2Early HistoryThe hospitality industry probably began with the Sumerians.4000 BC lived in a region near the Persian Gulf (Mesopotamia)Sumerians built taverns and served beer to people in the surrounding areas (some of the first hospitality businesses)Traders traveled from region to region to trade spices, gold, and other exotic goods. People began to build inns and taverns along the routes
3Early History (Continued) 3 countries played an important role in the early days of hospitalityEgypt, Greece, and the Roman EmpireAncient Egypt began the tourism trade2700 BC pyramids were built and began attracting visitorsBase of pyramids great place for festivalsSouvenir sales began here; tourists wanted to take home a reminder of their visitEgyptians also organized the first cruisesCruise: pleasure trip taken by boat or ship
4Greece and Early History Loved to travelTraveled all over Europe and established many coloniesGreece made 2 major contributions to the hospitality industryLanguage- first universally accepted language of international tradeGreek money became the standard of exchange for monetary transactionsCommon currency made travel and business easierGreeks were defeated by the Romans in 146 BC
5Romans and Early Hospitality Romans developed roads throughout their empire. Made travel quicker and easier.Travel became dangerous. Travel and tourism virtually stopped during this period.Renaissance created a rebirth of travel and artistic interests.Travel again became safe and popular. Taverns and inns were once again open for tourists.
6Development in the United States US has made great contributions to the hospitality industry.Grand hotels, motels, restaurant chains, fast food businesses, and franchises all originated in the US.Hospitality grew along with new modes of transportation (stagecoaches, railroads, automobile, and commercial airlines)
7Inns for Stagecoach Travelers 1600s stagecoach routes were established in the USInns began to develop along these routesCould exchange a tired horse for a rested oneSwitching horses took about 30 minutes and would allow time for a mealStagecoaches usually arrived at a set time and the innkeeper would have everything ready for arrival.Inns & Taverns were popular gathering placesThe first building designed specifically as a hotel was probably New York City’s City Hotel5 story hotel built in 1794Guests paid $2 (included breakfast, lunch , tea, and dinner)Hotel had 73 rooms
8Grand Hotels for Railroad Travelers 1800s railroad travel developed and spreadMuch more comfortable than a stagecoachTravel long distances in a shorter time period.Inns, saloons, and restaurants were built close to railway stations.Tremont House in Boston was the first Grand Hotel in 1828Grand hotel: offers luxury accommodationsTremont House was 4 stories tall, 170 private rooms, 6 meeting rooms, and 200 seat dining roomNo elevators (had not been invented yet) this is where the bellhop was bornBellhop: person who when they heard the bell ring, they had to hop to help the guests (it was their job to carry the heavy luggage upstairs)Hotelier: owner or manager of a hotel
9Grand Hotels for Railroad Travelers In Europe, Cezar Ritz was raising the standards of luxury hotels.Put Auguste Escoffier in charge of the kitchen (created modern organization of hotel kitchen and created new and exciting dishes)Made dining a luxurious experienceRitz was built the world famous Ritz Hotel in He was the first to give each guest room a private bath, built in closets, and telephones.In the US, Ellsworth Statler was developing his chain of hotelsFirst to develop uniform standards for hotels.Featured telephones in every room, modern plumbing, full size closets with lights, radios, and free morning newspapersAlso developed a list of service rules called the Statler Service Code. (Each employee had to learn, memorize, and follow the code).
10Motels for Automobile Travelers Motels: combines basic hotel service with convenience for the automobile traveler. Located near the highway, parking is free and located right outside the rooms.Often called Tourists Courts or Motor CourtsDid not have facilities as hotels such as restaurants, room service, and bell attendants. Guests had to carry own luggage.1952 Kemmons Wilson took his family on vacation and was disappointed by the lack of places to stay. He developed his own chain as a resultDeveloped the Holiday InnFamily friendly where children stay free, swimming pools, and restaurantsGuaranteed reliability clean and comfortable roomsCreated a large, distinctive sign which could be easily seen from the road
11Motels for Automobile Travelers Motels soon became larger and began to offer more servicesBusiness travelers liked having coffee shops, cocktail lounges, and meeting roomsSwimming pools were importantUsually built at the edge of townsMost were one or two stories tall.Simple construction was easy to build, compared to downtown high rise expensive hotels.Amenities and level of service vary based on the location and price of the property.
12Airport Hospitality for Air Travelers Commercial jets began operating in 1958Hotels located in downtown areas began to decline and those located near airports grew along with restaurantsJ.W. Marriott opened hotels near airportsNew vacation areas were developed in locations that were easily accessible by airJet airline service decreased the time and inconvenience of international travelInternational travel grewAs air travel became more common, airports became the location of new hospitality businesses.Hotels, motels, foodservice, and restaurants were designed to meet the needs of air travel customersShuttle services were designed to transport guests from hotels to nearby airports
13Hospitality TodayThe hospitality industry has several major challenges. These challenges include:Delivering consistent serviceDiversity of the workforceAccommodating special needsImpact of seasonsUsing the paper/poster you are given, list all the challenges you and your group can think of regarding the topic given. You will have 7 minutes to complete the assignment.
14Delivering Consistent Service Hospitality businesses fail or succeed based on the quality of service guests receiveDelivering quality service always involves peopleHospitality is a people serving businessManagers have 2 ways to ensure good serviceProceduresTrainingEmployees must be trained to be customer focused
15Diversity in the Workforce In the past, white males made up the majority of the workforce; however, women and minorities are entering in greater numbersThese people have a variety of cultures, religions, beliefs, and languagesDiversity: used to describe a large group of people from a variety of backgrounds, cultures, religions, beliefs, and languagesIn order to be successful, businesses must learn how to meet needs of employees tooMany programs help businesses support their employeesEducation, career, professional developmentTransportation to and from workAssistance in learning EnglishAccessibility, career development, and opportunities for advancement for employees with disabilitiesRetraining in job skills for senior employeesDaycare referrals or assistanceFlexible schedules
16Accommodating Special Needs People with special needs are traveling more and moreSpecial needs includeMedical conditionsPhysical disabilitiesMental disabilitiesPreferences based on religion, health, or circumstancesHospitality workers must use problem solving and communication skills to meet these needsAmericans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to make sure people with disabilities are treated fairlyRequires that public buildings be accessible to people with disabilitiesAccessible: able to be entered and used by a person with a disabilityMany have developed special accommodations for people with disabilitiesBraille lettering: special language for the blindRampsAutomatic doorsSpecial bathroom facilities
17Impact of SeasonsThe demand for hospitality services varies with the seasonsPeak Seasons: those with the highest demand (this is when they are busy)Off-peak Seasons: those are seasons with the lowest demand (the number of customers is very low)Timing of peak and off peak seasons depends on the location of the businessSummer in FloridaWinter in ColoradoMust find ways to deal with the changes in demandManagers have to design methods to copeSome hospitality businesses lower their prices in off peak seasons
18Factors Affecting Success Many factors that affect the hospitality industryWeatherPolitical ConditionsEconomic ConditionsGlobalizationUsing the paper/poster you are given, list all the challenges you and your group can think of regarding the topic given. You will have 7 minutes to complete the assignment.
19Weather Has a major impact on many hospitality businesses ThunderstormsHurricaneSnowNo Snow
20Political ConditionsBad or dangerous political conditions discourage travelCountries that have war or unstable political conditions lose hospitality customers911Lost BILLIONS of dollarsWhy?Aviation and Transportation Security Act
21Economic ConditionsMany hospitality businesses rise and fall with the economyWhen the economy does well, so does the businessRecession or Contraction: period when the economy is slowing down and doing poorly.People lose jobs and have less moneyThe first thing they cut is spending on travel, recreation, and restaurantsFirst to hurt during a recession and the last to recover
22GlobalizationGlobalization: the process in which economies of different nations become interconnectedGlobal Economy: the worldwide economy composed of the interconnected economies of all the nationsBefore globalization, each country had an economy that was separate from othersNow, an economic problem in one country can effect economies around the worldTransnational corporation: has major operations in several countriesA sign of the hospitality industry’s economic health is the continuing development of tourism facilities both nationally and internationally