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Public Sectors Role and Strategy on Reducing Food Losses - Control of Food Waste Generation and Food Recycling System in Japan APEC Seminar on Strengthening.

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Presentation on theme: "Public Sectors Role and Strategy on Reducing Food Losses - Control of Food Waste Generation and Food Recycling System in Japan APEC Seminar on Strengthening."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Sectors Role and Strategy on Reducing Food Losses - Control of Food Waste Generation and Food Recycling System in Japan APEC Seminar on Strengthening Public-Private Partnership to Reduce Food Losses in the Supply Chain 6 August, 2013 The Westin Taipei, Taipei, Chinese Taipei Masanobu Ishikawa Professor, Dr. Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University 6th August 20131M. Ishikawa

2 1. Food waste material flows 2. Major development of food waste policies 3. Overview of food recycling law 4. Priorities of recycling 5. Targets 6. Policy tools for promotion of recycling Contents 6th August 20132M. Ishikawa

3 Food Waste Material Flows in Japan (2010) 6th August 20133M. Ishikawa

4 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa4 The amount of business food waste generation in Japan (FY2011)

5 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa5 Recycling rate of food waste by sector in FY2011 Business type Target % Recycling etc. rate (%) Control of waste generation Recycling (%)Heat recovery % Reduction in weight % FeedFertilizerothers Manufacture 8595 9717817 5213 Wholesaler 7057 7462648263 1 Retailer 454111304534210 1 Restaurant 4023 4162637380 3 Total -84 8837518 7211

6 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa6 CategoryFood waste typeSeparationSuitable recycling treatment Manufacture soybean cake, rice bran bakery, confectionary garbage okara (bean curd refuse) food residue returned food, excess production Wholesale cooking residuals unsold (processed food) unsold (box lunch) Retail cooking garbage leftover Household cooking garbage leftover Easy Difficult Feed Fertilizer Methane Suitable recycling treatment by waste type and sector

7 1. Food Recycling Law Established in 2000, enforced in 2001, revised in 2007 2. Biomass Nippon Strategy Approved by cabinet in 2002, revised in 2006 3. Basic Act for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization Established and enforced in 2009 4. National Plan for the Promotion of Biomass Utilization Approved by cabinet in 2010 5. Feed-in Tariff Scheme for Renewable Energy in Japan Established in 2011, enforced in 2012 6. Biomass Industrialization Strategy Adopted in 2012 by the National Biomass Policy Council Major development of Food Waste Policies in Japan 6th August 20137M. Ishikawa

8 1. Priorities of initiatives - Control of waste generation, Recycling, Heat recovery, Reduction of weight 2. Targets - Control of Waste generation, Recycling rate 3. Responsibilities of stakeholders -Food related business operators -Consumers -National and local governments Overview of Food Recycling Law 6th August 20138M. Ishikawa

9 1. Control of waste generation - Improvement of yields - Optimization of order placement - Use of Food Bank - etc. 2. Recycling Priority 1: Feed Priority 2: Fertilizer/Oil and Fat products/Methane/Char/Ethanol 3. Heat recovery - Should recover more than160MJ/ton for wastes except oil or fat - Should recover more than 28,000MJ/ton for waste oil or fat - Only if there is no other recycling facilities within 75km Priorities of Recycling 6th August 20139M. Ishikawa 4. Reduction of weight - Dehydration

10 1.Control of waste generation target - Depending on business group: not binding so far - Targets are set based on reported data -Target level is set so as ca. 70% of firms in the group meet the target Targets for control of waste generation 6th August 201310M. Ishikawa

11 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa11 Business typeDetailtargetunit Food Manufacturing Meat Products 113kg/Myen Milk and Dairy 106kg/Myen Soya sauce 895kg/Myen Miso 191kg/Myen Sauce 59.8kg/t Bread 194kg/Myen Noodle 270kg/Myen Tofu and Fried tofu 2,560kg/Myen Frozen food 363kg/Myen Prepared food 403kg/Myen Sushi, Lunch bag, Prepared bread 224kg/Myen Whole Sale Whole sale (beverage) 14.8kg/Myen Whole sale(other foods) 4.78kg/Myen Retail Retail (food) 65.6kg/Myen Retail(sweets, bread) 106kg/Myen Convenience store 44.1kg/Myen Targets for control of waste generation

12 2. Recycling target - Sector base target: not binding Manufacture (85%), wholesales (70%), retailer (45%), restaurant (40%) - Individual company base target: binding with penalty Should achieve at least 20% 2% point improvement for companies of lower achievement (20%-50%) 1% point improvement for companies of mid achievement (50%-80%) Maintain or improvement for companies of higher achievement (>80%) - Definition of recycling rate Recycling rate=(W sup +W rec +0.95*W h +W red )/(W sup +W g ) W sup : suppress of waste generation, W rec : recycling, W h : heat recovery, W red : reduction of weight, W g : waste generation Targets for recycling 6th August 201312M. Ishikawa

13 1. Targets for the control of food waste generation - Targets set for 16 business sectors so far - will be extended to other sectors 2. Mandatory regular reporting by business operators - 100 tons of food waste or more in the previous year 3. Promotion of recycling by business operators - Registered Recycling Business Operator System - Recycling Business Plan Approval System Policy Tools for Promotion of Recycling 6th August 201313M. Ishikawa

14 1. Objectives - Development of good recycle operators 2. Requirement of registration -Appropriate business with regard to conservation of living environment - Larger than 5 ton/day treatment ability - Capable of financial basis 3. Merits - Food related business operators Choose of good recycle operators - Recycling business operators Ease of Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Act Ease of Fertilizer Control Act Ease of Act on Safety Assurance and Quality Improvement of Feeds Registered Recycling Business Operator System 6th August 201314M. Ishikawa

15 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa15 Development of the Registered Recycling Business Operators

16 1. Objectives - Promote higher quality recycling in downstream sectors such as feed and fertilizer in retail and restaurant business 2. Requirement of registration - Appropriate business operation and meet criteria, competency - Certainty of utilization of feed/fertilizer/etc. - Retailer/restaurant must sell more than half of final products by themselves 3. Merits - Food related business operators Can brand its products - Recycling business operators Ease of Waste Disposal and Public Cleaning Act Recycling Business Plan Approval System 6th August 201316M. Ishikawa 4. Feature -Motivations of self monitoring and monitoring of business partners are embedded in food recycling loop

17 6th August 201317M. Ishikawa Recycling Business Plan Approval System Sell What You Separate scheme

18 Collection and transportation by Sanko Ltd. Koso-no-sato Ltd. uses the fertilizer (362 t/year) to grow vegetables, fruits, rice, soybeans and flowers (284 t/year). Agriculture/Forestry/ production operator Agriculture/Forestry/ production operator Recycling business operator Sanko Ltd. 238.3 t/year is sold in markets or to other companies. 5 shops of UNY Food Recycling Loop by UNY Co., Ltd. [Branding] agricultural products grown with the fertilizer from food waste to have bland "cyclical vegetable." Food retailer UNY purchases agricultural production (45.7 t/year) to sell food residue (525.6 t/year) fertilizer (362 t/year) 6th August 201318

19 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa19 Development of the Approved Recycling Business Plan

20 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa20 Other Policies and Activities for Food Waste Reduction 1. Initiatives of the entire food chain to reduce food loss - To reduce food loss caused by excess stock or returning - Working team: manufacturer, wholesaler, retailer 2. Food bank - More than 20 organizations in Japan - Second Harvest Japan deals with the maximum amount (1,689tons in 2011) 3. National campaign on reduction of food loss -Cabinet Office, Consumer Affairs Agency, Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

21 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa21 Trend of Food Waste Generation

22 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa22 Trend of Food Waste Recycling etc. rate

23 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa23 Concluding Remarks 1.Recycling of food waste in Japan has been making progress. 2.The amount of food waste generation in food industry is steadily decreasing. 3.The manufacturing sector achieved the recycling target, but other sectors did not. 4.We should focus on downstream sectors such as retailers and restaurants as well as households. 5.We set waste generation control targets for 16 business groups based on reported data, which will be reviewed in 2014 and are planned to be extended to other business groups. 6.We set up the Recycling Business Plan Approval scheme (SellWYS scheme) to encourage high quality recycling in downstream sectors, and the number of approved plan is steadily increasing.

24 6th August 2013M. Ishikawa24 Thank you for your attention Hoping everybody could eat enough healthy food without producing excessive wastes

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