Presentation on theme: "Cost Control and the Menu—Determining Selling Prices and Product Mix"— Presentation transcript:
1Cost Control and the Menu—Determining Selling Prices and Product Mix Chapter 4 – NRAEFChapter 8 - NRAEFChapters AschOH 4-1
2Chapter Learning Objectives Determine a selling price based on various markup methods.Explain how market forces affect menu prices.Explain how the menu product mix is used to determine the composite food cost of a menu.Explain how the menu helps with food cost control.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that these objectives (competencies) drive the information in the chapter and in this session.Ask the following question, “How do restaurant managers decide the prices they charge for their menu items?”
3Chapter 13 - Chapter Learning Objectives Evaluate a menu as a marketing tool.Evaluate menu design techniques and principles, including:Physical menu characteristicsFocal pointMethods of emphasisMenu diversitySignature dishMenu layoutMenu descriptionsPerform a menu analysis.Analyze data from a menu analysis.
4Chapter 14 - Chapter Learning Objectives Understand the steps to forecasting.Differentiate among qualitative and quantitative data.Examine POS dataCalculate a menu analysis.Explore various sales control techniques.Explore methods of theft protection.
5Chapter 15 - Chapter Learning Objectives Differentiate among menu designs.Calculate menu prices using a variety of methods.Evaluate the importance of a signature dish.Evaluate techniques to improve sales.Implement different suggestive selling techniques and correlate the value of effective suggestive selling.Distinguish the components of a pre-shift meeting.Investigate employee empowerment.
6Menu Prices If they are too high; Sales suffer If they are too low; Profits sufferInstructor’s NotesExplain that a properly priced menu will help maximize sales because guests will feel they are getting true value for their money, and it will maximize the restaurant’s profits as well.
7Menu Prices Should Be directly related to costs Help predict profitabilityServe as a cost control toolReflect realistic markups (the difference between a menu item’s cost and selling price)Instructor’s NotesExplain that managers can predict profitability if they create a pro forma income statement.Tell how experienced managers develop sales predictions.
8Pro Forma Income Statement as Budget Standard Instructor’s NotesExplain that cost of food sales is a very large and important restaurant expense.Ask if the students think managers want to know the specific performance targets that will be used to evaluate their work.Provide examples of food cost percentages that are common in different industry segments.
9Menu Pricing MethodsThe Texas Restaurant Association (TRA) markup methodThe factor methodThe markup on cost methodInstructor’s NotesExplain that there are several approaches to address menu pricing.Indicate that the best method to solve a management problem varies, based on the specific characteristics of the restaurant.
10The Texas Restaurant Association (TRA) Markup Method Step 1 – Add target percentage values for labor, all other expenses (except food), and profit.ExampleLabor.25All other expense (except food)+.30Profit.10Total.65Instructor’s NotesExplain that the TRA method uses a formula that considers sales, costs, and profit.
11The Texas Restaurant Association (TRA) Markup Method continued Step 2 – Subtract the total in Step 1 from 1.00.Example1.00Total from Step 1–0.65Divisor0.35Instructor’s NotesExplain that the “1.00” in this formula can also be seen as “one dollar,” and that the .35 in this case can be seen as “35 cents per dollar” of sales.Explain that the “.35” in this example is named the “divisor.”
12The Texas Restaurant Association (TRA) Markup Method continued Step 3 – Divide the standard portion cost of the item by the divisor to obtain the menu selling price.Menu item standard portion cost÷Divisor=Menu selling price$ ÷$11.71Instructor’s NotesExplain that this formula allows for easy changes to profit targets (increases or decreases in desired profit levels).Explain that this formula allows operators to vary the labor percentage assigned to a menu item.
13The Texas Restaurant Association (TRA) Markup Method continued The Texas Restaurant Association’s menu pricing formula considers labor costs when determining selling prices.Instructor’s NotesAsk students to identify menu items with very high labor costs. Examples—entrees with complex sauces, some soups and salads, and labor-intensive specialty desserts.Explain that most restaurants round their menu prices because they do not like odd-cent prices.
14The Factor MethodDetermines menu prices based upon the standard (target) food cost percentageInvolves a two-step processInstructor’s NotesRemind students that the standard or target food cost is established by management.Ask the following question, “If the target food cost for a restaurant rarely changes, why must managers continually recompute menu selling prices?” Answer: Because menu item food costs change frequently.
15The Factor Method continued Step 1 – Calculate the appropriate factor using the following formula.1.00÷Standard food cost percentage=Factor÷2.86Instructor’s NotesPoint out that this example assumes a 35 percent target food cost percentage.Ask students to mentally compute the factors for the following target cost percentages:50% = 233.3% = 325% = 4Make the statement, “If you know the factor and the menu item’s cost, you are ready for Step 2”.
16The Factor Method continued Step 2 – Calculate the menu price using the following formula.FactorxMenu item cost=Selling pricex $4.10$11.73Instructor’s NotesPoint out that this example uses the factor calculated in Step 1 and assumes a menu item food cost of $4.10.Explain that a shortcoming of this method is that it does not directly take into account the labor cost required to make the menu items.
17The Markup on Cost Method Is popularIs easy to useTo calculate menu prices, use the following formula.Instructor’s NotesPoint out that this example assumes a menu item cost of $4.10 and a target food cost percentage of 35 percent.Explain that each of the three methods are mathematically the same, so any variation in results is from rounding error.Menu item cost÷Standard food cost percentage=Selling price$ ÷$11.71
18Market Forces Affect Selling Prices Menu prices can be affected by a variety of external forces, includingCompetitionPrice-value relationshipInstructor’s NotesExplain that competition affects pricing, especially in the quick-service restaurant (QSR) market. Example—the competition for $0.99 or $1.00 value-meal offerings popular with QSR restaurants.Explain that price-value perception is driven by service levels as well as food cost and quality.
19Markups Affect Selling Prices Different menu items are typically marked up by different amounts.In general, the lower the menu item cost, the higher the markup (and the lower the food cost percentage).Instructor’s NotesIndicate that a cup of tea can be made for pennies, but is sold at a multiple of its cost that is very high (five to twenty times).Explain that, in some restaurants, steaks may not even be marked up two times their original cost.
20Menu Product Mix Is Important Restaurants must achieve their standard (targeted) food cost percentage.If a restaurant exceeds its food cost standard, profits will likely decline.Menu items sell at a variety of cost percentages.Instructor’s NotesExplain that it is the guest choosing from alternative menu items, who significantly determines a restaurant’s weighted food cost percentage.
21Menu Product Mix Is Important continued The average food cost percentage is determined by menu mix.Menu mix significantly determines a restaurant’s food cost percentage target.Instructor’s NotesPoint out that it is the average food cost percentage that must meet the restaurant’s food cost percentage target.Ask students, “In what ways does the menu mix determine a restaurant’s food cost percentage target?”
22Weighted Food Cost Percent Right way to determine weighted average unit costMenu Item# SoldUnit CostTotal CostHamburger20$2.00$40.00Fries5$0.50$2.50Soda10$0.20Total35$44.50Instructor’s NotesExplain that, in this example, the weighted average cost of one menu item is $1.27.$44.50÷35=$1.27
23Weighted Food Cost Percent continued Wrong way to determine average unit costMenu ItemUnit CostHamburger$2.00Fries$0.50Soda$0.20Total$2.75Instructor’s NotesExplain that in this example the “unweighted” average cost of one menu item is $ 0.91.Make the following statement, “Weighted averages take into account how many of each item is sold, and unweighted averages do not consider the number of each item sold.”$2.75÷3=$0.91
24Menu Product MixIt is not possible to add unweighted unit costs to determine average unit costs.It is not possible to add unweighted food cost percentages.A menu product mix spreadsheet helps determine the total (weighted) food cost percentage.Instructor’s Notes1. Define “weighted” and “composite” food cost percentage.
25Menu Product Mix Spreadsheet Lists the names of all menu items soldLists the number of times each item has soldIdentifies the unit item cost of each itemInstructor’s NotesExplain that even those menu items that sell infrequently should be included on the spreadsheet.
26Menu Product Mix Spreadsheet continued Lists each menu item’s selling priceIdentifies the total cost of each item (number sold x item cost)Lists the total sales achieved by each item (number sold x selling price)Instructor’s NotesAsk students to review Exhibits 4f and 4g on page 51 of the chapter.Explain that a spreadsheet program could be used to complete these computations. Tell students what they can do, or where they can go, to learn this important skill.
27Menu Product Mix continued The items that guests select have a significant impact on a restaurant’s weighted food cost percentage.Instructor’s NotesAsk the following question, “Assume that a restaurant offered five items for sale, and each had a different food cost percentage. Assume also that 95% of the restaurant’s sales consisted of the sale of only one item. What impact would that have on the restaurant’s weighted food cost percentage?”
28Menu Engineering Method of menu evaluation Considers contribution margin (selling price minus menu item food cost)Considers popularity (number of items sold)Instructor’s NotesExplain that menu engineering software exists to help with the calculations, but an understanding of the process is needed to analyze its results.
29Monitoring Menu-Related Concerns Three factors must be considered and compared when analyzing food cost efficiency.Standard food cost percentageWeighted food cost percentageActual food cost percentageInstructor’s NotesMake the following statement, “Understanding food cost really means understanding three distinct types of food costs. We will review them now.”
30Monitoring Menu-Related Concerns continued Standard food cost percentageThe expected food cost percentage based upon the approved operating budget or other benchmark.CalculationTotal target food cost÷Total target food sales=Standard food cost percentInstructor’s NotesExplain that this is the food cost percentage identified earlier in the chapter for use in determining menu prices. It is the target food cost that the manager wishes to achieve.
31Monitoring Menu-Related Concerns continued Weighted food cost percentageThe percentage that results from the actual food salesCalculationActual food cost for menu items sold÷Actual sales from menu items sold=Weighted food cost percentInstructor’s NotesExplain that this is the food cost percentage computed by using the menu product mix spreadsheet. It is heavily influenced by guests’ food choice selections.
32Monitoring Menu-Related Concerns continued Actual food cost percentageReported on the restaurant’s income statementInstructor’s NotesRemind students that a restaurant’s standard, weighted, and actual food cost percentages can be in-line and similar. However, differences in sales mixes between historic and actual guest choices along with product loss, waste, and theft typically result in some differences between these three food cost calculations.
33Monitoring Menu Related Concerns continued SummaryIf the weighted percentage exceeds the standard percentage, take steps to manage sales activity.If the actual food cost percentage exceeds the weighted percentage, take steps to improve food controls.Instructor’s NotesAsk for examples of specific reasons why the actual food cost percentage might exceed that computed on a restaurant’s menu product mix spreadsheet. Answers—theft, inaccurate sales data, waste and loss, and nonreporting of sales.
34How Would You Answer the Following Questions? A composite food cost percentage is a (weighted/unweighted) average.A menu product mix spreadsheet is designed to identify a restaurant’s composite food cost percentage. (True/False)The menu pricing method that considers target profit in its computation is theFactor methodMarkup on cost methodTexas Restaurant Association (TRA) methodYield percent methodProduct mix has very little impact on the ability of a restaurant to achieve its standard food cost percentage. (True/False)Instructor’s NotesAnswersWeightedTrueCFalseNote: indicate that the last part of this discussion will provide a review of definitions for the key terms used in the chapter.
35Key Term Review Composite food cost percentage Factor method Markup Markup differentiationMarkup on cost methodInstructor’s NotesComposite food cost percentage—weighted average food cost percentage for all items sold; also called weighted food cost percentageFactor method—used to determine a menu item’s sales prices based simply on the basis of the standard food cost percentageMarkup—the difference between the actual (food) cost of producing an item and its selling price listed on the menuMarkup differentiation—relationship between cost of an item and its price after markupMarkup on cost method—another method used to determine a menu item’s selling price based on the standard food cost percentageNote that there are additional key terms for this chapter.
36Key Term Review continued Menu engineeringMenu product mixPrice-value relationshipPro forma income statementTexas Restaurant Association (TRA) markup methodInstructor’s NotesMenu engineering—menu evaluation process that considers the contribution margin and popularity of each menu itemMenu product mix—a detailed analysis that shows the quantities sold of each item, along with their selling prices and standard portion costsPrice-value relationship—connection between the selling price of an item and its worth to the customerPro forma income statement—income statement that is prepared before the factTexas Restaurant Association (TRA) markup method—menu price calculation method that reflects the direct relationship between profit and selling price.