monte au beurre” (incorporating) of cold Butter piece by piece into the reductionSeasoning – salt & PepperVariations – other liquid can be added to the reduction in order to achieve different flavor bases.
13Products of Pays de Loire – Anguille - Eel True eels belong to the Anguilliforms family of fishes and consist of both freshwater and saltwater species.There are many different varieties of eels (600) and sizes range from rue eels 5 centimeters (one-jawed eel ) to 3.75 meters (giant moray).They possess no pelvic fins, and many species also lack pectoral fins. The dorsal and anal fins are fused with the tail fin, to form a single ribbon running along much of the length of the animal.Most true eels prefer to dwell in shallow waters or hide at the bottom layer of the ocean, sometimes in holes.Only the Anguillidae family regularly lives in fresh water, and returning to the sea to breed (Catadromous).Generally speaking the fresh water eels are preferred to sea eels for taste and texture of flavors.
15Traditional Dishes of Pays de Loire Bouilleture d’anguilles – Eel stewA type of “pot au feu” with eel slowly braised in red wine with bacon and prunes, young vegetables and mushrooms.Brochet farci aux herbes – herb stuffed pikeChervil, thyme, parsley and shallots are stuffed into the pike and then the fish is poached in Loire valley wine.Fricasse de Poulet – Poultry (chicken) fricasseA fricasse made with the local, grain fed free-range poultry.Rilettes de Mans – Rilettes from MansSalted pork is slowly cooked in it’s own fat until fork tender with the addition of spices. During the cooling process the rillettes is stirred every couple of minutes so the meat falls apart and builds a thick but spreadable past. Rilettes is generally eaten with dark bread.Epoule de mouton a Langevin – Lamb shoulder “Langevin style”Oven baked, milk marinated lamb shoulder with mushrooms.
17Traditional Dishes of Pays de Loire Desserts and PastriesCrepes a langevin –Crepes “Langevin style”White flour crepes with Mandarin & Cointreau sauceSable de Sable-sur-Sarthe – Sable cookiesTypical French ShortbreadPoire Belle-Angevin au vin rouge – red wine poached pearAnjou red wine poached pear of the “belle-angevin” variety.
19Traditional Dishes of Pays de Loire Lu CookiesSince 1850, two young French bakers fell in love, married, and began creating exquisite biscuits together, which they proudly imprinted with their two initials, LU. Their passion for fine ingredients and distinctive, original biscuits inspires every LU we bake today.
20Traditional Dishes of applied Laboratory Quail with lentilsConfit of pork breast with onions in pieHistoryIngredientsCooking methodExplanation of name
21Centre – Loire Valley Départements: Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, and Maine-et-LoireMajor Cities:Orleans, Tours, BourgesClimate:Pleasant, moderate climate with cold, but not freezing winters and warm, mild summers
22The Centre (Valle de loire- loire valley) is not the geographical middle of France but rather one of the 26 departments of France.Centre is located to the south-west of Paris and borders onto the Pays de Loire in the west, Pouitou-Charentes in the south –west and Limousin in the south, while in the north Paris and Ile de France and in the East Burgundy complete it’s borders.The Loire valley is famous for one of the last stretches of river that has been untouched by man and for the over 300 castles and the architectural heritage it provides. Protected in 2000 by the UNESCO as a World Heritage site.Major Industries:Agriculture:Wine - Famous Loire wineTourism
23History in briefGenerally following the same as for the Pays de Loire from the iron age until the invasion of Caesar in 52BC Subsequently, they and the Druids unsuccessfully revolted against Caesar until Emperor Augustus brought peace. By the 4th century, Saint-Martin, the greatest of all Gallic bishops, had assured complete acceptance of Christianity in the region. In the middle 5th century the Huns invaded Orleans and in 507the Frankish king Clovis conquered the area. In 732 The Saracens from Spain came into the area and subsequently were defeated by the Caroligian king, Charles Martel. In 9th century, the Vikings raided the area bordering the Loire River. They were repulsed by Robert, the Count of Blois and Tours. By the 11th & 12th centuries, the powerful Loire barons (in their chateaux) dominated and only Orléans was firmly in French hands . In 1202, the entire Loire became French again. From 1337 to 1459, during the Hundred Years' War, the English re-conquered most of the Loire and besieged Orléans. In 1429, Joan of Arc rallied the people of the Loire to drive the English out of France.
24History in briefIn 1202, the entire Loire became French again. From , (Hundred Years' War), the English re-conquered the Loire and besieged Orléans. In 1429, Joan of Arc rallied the people of the Loire to drive the English out of France. During the Renaissance, the power of the Catholic Church diminished along the Loire Valley. But, by 1540, the Roman Catholic Church llashed out against the reformation. In turn, Protestant Huguenots rose in 1560. In 1870 the Empire had already fallen when the Franco-Prussian War exploded upon France. Within a short period, the Bavarians captured Orléans. During the first World War, Tours served as the headquarters for the American Expeditionary Force. Shortly after start of the Second World War, the French Government moved to Tours and then to Bordeaux. On October 24, 1940, Marshal Pétan met Hitler in Montoire, (Loire) and agreed to terms for an Armistice. Control of the Loire was retaken by the Resistance & Allied forces in September, Centre was created in the 1970’s out of the provinces of Berry, Orléanais and Touraine.
25Cuisine of Centre – Loire Valley The Centre region of France features THE "Cuisine du Terroir“.Rich products from the soil and reared as well as game meats.Produce from the former Touraine region includes tasty pork products, goat cheese such as the Sainte Maure and Grottin de Chavignol Anduillettes in simmered Vouvray wine and the Rillettes de Tours which is just as famed as the from Mans.But also sweet specialties are famous in the area, first and foremost the Tarte Tatin, Pithiviers & Financier.
26Products –Centre – Loire Valley FishFruitsGenerally all varieties of fresh water fishes just like in the “Pays de Loire”PearsMelon,StrawberriesMeat & Poultry ProductsApplesWild Game – pheasant, venison, wild boar, hareQuinceWalnuts & walnut oilLamb –from SolognotHens (geline) from TourraineVegetablesAndouillette de VauvrayAsparagusRillettes from ToursGreen peasPotatoesCheesesTurnipsCrottin de cavignolLettucesSaint-MaureGreen beansFeuille de DreuxCeleryPithiviers au FoinGreen (PUY type) lentilsOlivetValencay
27Products of Centre/Loire Valley – Goat Cheeses Sainte-Maure-de-TouraineProduced from raw, whole goats milk.This log-shaped goat cheese is AOC protected since 1990 and exclusively produced in Touraine.Invented during Arab invasions in the Carolingian period (8th-9th centuries), when goat breeding was first introduced it is produced in two variations as Saint-Maure-de Touraine (AOC) and Staint-Maure (Non AOC).In the middle of the log, a thin piece of straw is inserted into the cheese during the rolling/shaping of the log.For AOC cheeses this piece of straw is marked with the AOC emblem and a number indicating the producer.The cheese is aged for up to 6 weeks, which is unique for goat cheese which in general are fresh cheeses.The maybe coated in ash or not. Ash coating helps preservation.
28Products of Centre/Loire Valley – Goat Cheeses Crottin Chavignol - Crottin de ChavignolMade around Sancerre & Berry, from unpasteurized goat's milk, (there is a pasteurized milk version for export).The word “crottin” means dropping and is said to have been produced since 1500’s. It reached AOC status in The cheese is shaped like a squat cylinder, about 2 1/2 cm tall, and 4 cm wide. A starter culture is added to the raw milk, then rennet is added to curdle the milk for 24 to 48 hours. The curd is drained through a cloth and ladled into moulds with small holes for further drainage. Then the cheeses are removed from the molds, salted, and aged for 10 days at 13 to 16 C. Each Crottin de Chavignol starts off weighing about 140 g fresh, loosing weight the longer it is aged. It can be eaten at any stage from fresh to very mature. At 6 weeks maturity, Crottin de Chavignol is dry, brittle, with a strong taste. The rind is hard and tastes even stronger. At 4 months, it can be too hard and strong for most people.
30Products of Centre/Loire Valley – Fruit - Quince The Quince is the "pear shaped" fruit of the same named small tree and belongs to the seed fruits (botanically a pome fruit) just as apples and pears.Quince have been cultivated by the Greeks & Romans and the fruit is presumed older than apples. Early references to "the golden apple" in antique documents may refer to quince rather than applesFully ripe, the fruit is bright yellow and hard with a shiny skin. Although there is a variety of Quince that can be eaten raw, the hard flesh of the fruit is usually not edible, it is excellent for jams, preserves or chutneys and can be used for stewing and baking.The flesh turns reddish-orange when cooked; the seeds need to be discarded as they are poisonous.Quince are best picked just before the first frost, but if left on the tree will get softer and edible after having been "frozen" a few of times.Quince are native to the Eastern Mediterranean but cultivated throughout the world in warmer climates in order to allow the fruits to fully mature in late autumn.
31Products of Centre / loire Valley – Green Lentils La Lentille verte – French green lentils (Puy type)French green lentils (although brown when dried) are grown throughout the center of France, the Berry region (Centre) and further south in Auvergne (Puy lentils).Lentils belong to pulses in that they are solely grown for drying.The plants belongs to the legume family and grows low over the ground. The seed (lentil) is incased in an inedible pod usually two seeds to a pod.There are quite a few varieties of lentils on the market, but the French green lentil is known for it’s exquisite taste.
32Traditional Dishes of Centre – Loire Valley Andouillettes au Vauvray – Andouille in Vauvray wineAndouillettes are smaller versions of regular Andouille sausages prepared with chitterlings. The most popular way to relish the Andouillettes sausages in the Centre region of France is to cook them with the local Vouvray wine. Andouillettes are then often accompanied with steamed or sautéed potatoes.Tarte au RilettesThe traditional Tours Rillettes – since the 15th century. The pork specialty from Tours is the main rival of one from Le Mans. Touraine butchers claim, that Le Mans butchers like adding goose meat when Tours producers keep the authentic all-pork version.Often the rillettes is baked together with salted pork and a filling of egg, milk, parsley and chive.Sandre a la Vouvrillonie - Pike Perch “Vouvrillonne” styleGenerally, whole pike perch is baked on top of a matignon of vegetables and Vauvray wine in the oven and served straight in the baking dishGigot de Sept Heures – lamb leg in Seven HoursSimmered lamb leg I aromatic herb broth cooked at low temperature for 7 hours in a cocotte.
34Traditional Dishes of Centre – Loire Valley Civet de Marcassin – Ragout of baby wild boar“Civet” are game meat ragouts, where the meat is marinated in red wine vinegar, spices, mirepoix and red wine for at least 3 days.The meat is removed and well browned; the mirepoix separated for roasting vegetable; the marinate is boiled, strained and used for deglazing. The remaining preparation follows the same cooking methods as for any kind of stew in brown sauce.Ragout de biche – Brown stew of young venisonPrepared according to traditional moist heat cooking method.Terrine de Lapin – Hare terrineFaisan au chou – Roast pheasant with cabbageOven roasted pheasant on a bed of bacon studded white cabbage
36Traditional Dishes of Centre – Loire Valley – Desserts & Pastries Nougat de Tours – Nougat tart from ToursA baked tart filled with a fluffy batter of eggwhites, candied fruits, almond poweder and icing sugar.Tarte Tatin – Upside-down apple pieApples are caramelized, then arranged in a decorative matter in a baking mild. Topped with pie dough and baked with the dough on top of the apples.Contrasting stories in terms of the origin of the Tart Tatin trace back to 1898 and Stephanie Tatin, at the Hotel Tatin in Lamotte-Beuvrong in the Sologne region of the Centre.PhitiviersA enclosed, round pie made with puff pastry generally filled with frangipan and fruits such as apples, cherries or plums.Financier de Sully – Financier from SullyA light, fluffy almond sponge (tea cake) usually baked I small rectangular molds. The name "financier" derives from the traditional rectangular mold, which resembles a bar of gold.The basis of the cake itself is beurre noisette (brown butter), egg whites, flour, almond powder and powdered sugar.