Presentation on theme: "Hospitality Past, Present, & Future Chapter 3. Early History The hospitality industry probably began with the Sumerians. 4000 BC lived in a region near."— Presentation transcript:
Hospitality Past, Present, & Future Chapter 3
Early History The hospitality industry probably began with the Sumerians BC lived in a region near the Persian Gulf (Mesopotamia) Sumerians built taverns and served beer to people in the surrounding areas (some of the first hospitality businesses) Traders traveled from region to region to trade spices, gold, and other exotic goods. People began to build inns and taverns along the routes
Early History (Continued) 3 countries played an important role in the early days of hospitality Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire Ancient Egypt began the tourism trade 2700 BC pyramids were built and began attracting visitors Base of pyramids great place for festivals Souvenir sales began here; tourists wanted to take home a reminder of their visit Egyptians also organized the first cruises Cruise: pleasure trip taken by boat or ship
Greeceand Early History Loved to travel Traveled all over Europe and established many colonies Greece made 2 major contributions to the hospitality industry 1.Language- first universally accepted language of international trade 2.Greek money became the standard of exchange for monetary transactions Common currency made travel and business easier Greeks were defeated by the Romans in 146 BC
Romans and Early Hospitality Romans developed roads throughout their empire. Made travel quicker and easier. Travel became dangerous. Travel and tourism virtually stopped during this period. Renaissance created a rebirth of travel and artistic interests. Travel again became safe and popular. Taverns and inns were once again open for tourists.
Development in the United States US has made great contributions to the hospitality industry. Grand hotels, motels, restaurant chains, fast food businesses, and franchises all originated in the US. Hospitality grew along with new modes of transportation (stagecoaches, railroads, automobile, and commercial airlines)
Inns for Stagecoach Travelers 1600s stagecoach routes were established in the US Inns began to develop along these routes Could exchange a tired horse for a rested one Switching horses took about 30 minutes and would allow time for a meal Stagecoaches usually arrived at a set time and the innkeeper would have everything ready for arrival. Inns & Taverns were popular gathering places The first building designed specifically as a hotel was probably New York Citys City Hotel 5 story hotel built in 1794 Guests paid $2 (included breakfast, lunch, tea, and dinner) Hotel had 73 rooms
Grand Hotels for Railroad Travelers 1800s railroad travel developed and spread Much more comfortable than a stagecoach Travel long distances in a shorter time period. Inns, saloons, and restaurants were built close to railway stations. Tremont House in Boston was the first Grand Hotel in 1828 Grand hotel: offers luxury accommodations Tremont House was 4 stories tall, 170 private rooms, 6 meeting rooms, and 200 seat dining room No elevators (had not been invented yet) this is where the bellhop was born Bellhop: person who when they heard the bell ring, they had to hop to help the guests (it was their job to carry the heavy luggage upstairs) Hotelier: owner or manager of a hotel
Grand Hotels for Railroad Travelers In Europe, Cezar Ritz was raising the standards of luxury hotels. Put Auguste Escoffier in charge of the kitchen (created modern organization of hotel kitchen and created new and exciting dishes) Made dining a luxurious experience Ritz was built the world famous Ritz Hotel in He was the first to give each guest room a private bath, built in closets, and telephones. In the US, Ellsworth Statler was developing his chain of hotels First to develop uniform standards for hotels. Featured telephones in every room, modern plumbing, full size closets with lights, radios, and free morning newspapers Also developed a list of service rules called the Statler Service Code. (Each employee had to learn, memorize, and follow the code).
Motels for Automobile Travelers Motels: combines basic hotel service with convenience for the automobile traveler. Located near the highway, parking is free and located right outside the rooms. Often called Tourists Courts or Motor Courts Did not have facilities as hotels such as restaurants, room service, and bell attendants. Guests had to carry own luggage Kemmons Wilson took his family on vacation and was disappointed by the lack of places to stay. He developed his own chain as a result Developed the Holiday Inn Family friendly where children stay free, swimming pools, and restaurants Guaranteed reliability clean and comfortable rooms Created a large, distinctive sign which could be easily seen from the road
Motels for Automobile Travelers Motels soon became larger and began to offer more services Business travelers liked having coffee shops, cocktail lounges, and meeting rooms Swimming pools were important Usually built at the edge of towns Most were one or two stories tall. Simple construction was easy to build, compared to downtown high rise expensive hotels. Amenities and level of service vary based on the location and price of the property.
Airport Hospitality for Air Travelers Commercial jets began operating in 1958 Hotels located in downtown areas began to decline and those located near airports grew along with restaurants J.W. Marriott opened hotels near airports New vacation areas were developed in locations that were easily accessible by air Jet airline service decreased the time and inconvenience of international travel International travel grew As air travel became more common, airports became the location of new hospitality businesses. Hotels, motels, foodservice, and restaurants were designed to meet the needs of air travel customers Shuttle services were designed to transport guests from hotels to nearby airports
Hospitality Today The hospitality industry has several major challenges. These challenges include: Delivering consistent service Diversity of the workforce Accommodating special needs Impact of seasons Using the paper/poster you are given, list all the challenges you and your group can think of regarding the topic given. You will have 7 minutes to complete the assignment.
Delivering Consistent Service Hospitality businesses fail or succeed based on the quality of service guests receive Delivering quality service always involves people Hospitality is a people serving business Managers have 2 ways to ensure good service Procedures Training Employees must be trained to be customer focused
Diversity in the Workforce In the past, white males made up the majority of the workforce; however, women and minorities are entering in greater numbers These people have a variety of cultures, religions, beliefs, and languages Diversity: used to describe a large group of people from a variety of backgrounds, cultures, religions, beliefs, and languages In order to be successful, businesses must learn how to meet needs of employees too Many programs help businesses support their employees Education, career, professional development Transportation to and from work Assistance in learning English Accessibility, career development, and opportunities for advancement for employees with disabilities Retraining in job skills for senior employees Daycare referrals or assistance Flexible schedules
Accommodating Special Needs People with special needs are traveling more and more Special needs include Medical conditions Physical disabilities Mental disabilities Preferences based on religion, health, or circumstances Hospitality workers must use problem solving and communication skills to meet these needs Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to make sure people with disabilities are treated fairly Requires that public buildings be accessible to people with disabilities Accessible: able to be entered and used by a person with a disability Many have developed special accommodations for people with disabilities Braille lettering: special language for the blind Ramps Automatic doors Special bathroom facilities
Impact of Seasons The demand for hospitality services varies with the seasons Peak Seasons: those with the highest demand (this is when they are busy) Off-peak Seasons: those are seasons with the lowest demand (the number of customers is very low) Timing of peak and off peak seasons depends on the location of the business Summer in Florida Winter in Colorado Must find ways to deal with the changes in demand Managers have to design methods to cope Some hospitality businesses lower their prices in off peak seasons
Factors Affecting Success Many factors that affect the hospitality industry Weather Political Conditions Economic Conditions Globalization Using the paper/poster you are given, list all the challenges you and your group can think of regarding the topic given. You will have 7 minutes to complete the assignment.
Weather Has a major impact on many hospitality businesses Thunderstorms Hurricane Snow No Snow
Political Conditions Bad or dangerous political conditions discourage travel Countries that have war or unstable political conditions lose hospitality customers 911 Lost BILLIONS of dollars Why? Aviation and Transportation Security Act
Economic Conditions Many hospitality businesses rise and fall with the economy When the economy does well, so does the business Recession or Contraction: period when the economy is slowing down and doing poorly. People lose jobs and have less money The first thing they cut is spending on travel, recreation, and restaurants First to hurt during a recession and the last to recover
Globalization Globalization: the process in which economies of different nations become interconnected Global Economy: the worldwide economy composed of the interconnected economies of all the nations Before globalization, each country had an economy that was separate from others Now, an economic problem in one country can effect economies around the world Transnational corporation: has major operations in several countries A sign of the hospitality industrys economic health is the continuing development of tourism facilities both nationally and internationally