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TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 1| 1 Special Characteristics Training GS0400 powersolutions.danfoss.com.

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Presentation on theme: "TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 1| 1 Special Characteristics Training GS0400 powersolutions.danfoss.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 1| 1 Special Characteristics Training GS0400 powersolutions.danfoss.com

2 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 2| 2 Academy special characteristics class - Course options CourseAwarenessCompetencyMastery Length 2 hour4 Hours8 Hours Learning What are they? Why have them? How Do They Fit in to PPAP & PDLP? Who is Responsible? How do I find them on drawings/Specs? Awareness + How to Determine special characteristics GRR, Capability, SPC requirements FAQ Competency + Loss Functions S x O = Loss Function Role of Control Plan, GRR, Capability for different loss functions Making Good Decision Roles Team Leaders Supervisors Design/Process Ldrs Quality/Design/Process Eng Purchasing Incoming Inspection Quality Techs Supplier Quality Incoming Inspection All Quality Eng. Some Design Eng. Some Process Eng. Supplier Dev. DFMEA facilitators Use Controls at Lower Left To select Training level (Must be in Presentation Mode)

3 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 3| 3 3 D-FMEA GS0003 Process Map GS-0063 Product Test GS0017 Special Char. GS0004 P-FMEA GS0006 Gage R&R GS0010 Capability GS0007 Control Plan GS0012 ISIR GS0015 PPAP GS0008 QFD GS0031 Steps to Quality

4 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 4| 4 Agenda What GS-0004 Covers Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

5 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 5| 5 What is the purpose of special characteristics? Focus Special Attention on the Vital Few Things which make a Difference to our Customers Formally Communicate these Vital Few Characteristics and their Required Process Controls throughout the Supply Chain Promote Design For Manufacturability (DFM) through Simultaneous Discussions regarding Design Tolerances and Manufacturing Variation Aid in Economically Manufacturing Quality Products that meet Customer Expectations Require Greater Production Control/Monitoring of the Vital Few Facilitate Knowledge Management through time (both Product Engineering & Process Engineering)

6 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 6| 6 What does Special Attention mean? Focused Attention during the Design and Processing Data based Design For Manufacturability (DFM) Drives Severities from DFMEA into PFMEA Required Levels of Process Capability and Control Gage R&R, Capability exceeds Features included on Control Plan with appropriate Statistical Controls Indicate importance of the features throughout the life of the product/process (Knowledge Management) Ensure Extra attention is made during review of PPAP/Change Management document review

7 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 7| 7 Vital Few Arent they All important?! Yes – All we must strive for all features to always be In Print Key Characteristics are those characteristics that being On target with Minimum Variation provides better satisfaction than just being in Print Features not important for customer safety or satisfaction can be handled differently for more economical manufacturing Focusing on All is like Focusing on None!

8 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 8| 8 Why Vital Few? How many should we have? Lets look at the Loss Function Loss Dis-Satisfaction Due to Cost Performance Dis-satisfaction Total Product Dis-Satisfaction Number of Special Characteristics 0 All

9 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 9| 9 GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A Agenda

10 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 10 Scope & Application GS-0004 Creates Special Characteristics Safety Characteristics Key Characteristics Process Characteristics Standard Characteristics GS-0004 applies to Danfoss Power Solutions Globally All New Designs GS-0004 Defines Selection Identification Documentation Required Manufacturing Controls

11 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 11 GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A Agenda

12 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 12 Definition Safety Characteristics Safety characteristics are those characteristics/features which have the potential to affect safety. When defining safety characteristics the safety of all personnel involved in the product test, vehicle commissioning, and end use of the product need to be considered. Safety characteristics should be controlled through robust safety margin for normally expected process variation AND manufacturing error-proofs that detect/prevent abnormal process variation which could significantly reduce safety margin. Safety characteristics will be identified on the engineering drawing with a pentagon with an S inside it. S

13 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 13 Definitions Normally expected process variation The amount of manufacturing variation when the process is maintained under the defined process controls. Note that for some process controls normally expected variation will include some out of specification Safety margin The difference between the extreme of normally expected process variation and the point at which a safety loss could occur Abnormal process variation Unusual Manufacturing variation created by a process failure Broken tool, missed heat treatment, etc Error-proof Device or method which Detects and contains/corrects abnormal variation

14 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 14 Definitions- safety margin Lower Specification Limit Upper Specification Limit Point at which Safety is Impacted Safety Margin Normally Expected Process Variation Design Specification Note: Normally Expected Process Variation Shown is for a process with 100% Sort and a GRR of 50% Abnormal Process Variation Examples

15 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 15 Definition Key characteristics Key characteristics are defined to be those characteristics for which the normally expected process variation affects product function/customer satisfaction Customer can distinguish product differences due to the variation of a key characteristic within specification Customer satisfaction is increased when these characteristics are maintained on target with minimum variation Key Characteristics will be identified on the engineering drawing with a pentagon with a K inside it K

16 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 16 Definition Process characteristics Process Characteristics are features/characteristics which do not directly affect the function of a product but are important for success of downstream manufacturing processes Tolerances held tighter than needed for product function to accommodate robotic assembly Internal Customer satisfaction depends on these features being in specification External Customer Satisfaction (Product Function) does not require the tolerance to be held this tightly Process characteristics will be identified on the engineering drawing with a pentagon with a P inside it P

17 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 17 Q: Why did we create a Process Characteristic A: Some areas do automated assembly. For automated assembly you often have a robot grabbing the part on a non-functional area and then assembling into a tight clearance Robot Grabs d2 and installs spool into bore If Concentricity ( ) of d 2 to D 1 is not important for function but is necessary for Automated assembly. Concentricity of d2 to D1 would be a Process Characteristic

18 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 18 Endcap A-B machining operation in a cell bolt holes Machined in A-op and used for location on the B-op. For the process we need to the holes to be +.1 and a True Position of.1mm Engineering Drawing (Function) says +.13mm and True Position of.75mm Should we Modify the Engineering Drawing and Use a P? No – If it is within your own processes it should be done within your own process controls (e.g. cell control plan/process drawings, etc) Not with the Engineering Drawing Process Characteristic Example

19 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 19 Definition Standard characteristics The majority of features in a good design are standard features. Standard features must be maintained within specified limits Standard Features are those for which reasonably anticipated manufacturing variation is unlikely to significantly affect a products safety or function Customer satisfaction does not change based on where a standard feature is within its tolerance range Standard Features do not have a symbol No Symbol

20 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 20 Agenda GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

21 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 21 Responsibility Product Engineering is responsible for identifying and classifying Safety and Key special characteristics as soon as practical in the design process Product Engineering Managers in individual areas shall be responsible for ensuring Special characteristics are correctly documented on Engineering drawings and specifications Process characteristics, if required, are to be identified by Process Engineering Operations and Purchasing Managers in individual areas shall be responsible for ensuring adequate process controls are put in place for special characteristics

22 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 22 Assigning special characteristics Design Engineering Assigns Safety and Key Characteristics Utilizing the Design FMEA as soon as possible in the Design Process Safety Characteristics Severity 9 Key Characteristics Severity 5 & Occurrence 4 Safety and Key Characteristics Severity 9 & Occurrence 4 Manufacturing Engineering Assigns Process Characteristics

23 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 23 Assigning Safety Characteristics Within propel Assignment of Safety Characteristics Requires Special Controls Follow your local BA rules (usually requiring Director of Engineering Approval) before assigning Safety characteristics to drawings. S

24 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 24 Agenda GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

25 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 25 Determining Special Characteristics First Use Design FMEA Severity and Occurrence Ratings Special Characteristics Table Then Evaluate Border cases using Loss Function Method Continuous or Step Loss No Margin, Small Margin, Large Margin Border Cases from Severity and Occurrence Table Covered in Expert Training

26 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 26 Determining Special Characteristics Using DFMEA Severity & Occurrence (S x O)

27 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 27 DFMEA Severity Reference GS-0002/HPP 200

28 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 28 DFMEA Occurrence Reference GS-0002

29 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 29 Applying Judgement In addition to the use of DFMEA Severity and Occurrence, Key characteristics can be determined using the quality loss function logic defined in Appendix C of GS0004 Quality Loss Function logic can be an effective way to assess border cases from the S x O method (i.e. Occurrences of 4,5 & 6 and Severities of 5 and 6) to determine if classification as a Key characteristic is really warranted Engage an expert in Quality Loss functions DFMEA facilitators Quality Engineers

30 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 30 Determining Special Characteristics Using DFMEA Severity & Occurrence (S x O) Border Cases

31 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 31 Special Characteristics Applied to Material or Heat Treatment Specs Special Characteristics may be applied to material and heat treatment specifications Key if DFMEA severity 5 and occurrence 4 DO NOT base occurrence (design margins) on an assumption of the supplier using the wrong material or a required heat treatment is omitted For example: The part will break if the supplier uses the wrong material so I will make it a Key Characteristic Loss Function Method is a very good for material and heat treatment Specifications.

32 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 32 Special Characteristics Identified on Material or Heat Treatment Specs The special characteristic must be assigned to something that is measurable (hardness, case depth, tensile strength, etc.) and not to the entire specification Material: ASTM A536 Grade Hardness: BHN

33 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 33 Agenda GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

34 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 34 Special Characteristics identified on Danfoss Power Solutions engineering drawings A pentagon with an S for Safety, a pentagon with a K for key, or a pentagon with a P for process shall be placed on the technical document by each characteristic designated as a special characteristic.

35 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 35 Special Characteristics identified on Danfoss Power Solutions engineering drawings In the case that a feature is described by multiple callouts a special characteristic designation is required for each callout.

36 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 36 Special Characteristics identified on Danfoss Power Solutions engineering drawings In cases where a characteristic is both a safety and a key the special characteristics are to be designated as shown in Fig 3. The order (K first or S first) is not important

37 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 37 Documentation Add the Note Special Characteristics per GS-0004 on the first page of the Drawing/Specification Customer Importance Table (CIT) must be on First Page of all drawings and relevant specifications Typical drawing formats shown Below May be included on other pages Error-Proof

38 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 38 Special Characteristics Location Table An Optional Location Table on Sheet 1 defines where special Characteristics are Located Helpful to make sure that none are missed This drawing has 36 Specials Located on 5 Sheets 38 Sheet # Location x QTY

39 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 39 Correctly Showing a Completed Drawing which has no Special Characteristics Add the CIT Table to the First Page of the Drawing/Specification even if there are no Special Characteristics Add the Note Special Characteristics per GS-0004 on the first page of the Drawing/Specification Add the CIT Table and a Blank Special Characteristics Table to the first page of the Drawing/Specification

40 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 40 Agenda GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings Created Before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

41 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 41 Process Requirements S, K, &/or P characteristics Must be Identified on PFMEA and Control/Gauging Plan including control method S Requires Error Proof Control method K Requires Statistical Control Method Therefore statistical Gage R&R and Capability studies must be completed and exceed minimum requirements P Does not require a specific control method

42 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 42 Production control methods Acceptable for safety characteristics The Manufacturing Focus for Safety Characteristics is to ensure that abnormal variation (i.e. Special Cause process failures ) that significantly reduce or eliminate an adequate design margin do not occur What is a abnormal variation Process Goes out of control and produces unexpected variation S

43 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 43 Definitions- Safety margin Lower Specification Limit Upper Specification Limit Point at which Safety is Impacted Safety Margin Normally Expected Process Variation Design Specification Note: Normally Expected Process Variation Shown is for a process with 100% Sort and a GRR of 50% Abnormal Process Variation

44 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 44 Example Special causes (Sources of unexpected variation/Abnormal process variation) Wrong Material/Heat treatment Wrong raw material received / selected Wrong or interrupted heat treatment Doesnt get to proper temp due to thermal capacitance Tool Set-up Errors Wrong off-set entered in machine Wrong insert Wrong Radii Broken Tools/Wrong Tools Broken Fixtures Bent dowel pins Missing rest pads Note that special cause failures affect all Parts until corrected. They can create a BIG problem but they are easier to detect because all parts are affected

45 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 45 Example special causes (Sources of unexpected variation) Missed Operations Missed heat treat altogether Missed test / adjustment process Unplanned process stoppages Delay prior to quench Incomplete operations Machine restart in middle of program Undetected Maintenance Issues Broken Valves Furnace Filters Note that special cause failures affect all parts until corrected. They can create a BIG problem but they are easier to detect because all parts are affected

46 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 46 Suitable control plans for Safety characteristics require an Error proof What is an Error proof? A process or device that ensures either Special cause errors do not take place or If it has occurred, does not allow the next process step to take place or Produces an immediate error signal and corresponding non-conforming material control in the event of a special cause errors What does an error proof Not do It is not intended to control common cause (normally expected) variation S

47 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 47 Establishing good error proofs 1.Understand the ways the process could fail and produce Abnormal variation Fishbone diagram (5M/E) PFMEA 2.Second determine best way to control Error proof types Type 1 Error-Proof: Prevent from happening Type 2 Error-Proof: Detect before passing from operation Type 3 Error-Proof: Detect at next (or Downstream) operation S

48 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 48 Example error proof control methods (100% Preventing or detecting unexpected variation) Wrong material Bars: Each bar verified as loaded in machine properties or color code Castings: Lot material certifications Wrong or inadequate heat treatment Samples inspected from each lot Missing heat treatment Inspection at next operation Broken tools Inspect 1 st piece/last piece Broken tool Detection (Laser or Load Monitoring) Wrong tool/wrong insert/wrong offset Inspect 1 st piece Barcode at pre-setter/scan at installation Tool holder only accepts correct insert Delay before quench IR temperature reading at quench S

49 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 49 Process control requirements Safety Characteristics / PPAP Requirements Identified as safety on PFMEA & assigned severity = 10 Identified as safety on Control plan with an error proof (Poke-Yoke) documented on control plan S

50 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 50 Process control requirements Key characteristic / PPAP requirements Identified as Key on PFMEA & Assigned severity = 8 Production control with variable gauging & GR&R<20% completed per GS-0010 Capability studies completed per GS-0007 with capability Cpk > 1.33 Identified as Key on control plan (symbol or words) Statistically valid control method which will maintain Cpk>1.33 K

51 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 51 Production control method Acceptable for key characteristics Sampling to Reduced Limits Checking every n th piece or samples from a lot to Less than Print Limits Restudy Capability Study Completed every XX Months Setup Check Defined number of parts checked at Set-up Tool Control First and Last Parts checked from Tool Tool Changes at Defined Life (# Parts or # Minutes) Modified SPC Sampling to Process Limits, Samples Fall within +/- 3 Sigma Limits Short Run SPC Short Run Statistical Process Control SPC Control Charts Statistical Process Control (Xbar and R) Sampling to Print Limits Checking Every n th Piece or sample from a lot to Print Limits Pre-Control Target Area Control; 5 Pcs at Set-up 2 Samples to 50% Spec Limits May be OK If Short Term (30pc) Capability Is High (Cp>2.5) and tool life Characteristics are known/reliable And maintains Cpk > 1.33 OK for Any Capability As long as 5 & 2 rule followed Not OK K Ok if Maintains Cpk > 1.33

52 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 52 Process control Requirements Safety and Key Characteristic Identified as Safety on PFMEA & Assigned Severity = 10 Identified as Safety on Control Plan with an Error Proof (Poke-Yoke) documented on Control Plan Production Control with Variable Gauging & GR&R<20% completed per GS-0010 (in addition to error proof) Capability Studies Completed per GS-0007 with capability Cpk > 1.33 Statistically Valid Control Method which will maintain Cpk>1.33 (in addition to error proof)

53 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 53 Process control requirements Process characteristic PPAP requirements Identified as Process on PFMEA & Assigned severity = 4 Identified as Process on Control plan P X

54 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 54 Agenda GS-0004 Purpose Scope & Application Definitions Responsibility Determining Special Characteristics Documentation PPAP and Process Control Requirements Drawings created before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

55 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 55 Comparing revision E to Previous revisions of GS-0004 Drawings created before GS-0004 Rev E used 2 symbols (Critical and Key) for performance characteristics GS-0004 Rev E to the standard reduces this to 1 CK = K Legacy drawings created before GS0004 rev E Interpreted As GS0004 rev E & after or

56 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 56 Comparing revision E to Previous revisions of GS-0004 Also Remember: border cases from the S x O method (i.e. Occurrences of 4,5 & 6 and Severities of 5 & 6) to determine if classification as a Key characteristic is really warranted.

57 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 57 Agenda What GS-0004 covers Purpose Scope & application Definitions Responsibility Determining special characteristics Documentation PPAP and process control requirements Drawings created before GS-0004E Summary/Q&A

58 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 58 Special characteristics summary Special characteristics are identified by product engineering and process engineering during development and formally documented on engineering drawings, specifications, and control plans The design FMEA is the basis for determining special characteristics There are 3 kinds of special characteristics Safety characteristics affecting safety Key characteristics affecting satisfaction Process characteristics affecting manufacturing Processes The purpose of special characteristics is to focus attention on the Vital Few characteristics most important for product function & customer satisfaction

59 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 59 Special characteristics summary Special Characteristics have required levels of process performance and process control that must be validated and documented as part of the PPAP process GaugingCapabilityProcess Control Safety Attribute or Variable No Special Cause Defects Error Proof Key Variable GRR<20% Cpk>1.33 Statistical Control to Ensure Cpk Maintained S+K Variable GRR<20% No Defects & Cpk > 1.33 Error Proof + Statistical Control Process Not DefinedCpk>1.0Not Defined

60 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 60 Frequently asked questions list Why did we change the old Standard? Why did we change the old Standard How did we change the old Standard? Why did we create a Safety Characteristic? Why are Ss allowed? Where do we find the Ss and Ks for Assembly and Testing? Do we put Ss or Ks on the product outline drawing? How do we communicate Ss or Ks to customers ? Should K be used for Cleanliness? What is the Best Process flow to Follow when Determining Ks and Ss? GS0004 States that the following Severities should be used for PFMEAs When and to what products do we start to apply the new GS-0004? Do we need to upgrade the old prints/ drawings? How are we going to provide communication /training to suppliers and internal SD operations? How are we going to provide communication /training to suppliers and internal SD operations? Is it possible that when updating old drawings through the new process an old C could turn into S? Is it possible that when updating old drawings through the new process an old C could turn into S?

61 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 61 Frequently asked questions list Do we have to have a DFMEA to assign Special characteristics? How will this revision lead to fewer Special Characteristics? How Does the Loss Function Help Find the Critical Few? Do we apply Loss Function to S? Can we downgrade S to K by Loss function method? How Do we Quantify Small vs. Large Margin? How do Design Margin and Safety Margin Relate to each other? Why did the standard change from C & K to only K? What to do with Drawings where the old type of critical marking (bubbles) in case aim for a supplier change? What to do with Drawings where the old type of critical marking (bubbles) in case aim for a supplier change? Why did we create a Process Characteristic? When in the process will Process Characteristics be defined? Can Process Characteristics be defined by process engineering and not be documented in the drawing? Can Process Characteristics be defined by process engineering and not be documented in the drawing? Could we have K, which can not be measured by Variable Gages? Actions? Should the S and K be checked in the receiving inspection?

62 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 62 Frequently asked questions list How Do I interpret Table 4? What is Pre-Control? Will this apply to Pure-Play businesses? Do we need to add Ks and Ss to Operator Instructions? How should we update Product Family Drawings? How do we handle customer requests for Keys (or Criticals)? Where do We Document application of Loss Function for Border Cases?

63 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 63 Many necessary barriers/improvements were identified Viewed as Propel Standard Understanding and Buy in of other divisions Confusion about SON If followed exactly, SON created too many critical/Key Characteristics If a new engineer designs something and cant make the calculations are we are supposed put critical characteristics on the drawing??? Too Many characteristics strictly following SON People wanted the ability to use more judgment No good way to define Safety Criticals and drive the correct type of control plan Request for Process Criticals for automated assembly purposes not Product Function Q1: Why did we change the standard? A: Return to FAQ List

64 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 64 Global Team Global Team working over a year with 2 in person meetings Understanding Why and then how Engineering, Quality, Purchasing Doug McCoy Claus Tjoernly Rasmussen Knud Lange Martin Raadkjaer Joergensen Jeff Baldus Approving Group/Process Owners Global Engineering A: Q2: Who changed the Standard? Return to FAQ List

65 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 65 A: Our products and their function can impact customers safe vehicle operation, if abnormal variation (special cause) happens. The international legislation (new the Functional Safety Directive EU/2006/45) requires evaluation and notification of safety relevant product miss-function. Q3: Why did we create a safety characteristic? Return to FAQ List

66 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 66 A: Yes, Absolutely but it may not be possible in all cases As part of the approval process for Ss We do recommend an escalation Process for the S approval through Director of Engineering in each BA before adding an S to the drawing Q4: Why are Ss allowed? Should engineering try to eliminate them with design? Return to FAQ List

67 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 67 A: The Assembly Ss and Ks will be in the AS (Assembly spec) and the Testing Ss and Ks will be in the TS (Test spec) Q5: Where do we find the Ss and Ks for Assembly and testing? Return to FAQ List

68 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 68 A: No – They should be noted Product Specification and in technical literature not on outline drawings Exception: Customer Specified Critical Characteristics could be shown on customer specific outline drawings Q5: Do we put Ss or Ks on the product outline drawing? Return to FAQ List

69 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 69 A: Safety Characteristics are communicated through technical literature. Key Characteristics are communicated through the APQP/PPAP process Q6: How do we communicate Ss & Ks to customers ? Return to FAQ List

70 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 70 A: Cleanliness follows a continuous loss function but this is already accounted for in GS-0086 Cleanliness should not be a key characteristic Q7: Should K be used for cleanliness? Return to FAQ List

71 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 71 A 1.DFMEA 2.SxO 3.Loss Function to review border cases 4.DFM and PFMEA (understand process variation and define Ps as necessary) 5.Approval for any Ss 6.Document on Drawing/Specification 7.Define which S and K go to technical literature (in EC/PPAP Teams w/ TST representative. Q8:What is the best process flow to follow when determining Special Characteristics? Return to FAQ List

72 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 72 A: GS0004 States that the following Severities should be used for PFMEAs Safety: Severity=10 Key: Severity=8 Process: Severity=4 Standard: Severity=4 Severity for the Process FMEA does need to come from the DFMEA. We do not, however, supply DFMEAs to our Suppliers. By assigning Severity based on the Classification of Characteristics we can do a very good job of transferring the Severity indirectly without providing the DFMEA. It also provides for a very easy way for the PFMEA to be checked when reviewing the PPAP Q9: GS0004 Defines the Severities to be used in PFMEAs. Shouldnt they Come from the DFMEA? Return to FAQ List

73 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 73 A: April 1, 2010 is the starting point We apply this standard to all new designs (Parts, Components and Final Products) to every EC (Engineering Change) Q10: When and to what products do we start to apply the new GS-0004? Return to FAQ List

74 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 74 A: Not as a individual activity of updating all drawings, but if a drawing is going to be ECd for other reasons then the process (slide 147) will be started also for all legacy products Q11: Do we need to upgrade the old prints/ drawings? Return to FAQ List

75 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 75 A: Procurement is responsible for training external suppliers to this standard. Quality is responsible for training internal suppliers to this standard Q12: How are we going to provide communication/training to suppliers and internal Danfoss Power Solutions operations? Return to FAQ List

76 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 76 A: Yes, this is possible, when we create / review DFMEA we could identify Severity >9. Ss created in this way still require approval Q13: Is it possible that when updating old drawings through the new process an old C could turn into S? CS ? Return to FAQ List

77 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 77 Q14: For old drawings we do not even have a DFMEA, do we need to create one, or can we jump directly to the Quality Loss Function? A: It is greatly preferred/recommended to have a DFMEA. However, if a DFMEA can not be created the Loss Function Methodology can be used Return to FAQ List

78 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 78 Also Remember: border cases from the S x O method (i.e. Occurrences of 4,5 & 6 and Severities of 5 & 6) to determine if classification as a Key characteristic is really warranted. Return to FAQ List Q15: How does this compare to previous standards

79 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 79 Q16: How can loss functions help find the critical few A: Helps to assess border cases from the SxO Quality Loss MethodS x O Method Return to FAQ List

80 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 80 Q17: Do we apply loss function to S? A: No, we apply loss function only for K (normal variation and common cause) border cases Return to FAQ List

81 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 81 Q18: Can we downgrade S to K by loss function method? A: No, but through redesign (robust design) we can change the severity rating down to < 9 Return to FAQ List

82 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 82 A : Refer to the GS-0002 DFMEA Occurrence table 82 No Margin High Margin Small Margin Q19: How do we quantify small vs. large margin? Return to FAQ List

83 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 83 Lower Specification Limit Upper Specification Limit Safety Margin Normally Expected Process Variation Design Specification Design Margin Note: Normally Expected Variation is for a process with 100% Sort and a GRR of 50% A: Q20: How do design margin and safety margin relate to each other ? Abnormal Process Variation Return to FAQ List

84 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 84 A: We wanted to reduce the complexity. Reduce the amount of time discussion/ negotiating C or K and reduced process control requirements means reduced costs CK = K Legacy Drawings Created Before GS0004 Rev E Interpreted As GS0004 Rev E & After or Q21: Why did we change from C & K to only K Return to FAQ List

85 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 85 A: The Drawing needs update to the new GS. For the first RFQ the old drawing can be used, but for each next step (pre-order) an updated drawing must be used Q22: What to do with drawings where the old type of critical marking (bubbles) if we change suppliers? Return to FAQ List

86 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 86 A: Primarly to accommodate automated assembly For automated assembly you often have a robot grabbing the part on a non- functional area and then assembling into a tight clearance Robot Grabs d2 and installs spool into bore If Concentricity ( ) of d 2 to D 1 is not important for function but is necessary for Automated assembly. Concentricity of d2 to D1 would be a Process Characteristic. Q23: Why did we create a Process Characteristic Return to FAQ List

87 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 87 A: See FAQ 8: In Step 4 after the loss function step Q24: When in the process will Process Characteristics be defined? Return to FAQ List

88 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 88 Q25: Can Process Characteristics be defined by process engineering and not be documented in the drawing? A: Yes, P can be in the Control Plan for so called technological dimensions or in-process dimensions. These are characteristics, which must be under control already before the print dimension has been manufactured. e.g. bearing diameter on the shaft before heat treatment and finishing P on the print /drawing is always a final dimension and is not a in process dimension Return to FAQ List

89 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 89 Q26: What If we have a K which can not be measured by Variable Gages? A: Because we want to keep K features on target with minimum variation we want to have variable gauges to control them. Attribute gauges only keep features in print 1) First use the loss function method to make sure it should be a Key characteristic 2) During the DFM session see if there are other ways to measure or control measure the tool not the hole use other feature that can be measured easily and directly correlate to the key characteristic Discuss it as a team; be creative 3) Attribute gages can be used if the tolerances are reduced from the specification. if an attribute gage is the only available process control for a key feature you might consider options like pre-control with Green and Yellow attribute gages. Return to FAQ List

90 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 90 Q27: Should the S and K be checked in the receiving inspection? A: Yes. We focus on S and K features during DFM and the PPAP process. During DFM we discuss For all S and K features the loss function, Capabilities, Gauging, and control plans During PPAP we approve The suppliers ISIR (all dimensions checked to our print) The Suppliers Control plan (all P,K and S shown) The suppliers Gage R&R and Capability Studies (K) Any new parts should come through Receiving Inspection for the first 3 shipments where S and K checks would be part of the inspection. If there are no problems the parts can either stay in Receiving Inspection (every shipment or skip lot) or be removed. Should we see (or suspect) that the supplier is not in control we should check S and K in the receiving inspection as a containment, and also in parallel to work with the supplier to improve the process capability and control. Return to FAQ List

91 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 91 Pre-control at 50% Green Zone and Print Limits are referencing the tolerance on the (Design) Engineering Drawing? If The Engineering Print Tolernace is Print Limits = % Green Zone is A: check 1/10 to print limits means to check every 10 th part made to make sure it is in print. Note this is not a suitable for Key characteristices Q28: How do I interpret table 4? Return to FAQ List

92 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 92 A: Pre-Control is a statistically based control method. It is also sometimes referred to as Target Area Control The embedded materials provide more information. Q29: What is Pre-control? Return to FAQ List

93 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 93 Q30: Will this apply to Stand-Along businesses (Turolla, Comatrol,…)? A: Non-core business will be able to define there own quality systems Return to FAQ List

94 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 94 Q:31 Do we need to add Ks and Ss to operator instructions Q:Do they need to be on the operators instructions at the assembly line. Should it be called out in Standard Work? A:They are required to be called out on the control plan which is different than the operator method instructions (standard work, Computer screens at workstations, etc.) You may wish to identify Ks and Ss in these documents but it is not required Return to FAQ List

95 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 95 Q32: Updating product family drawings If we are developing new frame sizes in a Family using the new Special Characteristics Standard should we go back and change the drawings on the previous frame sizes? Yes it is recommended; many of these parts will be going through the same manufacturing cells (both internally and externally) this allows us to have common production controls for the family Return to FAQ List

96 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 96 Q33: How do we handle customer requests for Keys (or criticals) A: Important first is to understand that we are on the same page. What does the customer really want: -To be in print for every unit? -Have statistical data about the feature? (especially valve settings is a good example) -achieve a certain cpk? To obtain a common understanding a long discussion w/ some training elements (GS0004 and GS for PPAP) to be used may be needed. This discussion should involve Product Engineering (in addition to Operations and Quality) As a result we may have to agree to put a "Key" in, but also change our tolerances at the same time, so we have no need to change the manufacturing process. Change of tolerance can be calculated from cpk=1 to cpk=1.33 easily Changes to tolerance can affect Test Cycle time and First Pass Yield so it is important to include Operations in the discussion. Return to FAQ List

97 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 97 Q34: Where do we document application of loss function for Border Cases A: Best location is inside the D-FMEA where the RPN number is. You can put a comment into the field how the loss function is looking and the conclusion to leave or take away the key. Return to FAQ List

98 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 98 Break 15 min

99 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 99 Advanced Special Characteristics Materials For those needing to know more

100 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 100 Advanced topics agenda Loss function concept Minimizing losses for a population Examples

101 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 101 How Satisfied would YOU be if the temperature in this room was 22.8C? What would be your loss? Upper Temperature Limit Lower Temperature Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) 22 ºC 71.6 ºF 23 ºC 73.4 ºF 21 ºC 69.8 ºF * Completely Satisfied?No Loss Of Productivity * Somewhat Dissatisfied? 5% Loss Of Productivity * Completely Dissatisfied? 10% Loss Of Productivity

102 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 102 What would your satisfaction be over the entire temperature range? Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit 22 ºC 71.6 ºF 23 ºC 73.4 ºF 21 ºC 69.8 ºF * * * * * ** ** ** Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity

103 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 103 Are you sure it is not like this? Upper Temperature Limit Lower Temperature Limit 22 ºC 71.6 ºF 23 ºC 73.4 ºF 21 ºC 69.8 ºF ** * * ******* * Why Not? Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity

104 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 104 Quality loss function (Taguchi) Specification Limits Loss Target Taguchi: When a characteristic moves away from a target value increasing loss occurs Taguchi Traditional Traditional: product within specification is all equally OK

105 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 105 Is the quality loss function real? Specification Limits Loss Target Taguchi: When a characteristic moves away from a target value increasing loss occurs Taguchi Traditional Traditional: product within specification is all equally OK

106 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 106 Quality Loss Function - example Taste of your favorite beer? Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Normal Too bitter Too sweet * * * * * ** ** ** Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction)

107 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 107 What about other Loss Functions? Continuous/minimum is best Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) *** * * * * * On target with minimum variation produces lowest amount of loss

108 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 108 Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) * * * * * * * * On Target With Minimum Variation Produces Lowest Amount of Loss What about other loss functions? Continuous/Maximum is best

109 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 109 Quality Loss Function - example How satisfied are you with the cleanliness of a plate in a restaurant? Upper Dirt Limit No Dirt Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) Very Dirty Clean Normal *** * * * * * Which One?

110 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 110 Quality Loss Function - example How satisfied are you when paying for 20 liters of fuel and getting something different? Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) * * ** * * * * Liters actually delivered Which One?

111 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 111 What would Loss Functions like these mean? Quality Loss USLNomLSL Quality Loss USLNomLSL When this characteristic is Just outside of specification there is a total quality loss (High customer dis-satisfaction) When this characteristic is far outside of specification There is a small quality loss (Some customer dis-satisfaction)

112 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 112 What would these Loss Functions mean? Quality Loss USLNomLSL Quality Loss USLNomLSL No Loss in Specification No Change in Quality Loss

113 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 113 What would these Loss Functions mean? Quality Loss USLNomLSL Loss when Out of Specification – Low Margin Quality Loss USLNomLSL Loss when Out of Specification – High Margin

114 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 114 Classifying Loss Functions 114

115 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 115 Definition: Loss inside specification or outside of specification Loss Inside of Specification (IN) Loss outside of specification (Out)

116 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 116 Definition: design margin Design Margin The Difference Between The Specification Limit And Where Noticeable Customer Dissatisfaction (loss) Begins Large Margin Small Margin

117 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 117 Definition: Loss slope Shallow Loss is small near starting point Must vary a lot to be noticed by most Steep Loss happens suddenly Noticeable immediately by Most/All

118 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 118 Classifying Loss Functions Specification Margin Slope IN OUT NoneSmallLarge Loss Function SteepShallowSteepShallowSteepShallow

119 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 119 Using Loss Functions to identify key characteristics Specification Margin Slope INOUT NoneSmall Large Key Characteristic May Be Key Characteristics Standard Characteristics Loss Function SteepShallowSteep ShallowSteepShallow

120 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 120 Comparing SxO method to quality loss method Continuous Low Margin High Margin Quality Loss SxO Table

121 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 121 Loss Slope SxO Table Comparing SxO method to quality loss method

122 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 122 Comparing S x O method to quality loss method Quality Loss MethodS x O Method

123 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 123 Advanced topics agenda Loss Function concept Minimizing losses for a population Examples

124 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 124 Losses for a complete population Normally Expected Variation Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Loss Function Total Customer Loss

125 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 125 The general case Total Loss =

126 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 126 Knowing the Normally expected variation & the loss function predicts the total loss Normally expected variation Variation which should be expected produced by the process operating under control Capabilities Measurement Variation (GRR) Control plan adjustments Tool wear Set-ups Etc

127 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 127 Predicting normally expected (Long Term) variation Long Term Variation = f (,, ) How Well We See Gauge R&R (GS 0010) How Repeatable Short Term Capability Study (GS 0007) How We Control & Adjust Control Plan (GS 0012) Variation which should be expected produced by the process operating under control. Capabilities Measurement Variation (GRR) Control plan adjustments Tool wear Set-ups etc

128 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 128 Creating the model - The Effect of short term (30pc) capability Short Term Capability Study Cp = 2 Cpk = 2 Max Min Is this the Normally Expected Variation? Why Not? What About Gage R&R? Nom

129 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 129 Creating the model - The effect of GRR Spread We See Spread Of Process Spread Of Measurement Observed Variation Actual Variation Measurement Variation

130 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 130 Creating the model - Effect of GRR Short Term Capability Study Cp = 2/Cpk = 2 Max Min Is this the Normally Expected Variation? Why Not? What About Mean Shifts Over Time? Nom Cp/Cpk = 1.46 Gage R&R Gage R&R - GRR = 40% - GRR = 40% Mean Shifts

131 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 131 Creating the model - Effect of control plan on mean shifts Short Term Capability Cp = 2/Cpk = 2 Measurement Variation GRR = 40% Mean Shift (Control Plan) Samples To Print Max MinNom Mean This is the Normally Expected Variation!!

132 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 132 Simulation modeling Model Assumptions Allowable mean shift determined by Control Plan Check 1/n to print limits Allowable Mean Shift is Specification Pre-Control/Target Zone Control Allowable Mean Shift is Target Zone SPC Allowable mean shift is control limits on Xbar Chart 3s Value determined by Combination of Short Term Capability and GRR S = sqrt(s^2process + s^2measure) alternatively if SPC is used the limits on the Range Chart can be used

133 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 133 Examples Cp =.8 Control = 100% Inspect 100% GRR USL LSL Trapezoidal Distribution Gage R&R USL LSL Over Time

134 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 134 Examples GRR = 5% Cp = 10 Control: Check 1/10 to Print Set USL/Run to LSL USL LSL Time USL LSL Square Distribution Gage R&R

135 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 135 Examples GRR = 25% Cp= 1.83 SPC with +/- 1.5 Mean Shift USLLSL Time USL LSL Trapezoidal Distribution Gage R&R

136 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 136 Long term distribution simulator Lets Look at a typical scenario for standard features Control Plan = Samples to print Capability = 1 GRR = 30%

137 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 137 Simulation results Simulation Predicts Parts Can be Made Outside of Specification Limits (Note: Samples will not be shipped Outside of Specification Limits) Lower Spec Limit Upper Spec Limit

138 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 138 What distribution would have lowest total quality loss? How can we know? Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit 22 C 23 C21 C Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity

139 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 139 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit % Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity Total Loss.25*3.5 Total Loss.25* *0.5 Total Loss.25* *0.5 Total Loss.25* * *3.5 Total Loss.25* * *3.5 Total Loss = For these simple examples use the loss at the middle of the bar to calculate

140 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 140 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit % 40% 10% Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity Total Loss.10*3.5 Total Loss.10* *0.5 Total Loss.10* *0.5 Total Loss.10* * *3.5 Total Loss.10* * *3.5 Total Loss =

141 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 141 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit % Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity Total Loss.50*0.5 Total Loss.50* *0.5 Total Loss.50* *0.5 Total Loss =

142 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 142 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown 100% Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity Total Loss 1.0*0.0 Total Loss = 0

143 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 143 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown 100% Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss Of Productivity 5% Loss Of Productivity 10% Loss Of Productivity Total Loss 1.0*3.5 Total Loss = 3.5

144 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 144 Quality loss vs. distribution In specification loss functions On Target With Minimum Variation Produces Lowest Total Loss for In Specification Loss Functions 3.5

145 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 145 Dealing with special characteristics Continuous Loss Function Design Data Based Design For Manufacturability (DFM) Manufacturing process control Maintain Process on Target with Minimum Variation Improve Processes to meet Long Term Capability or Reduce Tolerance Zone to XX% Use Variable Production Gauging Have Acceptable Gage R&R Measurement Variation as % of Process Variation is more important than as a % of specification Run SPC or TAC control Plan Maintain Process On Target with Minimum Variation

146 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 146 What would these Loss Functions mean? Quality Loss USLNomLSL Quality Loss USLNomLSL Would being on target with minimum variation improve your satisfaction? No Change in Quality Loss

147 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 147 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit % Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) 0% Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Total Loss.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss = 0

148 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 148 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown 100% Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Total Loss 1.0*0.0 Total Loss = 0

149 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 149 What would be the total loss if the temperature distribution was as shown 100% Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss ( Customer Dissatisfaction ) No Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Total Loss 1.0*100% Total Loss = 100

150 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 150 Quality Loss vs. distribution low margin Loss Functions All Distributions In Specification Produce Zero Losses Out of Specification Produces High Losses

151 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 151 Dealing with special characteristics Low Margin Loss Function Design Design as Flat as Possible (Lower DFMEA Severity) Data Based Design For Manufacturability (DFM) Manufacturing Process Control Variable or attribute gauging 100% Sort/P-Y is OK/Attribute Gage Gage R&R Measurement Variation as % of Specification Attribute Gage is OK Guard Banding for very low margins Capability Determines gauging Frequency Important for yield Control Plan 100% Sort to Spec Limits is OK (with GRR considerations) Low Margin Loss Function

152 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 152 What Would Be the Total Loss if the Temperature Distribution was as Shown 152 Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit 25% Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) 0% Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Total Loss.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss.25*0 +.25*0 Total Loss = 0

153 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 153 What Would Be the Total Loss if the Temperature Distribution was as Shown % Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Total Loss 1.0*0.0 Total Loss = 0

154 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 154 What Would Be the Total Loss if the Temperature Distribution was as Shown % Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Total Loss 1.0*0 Total Loss = 0%

155 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 155 What Would Be the Total Loss if the Temperature Distribution was as Shown % Upper Specification Limit Lower Specification Limit Quality Loss (Customer Dissatisfaction) No Loss 5% Loss 10% Loss Large Special Cause(s) is needed to produce Customer Losses

156 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 156 Quality Loss vs. distribution high margin loss functions All Distributions In Specification Produce Zero Losses Out of Specification Common Cause Variation Produces No Losses

157 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 157 Dealing with special characteristics High Margin Loss Functions Design – Good Job! Manufacturing Process Control Gage R&R No formal studies needed. Any good measurement system needs to have variation less than 30% of Specification Capability No Formal Study needed Cpk >1 Control Plan Process control which ensures there are no Special Causes which cause an abnormal process shift large enough so that a loss will occur First/Last Piece Checks Set up verification + Tool Life/Broken tool reaction etc High Margin Loss Function

158 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 158 Production control summary In specification Loss Function Minimum loss if On target with minimum variation Capability, GRR, Control Plan define expected variation Capability Improvement for better customer satisfaction 100% Sort is not acceptable long term; containment only Small Margin Loss Function No loss as long as in Specification 100% sorting OK if capability bad Capability improvements for scrap reduction GRR important if sorting Large Margin Loss Functions No loss unless there is unexpected variation due to process going out of control Focus on controlling assignable causes through PFMEA and Error-Proof Consider increasing tolerance for scrap reduction Simple controls (1 st Piece/last piece, broken tool detection, etc)

159 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 159 Advanced topics agenda Loss Function Concept Minimizing Losses for a Population Examples

160 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 160 Special characteristics using Loss Function Example 1: /-.02 is spool diameter 1)Determine the customer loss(es) As Diameter (D1) gets bigger Leakage decreases probability of stiction increases As Diameter gets smaller Leakage increases probability of stiction decreases 2) Determine where losses begin Leakage changes with diameter (clearance) throughout tolerance Stiction/hysterisis change throughout tolerance 3) Select type of Loss Function Continuous Loss Function Steep slope

161 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 161 Special characteristics using FMEA method Example 1: /-.02 is Spool diameter Severity Occurrence DFMEA SEVERITY DFMEA OCCURRENCE

162 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 162 Using Loss Functions to identify key characteristics Specification Margin Slope INOUT NoneSmall Large Key Characteristic May Be Key Characteristics Standard Characteristics LOSS FUNCTION SteepShallowSteep ShallowSteepShallow

163 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 163 Is it a special characteristic?

164 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 164 Example Loss Function Example 2: /-.02 is clearance hole Determine the Customer Loss(es) As Hole Gets Smaller Pin Wont Go Through Hole Product Wont Function As Hole Gets Larger Stress in part increases 2) Determine where losses begin Pin Might Not Go Through Hole at Stress is not a concern until Hole is ) Select Type of Loss Function Low Margin Loss Function Steep Slope

165 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 165 Using loss functions to identify key characteristics Specification Margin Slope INOUT None Small Large Key Characteristic May Be Key Characteristics Standard Characteristics LOSS FUNCTION Steep ShallowSteep ShallowSteepShallow

166 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 166 Example FMEA Example 2: /-.02 is Clearance hole Severity Occurrence DFMEA SEVERITY DFMEA OCCURRENCE

167 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 167 Is it a special characteristic???

168 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 168 Using Loss Functions to identify key characteristics Specification Margin Slope INOUT None Small Large Key Characteristic May Be Key Characteristics Standard Characteristics LOSS FUNCTION SteepShallowSteep ShallowSteepShallow Redesign Opportunities

169 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 169 Redesign? Example 2: /-.02 is clearance hole Maybe? Redesign! StressFit

170 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 170 After Redesign Example 2: /-.02 is Clearance hole Severity Occurrence DFMEA SEVERITY DFMEA OCCURRENCE

171 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 171 Is it a Special Characteristic???

172 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 172 Example Loss Function Example 3: /-.02 is Shaft Diameter Determine the Customer Loss(es) As Diameter Gets Bigger Stress Decreases Coupling Wont Go on Shaft As Diameter Gets Smaller Stress increases 2) Determine where losses begin Coupling Does not assemble when Diameter is Stress is too high when Diameter is below ) Select Type of Loss Function High Margin Loss Function Steep Slope

173 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 173 Example Loss Function Example 4: /-.02 is shaft diameter Determine the customer loss(es) Determine where losses begin Select type of Loss Function

174 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 174 Example 3: /-.02 is Shaft Diameter Severity Occurrence DFMEA SEVERITY DFMEA OCCURRENCE

175 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 175 Is it a Special Characteristic???

176 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 176 Finish! Thanks for your attention!

177 TR-0024 Special Characteristics Training for GS-0004Danfoss Power Solutions| 177 Change History Slide 51 Production Control Method Acceptable for Key Characteristics :added And maintains Cpk > 1.33 to yellow box Slide 63 FAQ 5 :added product to outline drawing description. Slide : removed Propel EU Internal Training for Purchasing /SQA and Operations will be offered by Eckhard Skirde and Marina Nissen in Q Added new FAQs Changed Border Areas slides to be correct 15 Oct 2013: changed logo and coloring on slides


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