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Reflections on the Trials and Tribulations of Cross-Cultural Research Michele J. Gelfand University of Maryland MSU October 12, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Reflections on the Trials and Tribulations of Cross-Cultural Research Michele J. Gelfand University of Maryland MSU October 12, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reflections on the Trials and Tribulations of Cross-Cultural Research Michele J. Gelfand University of Maryland MSU October 12, 2009

2 The Cultural Revolution in Psychology Proliferation of research on culture Virtually no area left unaffected From basic psychological and developmental processes to interpersonal and organizational processes The self, attributions, cognitive processes; developmental processes Conflict, communication Groups, leadership, organizational culture, HR Theoretical and applied value

3 Reflections on Doing Cross- Cultural Research Project 1: –35 nation study of situational constraint –Surveys and archival data Project 2 –Analysis of subjective culture in the Middle East and US –Interviews and experiments

4 The Levels Problem: The Bifurcated Elephant Macro emphasis in cultural/cross-cultural psychology –Explicate generalized dimensions of values and beliefs and their functional linkages to ecological and historical context; Critical cultural yardsticks –Linkages to the individual level? People inhabit their everyday local worlds Distal societal institutions and ecological factors are not likely strong influences on behavior

5 Introduction Micro emphasis in cultural/cross-cultural psychology –Important body of work elucidating the cultural bases of cognition, motivation, and emotion –What creates such differences in cultural worldways? Empirical linkages to macro/structural level often lacking. Quasi-tautological reasoning (e.g, people are collectivistic because they live in a collectivistic culture). Presumably cultural differences at the micro level are adaptive and attuned to the immediate environments in which people live.

6 Introduction Missing in this macro-micro divide is a theoretical bridge Propose the situational level as a fruitful mediator –Examined how concrete enduring situations afford and constrain behavior in culturally divergent ways –Examine how concrete and enduring situations are functionally linked to the macro level of analysis

7 Bridging Conceptual Levels The structure of social situations is an important component of cultural systems Macro level: Ecological, historical factors, and socio-political factors Meso level: The structure of everyday social situations: Preponderance of strong versus weak situations Individual level: Psychological processes

8 Cultural theorizing on situations Triandis (1972) –Historical events influence social organization of a country, which affects characteristics of situations Forgas & Bond (1985) –Cognitive representations of social episodes vary across cultures Kitayama et al. (1997; 2002) –Ways in which social situations are collectively defined, maintained, and held in place varies across cultures Oyserman et al. (2002) –Reorienting cultural psychology: Social-situation level of analysis

9 Culture and Situations The structure of situations as an important aspect of cultural systems –Recurrent episodes in local worlds that personalize the core cultural ideas (Fiske et al., 1998) –Behavioral settings: Bank, workplace, library, classroom, city sidewalk, restaurant, public park, movies, party, doctors office, bus

10 Situational Strength Situations vary in the range of behavioral responses seen as appropriate Strength of situations (Mischel, 1977) –Strong situations Create predictability by limiting the number of behavioral patterns that are appropriate –Weak situations Place few external constraints on individuals

11 Situational Strength Goffman (1963) –Amount of situational regulation Boldt (1978) –Situational expectations imposed and received or proposed and interpreted Douglas (1982) –High versus low grid social systems Price & Bouffard (1974) –Situational constraint

12 Price & Bouffard (1974), JPSP SituationMSD Church2.190.90 Job interview2.472.12 Elevator3.581.87 Family dinner3.852.24 Class3.882.17 Movies3.952.20 Restroom3.971.42 Sidewalk4.391.79 Bus4.512.07 Date4.872.16 Bar4.871.97 Football game5.331.93 Dorm lounge5.661.82 Park6.581.53 Own room7.501.19

13 Culture and Situational Strength Cultural variation in the strength of situations –All cultures have strong and weak situations –Cultural systems vary on whether they have a preponderance of strong versus weak situations Fewer behaviors appropriate across a wide range of recurring situations (e.g., Bank, workplace, library, restroom, city sidewalk, restaurant, park, movies, party, doctors office, classroom) Adaptations to higher levels of analysis and reinforced through psychological processes

14 Macro Societal LevelMeso Situational Level Structure of Everyday Social Situations: Preponderance of Strong versus Weak Situations Ecocultural and Historical Factors Distal forces creating the need for societal order and coordination Population density History of conflict Resource scarcity Natural disasters Extreme temperatures Socio-Political Context Societal institutions reinforcing order and coordination Government, Media, Religion, Legal Macro-Meso Linkages

15 Culture and Situational Strength Assumption 1: Strong situations help coordinate social action by reducing the range of permissible behavior and creating a shared reality Assumption 2: Coordinated social action is more important in nations where there are strong threats for survival –A) Human made threats to survival (e.g.. a history of territorial threat; high population density) –B) Natural threats to survival (e.g., a dearth of natural resources, extreme temperatures, high degree of natural disasters) Derivation 1: Nations with higher (vs. lower) degrees of A and B will have higher (vs. lower) situational constraint

16 Psychological Processes Adaptive to Social Situations Psychological processes are cultivated to reflect and support the strength of situations –Psychological attributes of individuals in cultural systems with a predominance of strong situations will vary from psychological attributes of individuals in cultural systems with a preponderance of weak situations

17 Meso Situational Level Micro Psychological Level Structure of Everyday Social Situations: Preponderance of Strong versus Weak Situations Psychological Attributes Psychological adaptations to everyday recurring situations Felt Accountability Self-guides: Prevention vs. promotion focus Regulatory strength/ Impulse control Need for order/structure Self-monitoring ability Socially shared cognition Meso-Micro Linkages

18 Assumption 3: Psychological processes are naturally attuned to strong (versus weak) situational requirements within nations Assumption 4: Strong situations afford cognition and self-regulation processes which serve to maintain order and coordinate social action –A) Epistemic needs for order and consensus seeking –B) Ought self-guides for preventing mistakes –C) Self-monitoring ability to assess situational requirements –D) Impulse control to meet situational requirements Derivation 2: Nations with higher (vs. lower) situational constraint have individuals with higher (lower) attributes a-d

19 Macro Societal LevelMeso Situational Level Micro Psychological Level Structure of Everyday Social Situations: Preponderance of Strong versus Weak Situations Ecocultural and Historical Factors Distal forces creating the need for societal order and coordination Population density History of conflict Resource scarcity Natural disasters Ethnic homogeneity Socio-Political Context Societal institutions reinforcing order and coordination Government, Media, Religion, Legal Psychological Attributes Psychological adaptations to everyday recurring situations Self-guides: Prevention vs. promotion focus Regulatory strength/ Impulse control Need for structure/order Self-monitoring ability Socially shared cognition Summary: A Multilevel Theory of Social Situations

20 Method Collaborative Multi-Nation Survey Study –7109 respondents in 35 nations Working adults and university students (51.4% Adults, 48.6% Students) 58.2% Female, 41.7% Male Mean age of 29.97 7.97 years of work experience SES: 71.8% Middle, 14.7% Lower, 12.1% Upper –Theoretical sampling

21 Collaborators Australia: Yoshi & Emi Kashima Austria: Iris Fishchlmayr & Erna Szabo Belgium: Bert Overlaet Brazil: Zelia Maria Mendes Biasoli China: Xu Yan Germany: Klaus Boehnke and Manfred Schmidt Estonia: Anu Realo Greece: James Georgas France: Alain Lempereur Hong Kong: Darius Chan Hungary: Marta Fulop Iceland: Frida Arnadottir India: Naharika Vohra & Jagdeep Chhoka Israel: Assaf Almaliach Italy: Alessia Aldamato Japan: Midori Toyama and Susumu Yamaguchi Korea: Kibum Kim Malaysia: Rozhan Othman Mexico: Eduardo Guzman and Lorena Perez Netherlands: Evert Van de Vliert New Zealand: Colleen Ward Norway: Vidar Schei Pakistan: Soomro Nazar Poland: Pawel Boski Portugal: Rosa Cabecinhas Singapore: Soon Ang South Africa: Karl Peltzer Spain: Montse Ferrer Thailand: Joy Taveesin Turkey: Zeynep Aycan Ukraine: Larisa Petrovna UK: Peter B. Smith and Ronald Fischer US: Jana Raver, Lisa Nishii, Lili Duan, and Lisa Leslie Venezuela: Patricia Marquez

22 Measures: Situational Constraint Ratings of behavioral appropriateness across situations (Adapted from Price & Bouffard, JPSP, 1974) 15 X 12 Situation-Behavior Matrices (= 180 ratings) –Situations (Wish & Bales, 1958); formal and informal Bank, Doctors office, Job Interview, Library, Funeral, Classroom, Restaurant, Public Park, Bus, Bedroom, City Sidewalk, Party, Elevator, Workplace, Movies –Behaviors (Wish, 1976); associative and disassociative Argue, Laugh, Curse/Swear, Kiss, Cry, Sing, Talk, Flirt, Listen to Music, Read Newspaper, Bargain, Eat Multination focus groups

23 Example Items: Behavior X Situation Ratings How appropriate is this behavior in this setting? Extremely Very Somewhat Somewhat Very Extremely Inappropriate Appropriate 1.Argue in a Bank 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.Laugh at the Doctors Office 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.Curse/Swear at a Job Interview 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Flirt in the Library 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Eat on a Bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Kiss in a Restaurant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Cry at a Public Park 1 2 3 4 5 6 8.Bargain at a Library 1 2 3 4 5 6 9.Read newspaper in a Classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 10.Curse/Swear in ones Bedroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Sing on a City Sidewalk 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Talk in an Elevator 1 2 3 4 5 6

24 Measures: Situational Constraint Country-level situational constraint (Price & Bouffard, 1974) –Situational Constraint computed for each setting and averaged across settings Higher scores indicate more behaviors are seen as appropriate across situations; Lower situational constraint (Price & Bouffard, 1974) Aggregation statistics –R wg=.92; ICC =.32

25 Construct Validation of the SC Measure Direct ratings of situational constraint –To what extent does the situation have clear rules regarding appropriate behavior? –To what extent does the situation call for or demand certain behaviors and not others? –To what extent does the situation require that people monitor their own behavior or watch what they do? –To what extent does the situation allow people to behave as they choose? (reverse) Correlated.75 with country-level behavior X situation measures of situational constraint

26 Example Construct Validation Items To what extent does the situation require that people monitor their own behavior or watch what they do? Not at all Very Much 1.Bank 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.Doctors Office 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.Job Interview 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Library 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Funeral 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Restaurant 1 2 3 4 5 6 8.Public Park 1 2 3 4 5 6 9.Bus 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Own Bedroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. City Sidewalk 1 2 3 4 5 6 12.Party 1 2 3 4 5 6 13.Elevator 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.Movies 1 2 3 4 5 6 15. Workplace 1 2 3 4 5 6

27 Measures: Psychological Adaptations to Situations Normative ought-guides/Prevention focus (Goldberg, 19 items) Impulse control (Goldberg, 5 items) Self-monitoring ability (Snyder and Gangestad, 1986, 6 items) Epistemic needs: Desire for order and discomfort with ambiguity (Webster & Kruglanski, 1994, 12 items)

28 Population density World Bank Indicators (Kurian 1999) –Overall and rural population density Population density in the year 1500 (McEvedy & Jones, 1978) History of conflict,1900-2001 International crisis behavior archives (Brecher & Wilkenfeld, 1997) Total number of territorial and political conflicts, 1900-2001 Percent central government expenditures on the military (Work Bank Indicators) Macro Level: Archival Measures

29 Macro level: Archival Measures Natural resources Amount of freshwater resources (Cubic Meters per Capita, World Bank Indicators, 2000) Amount of arable land (Kurian, 1999) Natural disasters,1900-2001 World Health Organization, centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters, emergency events database (EM-DAT) Total number, number killed, and number affected Ethnic homogeneity (Kurian, 1999)

30 Analysis Strategy Procrustes factor analysis (McCrae, Zonderman, Costa, Bond, & Paunonen, 1996, Van de Vijver & Leung, 2001) –Assessed scale equivalence across cultures Mean standardization to control for response sets (Van de Vijver & Leung, 2001) Regression –Macro ecological and historical predictors of situational constraint Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) –Cross-level analysis of culture-level situational constraint and psychological attributes

31 Major Findings Universal rank order of situational constraint and high degree of cultural variation in situational constraint (SC) Population density, history of conflict, natural disasters, and ethnic homogeneity predict SC Autocracy, openness of the media, crime and SC SC has cross-level effects on psychological attributes

32 PakistanChinaJapanNew Zealand Situations GSC scores Situations GSC scores Situations GSC scores Situations GSC scores Job Interview-1.42Job Interview-1.18Job Interview-1.49Job Interview-1.39 Funeral Ceremony-1.36 Funeral Ceremony-0.85 Funeral Ceremony-1.16 Funeral Ceremony-0.99 Library-1.24Library-0.75Library-0.92Library-0.48 Classroom-1.11Classroom-0.57Classroom-0.73Classroom-0.44 Doctor's Office-0.83 Doctor's Office-0.49 Doctor's Office-0.51 Doctor's Office-0.29 Bank-0.8Bank-0.4Bank-0.49Bank-0.26 Movie-0.78Movie-0.37Movie-0.47Movie-0.19 Elevator-0.51Elevator-0.29Elevator-0.32Elevator0.05 Workplace-0.37Workplace-0.17Workplace-0.28Workplace0.18 Restaurant-0.23Restaurant-0.16Restaurant-0.08Restaurant0.33 Bus-0.22Bus-0.06Bus0.1Bus0.39 City sidewalk-0.05City sidewalk0.01City sidewalk0.23City sidewalk0.8 Party0.06Party0.03Party0.35Party1 Public Park0.39Public Park0.48Public Park1.24Public Park1.31 Bedroom1.54Bedroom0.95Bedroom1.9Bedroom2

33 Summary: Project 1 The central role of situations in human behavior –Interplay between ecological and historical factors, social situations, and psychological attributes Culture as a multilevel system –Situations are functionally related to macro level factors and societal values –Situations are the local micro-structural worlds through which individual processes become naturally aligned and mutually reinforcing

34 Practical Implications Intercultural education –Train individuals to understand cultural differences in the strength of specific situations that will be encountered –Understand how psychological attributes are aligned with situational requirements –Help to prevent cross-cultural conflicts that arise from different situational expectations

35 Project 2: Subjective Culture in the ME

36 THRUST 1 CULTURAL FOCAL CONCERNS Core Cultural Concerns Honor Fate Modesty Wasta Face Religion Within Culture Variation Gender Age SES Religion SOCIAL-CONTEXTUAL FACTORS & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE MODERATORS Cultural Amplifiers Degree of Threat Level of Uncertainty Cultural Artifacts Structure of Social Networks Time Pressure/ Cognitive Load Cultural Suppressors Shared Experience Strong Team Identity Integration/Learning Perspective Global Identities Cultural Reversers Low Accountability Low Social Monitoring Individual Differences Nonconformity PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Cognitive Frames, Goals, Emotional Experiences and Expressions Sequence of Behavior, Rapport Management, Communication, Persuasion, Cooperation PROXIMAL OUTCOMES Shared Reality Shared Affect Coordinated Social Action DISTAL OUTCOMES Task Performance Mission Objectives Subjective Value Relational Capital THRUST 4 DYNAMICAL MODELING THRUST 3 Collaborative Tasks: Creativity, Planning, & Performance Tasks THRUST 2 Negotiation Tasks: Deal-Making, Disputing, and Mediation Tasks

37 PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Cognitive Frames, Goals, Emotional Experiences and Expressions Sequence of Behavior, Rapport Management, Communication, Persuasion, Cooperation PROXIMAL OUTCOMES Shared Reality Shared Affect Coordinated Social Action DISTAL OUTCOMES Task Performance Mission Objectives Subjective Value Relational Capital THRUST 1 CULTURAL FOCAL CONCERNS Core Cultural Concerns Honor Fate Modesty Wasta Face Religion Within Culture Variation Gender Age SES Religion SOCIAL-CONTEXTUAL FACTORS & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE MODERATORS Cultural Amplifiers Degree of Threat Level of Uncertainty Cultural Artifacts Structure of Social Networks Time Pressure/ Cognitive Load Cultural Suppressors Shared Experience Strong Team Identity Integration/Learning Perspective Global Identities Cultural Reversers Low Accountability Low Social Monitoring Individual Differences Nonconformity THRUST 4 DYNAMICAL MODELING THRUST 3 Collaborative Tasks: Creativity, Planning, & Performance Tasks THRUST 2 Negotiation Tasks: Deal-Making, Disputing, and Mediation Tasks

38 PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Cognitive Frames, Goals, Emotional Experiences and Expressions Sequence of Behavior, Rapport Management, Communication, Persuasion, Cooperation PROXIMAL OUTCOMES Shared Reality Shared Affect Coordinated Social Action DISTAL OUTCOMES Task Performance Mission Objectives Subjective Value Relational Capital THRUST 1 CULTURAL FOCAL CONCERNS Core Cultural Concerns Honor Fate Modesty Wasta Face Religion Within Culture Variation Gender Age SES Religion SOCIAL-CONTEXTUAL FACTORS & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE MODERATORS Cultural Amplifiers Degree of Threat Level of Uncertainty Cultural Artifacts Structure of Social Networks Time Pressure/ Cognitive Load Cultural Suppressors Shared Experience Strong Team Identity Integration/Learning Perspective Global Identities Cultural Reversers Low Accountability Low Social Monitoring Individual Differences Nonconformity THRUST 4 DYNAMICAL MODELING THRUST 3 Collaborative Tasks: Creativity, Planning, & Performance Tasks THRUST 2 Negotiation Tasks: Deal-Making, Disputing, and Mediation Tasks

39 PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES INTERPERSONAL PROCESSES Cognitive Frames, Goals, Emotional Experiences and Expressions Sequence of Behavior, Rapport Management, Communication, Persuasion, Cooperation PROXIMAL OUTCOMES Shared Reality Shared Affect Coordinated Social Action DISTAL OUTCOMES Task Performance Mission Objectives Subjective Value Relational Capital THRUST 1 CULTURAL FOCAL CONCERNS Core Cultural Concerns Honor Fate Modesty Wasta Face Religion Within Culture Variation Gender Age SES Religion SOCIAL-CONTEXTUAL FACTORS & INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE MODERATORS Cultural Amplifiers Degree of Threat Level of Uncertainty Cultural Artifacts Structure of Social Networks Time Pressure/ Cognitive Load Cultural Suppressors Shared Experience Strong Team Identity Integration/Learning Perspective Global Identities Cultural Reversers Low Accountability Low Social Monitoring Individual Differences Nonconformity THRUST 4 DYNAMICAL MODELING THRUST 3 Collaborative Tasks: Creativity, Planning, & Performance Tasks THRUST 2 Negotiation Tasks: Deal-Making, Disputing, and Mediation Tasks

40 Experimental Thrust I What are the relevant dimensions and cultural constructs in the Middle East that are critical for understanding culture and negotiation and collaboration processes? Be very skeptical of etics (imposed constructs and measures) –Researchers simply export constructs and measures developed in the U.S. to other cultures –79% studies imposed etics (Schaffer & Riordan, 2003) Indigenous constructs –e. g., honor (sharaf; irdh), shame (hashham), fate, connections (wasta), communication (mubalagha), among others Core cultural focal concerns in Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Turkey, UAE, others

41 Middle Eastern Collaborators Egypt Abdel Hamid Abdel Latif, Ph. D. Professor of Sociology American University in Cairo, Egypt Iraq and Jordan Munqith M. Dagher, Ph.D. CEO IIACSS, Iraq and Jordan Lebanon Hilal Khashan, Ph. D. Professor of Political Studies American University of Beirut, Lebanon Pakistan Nazar Soomro Assistant Professor of Psychology University of Sindh, Pakistan Turkey Zeynep Aycan, Ph. D. Professor of Psychology Koc University, Turkey UAE and Saudi Arabia May Al-Dabbagh, Ph. D. Research Fellow and Lecturer Dubai School of Government, UAE

42 400 In-Depth Interviews Conducted Interviews conducted in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Turkey, UAE, and the United States (awaiting Iran) Arabic, Urdu, Turkish Community samples –Gender –Age –SES –Urban/Rural

43 INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS Protocol I –Wasta (الواسطة) –Negotiation (التفاوض) –Mediation (الوساطة) –Conflict (النزاع) –Forgiveness (التسامح) –Apologies (الاعتذار) –Revenge (الانتقام) Protocol II –Fatalism (القدر) –Honor (الشرف) –Face (الوجه) –Dignity (عزة النفس/ الكرامة) –Modesty (التواضع) –Values (القيم / الصفات) –Collaboration (التعاون)

44 INTERVIEW METHODOLOGY Methods developed by the leading cultural psychologist, Harry Triandis Analysis of subjective culture –Word associations –Antecedents –Consequences –Social context Obtained input from co-country collaborators Informed by numerous books and articles that focus specifically on the Middle East

45 Analysis of Subjective Culture Word associations What words come to mind when we say…. Fate? Wasta? Honor? Face? Modesty? Respect? Negotiation? Revenge? Apologies? Forgiveness? Collaboration?

46 Analysis of Subjective Culture Antecedents Causal features of the constructs If ___, then X In what situations is Wasta needed? What situations occur because of fate? In what situations do you frequently negotiate? What does a person have to have or do for you to trust/distrust them? What causes honor to be violated? What causes one to lose face (Wajh)? Why did you ask someone else to help you resolve a conflict? What motivates people to forgive? What motivates people to apologize? What motivates people to take revenge? In what situations is collaboration needed?

47 Analysis of Subjective Culture Consequences Probing If X, then______ What are the benefits of having Wasta? What might happen if Wasta is damaged? What do you do when you trust or distrust the other person in negotiation? What happens when face is lost? What kinds of feelings result? What do you do in response? What happens when a person is immodest? What happens when a person being disrespectful? What happens when honor is violated? When one apologizes, what typically occurs as a result? What are the consequences of seeking revenge?

48 Analysis of Subjective Culture Emic Behavioral Indicators Probing How does one ……. What did a person do to show… How does one acquire Wasta? In negotiation, how does one show one is cooperating or competing? In conflict, what are examples of conciliatory behaviors? What are examples of aggressive behaviors? How does one demonstrate ones honor in everyday contexts? What did a mediator do to resolve a conflict? What are the types of ways that one might seek revenge? How does one demonstrate one is modest in everyday contexts? What makes an apology good? Bad?

49 Analysis of Subjective Culture Social Context Moderators Probing when X then Y Does it make a different if the person who causes your face to be lost is someone you know well or is a stranger? Does it make a difference if the person who threatens your honor is someone you know well or a stranger? When is Wasta good versus bad? Would you negotiate differently with a total stranger? With a high or low status person? Are there issues you would not negotiate? When is compromise good? Bad? When is revenge acceptable or even expected? Are there situations/people that make it easy versus difficult to forgive another?

50 Analysis of Subjective Culture Contagion Probing interdependence My X is related to others X Is your honor related to the honor of other people? Does the loss of others honor affect your honor? Does your face loss affect others? If so, who? Does others face loss affect you? If so, whose face? How does others ability to act modestly reflect on you? To what extent is it appropriate to involve others when seeking revenge? To what extent do apologies involve others who are not the immediate perpetrator or victim?

51 Analysis of Subjective Culture Critical Incidents Input into Cases, Experimental Materials, MDS Can you tell us about a time when you negotiated, what made it successful, unsuccessful? Can you describe the sequence of events of a conflict you had with another person? When did the conflict become most extreme? When did the conflict begin to resolve? Can you think of a time when someone else mediated a conflict you were having? What happened? Can you tell us about a times when you or someone you know has worked with others on a project that did not go well? Why?

52 Analysis of Subjective Culture Probing core values What is important What are some core values and personal virtues or characteristics that you/people in your country think are important to have as guiding principles in your life? What values and virtues children should be raised to have? Do people in your country believe that men and women should have different roles in society? How important is XX (e.g., honor, face, modesty, fate) (1 to 5 scale) …To You …To people in your country

53 DATA ANALYSIS Hierarchical coding of transcripts Identification of micro-codes (e.g. individual words) Construction of macro-level coding scheme(s) Frame extraction Manual coding & coding programs Pennebakers LIWC NVivo Lexico Tropes Computational linguistics Additional analyses Men vs. women High, middle, low socio- economic status Urban vs. rural

54 Personal Reflections: Top Challenges Gaining Access, Developing High Quality Research Teams –Places to network (e.g., IACCP) –Building a reliable team that will provide input at every stage Sampling –Which nations? Which organizations and/or individuals? –Which constructs and measures? –Focus groups prior to data collection

55 Personal Reflections Translations –Quality varies and very time consuming; backtranslations can be problematic too Data Collection –Pilot, pilot, pilot! How do participants perceive the task? Is it understandable? motivating? –Training local investigators; standardizing procedures –Adopting incentives (e.g, money in Iraq) –Ethical issues in data collection –IRB issues

56 Personal Reflections Analysis of Surveys Those nasty response sets Construct validity checks Gain trust through multiple measures (observations and surveys) Be prepared to not be able to include some measures (e.g., RHQ) Analysis of Interviews Transcriptions Judgment calls on extraction processes Top down and bottom up development of coding manuals Intercultural reliability checks

57 Personal Reflections Managing the virtual team –Communicate often –Visit and build relationships –Be mindful of cultural differences! –Find ways to foster collaborators interests on projects Managing relationship with funders –Funding can be a benefit and liability

58 Personal Reflections Judgment calls in intercultural research –crucial decisions that must be made without the benefit of a hard and fast, objective rule (McGrath, 1982; p. 13) –All research involves judgment calls –When conducting cross-cultural research, there are numerous unique methodological issues that arise at each stage of the research process

59 The Cross-Cultural Research Process

60 Personal Reflections Enough kvetching! The rewards of doing cross-cultural research –Lifetime collaborators and friends –Building a community of scientists –High risk; high yield –Training students to navigate the complexities of cross-cultural research –Learning and growth

61 Resources for Cross-Cultural Research IACCP-International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology www.iaccp.org800 members from 65 countries aim to facilitate communication among people interested in issues involving the intersection of culture and psychology. Has international meetings every 2 years; regional meetings every year. IAAP-The International Association of Applied Psychology www.iaapsy.orgThe oldest international association of psychologists, goal is to establish contact between those in different cultures in various areas of psychology, 16 divisions, including organizational psychology

62 Resources for Cross-Cultural Research SCCR-Society for Cross- Cultural Research www.sccr.org200 members pursuing cross- cultural research from a multidisciplinary perspective. Psychologists, anthropologists, sociologists, communications, business and education professions; awards for best undergraduate and graduate papers; travel grants SPSSI- The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues www.spssi.org3500 psychologists and allied scientists and students share common interest in research in psychological aspects of social issues; a number of awards and internship opportunities

63 Resources for Cross-Cultural Research Online Readings in Cross-Cultural Psychology http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~ culture/contents_comple te.htm Numerous short readings on cross-cultural psychology More cross-cultural resource links on the web http://www.iaccp.org/link s.html Various links for cross-cultural web sites, cross-cultural journals and general psychology organizations Center for Cross- Cultural Study www.cccs.comStudent opportunities for academic semesters abroad to participate in cross cultural exchange programs The Center for Cross- Cultural Health www.crosshealth.comSeeks to integrate the role of culture in improving heath; internship opportunities


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