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Class Name Instructor Name Date, Semester Foundations of Cost Control Daniel Traster Calculating Sales Price and Food Cost chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Class Name Instructor Name Date, Semester Foundations of Cost Control Daniel Traster Calculating Sales Price and Food Cost chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class Name Instructor Name Date, Semester Foundations of Cost Control Daniel Traster Calculating Sales Price and Food Cost chapter 6

2 Menu Pricing Methods Multiple approaches, all valid. Sales prices for a dish must cover the items food cost plus extra to help cover all other non-food costs. Contribution Margin = the portion of a dishs sales price that is left after the items cost per portion is covered. 2

3 Calculating Menu Price Using Food Cost Percent FC SP x FC% SP = FC ÷ FC% 3

4 Food Cost Percent Method Food Cost = Cost per portion from recipe spreadsheet Industry FC% often ranges 20-40%, but most operate in the low to mid 30s. Selecting the right FC% is the biggest challenge 4

5 Example 6a SP = FC ÷ FC% = $5.71 ÷ 0.302 = $18.91 What is the sales price for a veal entrée with a cost per portion of $5.71, if the restaurant targets a food cost percent of 30.2%? 5

6 Overhead-Contribution Method CM% = Contribution Margin % CM% = (overhead + profit) ÷ sales FC% = 100% - CM% (here, CM% is in % form) SP = FC ÷ FC% (in decimal form) The overhead-contribution method u ses budgets and historical data to determine overhead and profit costs and then FC%. 6

7 Example 6b CM% = ($710,000 + $47,000) ÷ $1,000,000 = 75.7% FC% = 100% - 75.7% = 24.3% SP = $5.28 ÷ 0.243 = $21.79 A restaurant has overhead of $710,000 and wants profit of $47,000 from forecast sales of $1,000,000. Using overhead-contribution method, determine FC% and sales price for grouper with a cost per portion of $5.28. 7

8 Texas Restaurant Association (TRA) Method FC% = 100% - overhead % - profit % Low-profit entrées and high-profit other categories Higher profit on slow-moving items SP = FC ÷ FC% The TRA method is similar to the overhead- contribution, but profit percent (and thus FC%) can vary by menu category or even by menu item. 8

9 Calculating Menu Prices Using Prime Costs Prime cost definitions: 1.Combined total cost of food, beverage, and labor cost (birds eye perspective) 2.Combined total cost per portion and direct labor cost needed to prepare a dish (single portion perspective) Direct Labor Cost is determined by observing staff productivity and factoring employee hourly wage rates 9

10 Prime Cost Method Prime Cost = Food Cost + Direct Labor Cost Sales Price = Prime Cost X Price Factor Price factor may start off randomly, but it gets refined with historical data 10

11 Example 6c Prime Cost = $1.92 + $1.65 = $3.57 Sales Price = $3.57 X 3.1 = $11.07 A restaurant uses a price factor of 3.1. Chicken roulade costs $1.92 per portion with a direct labor cost of $1.65. Determine sales price using the prime cost method. 11

12 Actual Pricing Method Price Divisor = 100% - (Variable Cost % + Fixed Cost % + Profit %) Sales Price = Prime Cost ÷ Price Divisor Uses budget percents to determine price divisor to apply to dishs prime cost. 12

13 Example 6d Price Divisor = 100% - (29% + 12% +6%) = 53% Prime Cost = $3.09 + $0.88 = $3.97 SP = $3.97 ÷ 0.53 = $7.49 In a given restaurant, variable cost is 29%, fixed cost is 12%, profit is 6%. Using Actual Price Method, calculate sales price for a dish costing $3.09 per portion with a direct labor cost of $0.88 13

14 Gross Profit Pricing Method Gross profit per customer = gross profit over a period ÷ customers over that period Sales Price = Cost per portion + Gross profit per customer Gross profit is money made from sales after food and beverage are deducted (like contribution margin, but it refers to total sales over a period of time). 14

15 Example 6e Gross profit per customer = $2,890 ÷ 1,000 = $2.89 Sales Price = $1.47 + $2.89 = $4.36 Each month a restaurant has gross profit of $2,890 and serves 1,000 customers. A sandwich costs $1.47 per portion. Using the gross profit method, determine a sales price for the sandwich. 15

16 Why Use Gross Profit Method Appropriate with low-cost items that are similar in costs to each other – like a coffee shop Because gross profit per customer is added (not multiplied), sales prices remain in a narrow range for items that only vary in cost by a few pennies but may be quite different percentage-wise. ($0.20 vs. $0.40) 16

17 Base-Price Method 1.Determine desired sales price 2.FC = SP X FC% 3.Modify recipe to hit FC target Base-price method s tarts with sales price and works backward to create target food cost per portion. It is often used in corporate cafeterias and fast food (think: $0.99 menu). 17

18 Matching Competitors Prices Keeps sales prices competitive, but… Risky because you dont know the competitors costs and special arrangements. Family businesses may use free labor from family members. Large operations may get cheap purveyor prices for buying in bulk You may not be able to afford to sell at their prices. 18

19 Choosing the Best Pricing Method There is no best method for everyone! Prime cost methods work well when preparation time for dishes varies greatly. Base price approach is best when a price point is required to remain competitive. Food cost percent methods are easy to use and work well when all dishes have similar direct labor costs and food costs are not below 20%. 19

20 Factors that Impact Final Menu Pricing Competition (studied through a competitive analysis) Price Sensitivity of a product Perceived Value Product Differentiation – how greatly a product differs from similar competitor products 20

21 Psychological Pricing Guests are most comfortable with prices ending in: $0.00, $0.25, $0.45, $0.49, $0.50, $0.75, $0.95, or $0.99. Whole dollars suggest luxury. Prices ending in 9 suggest a deal. Prices ending in 5 or 0 suggest good value but not cheap. In most cases, calculated prices are rounded up to the nearest comfortable price. 21

22 Controlling Total Food Cost and Sales Tracking actual food cost as a percent of sales helps a manager spot unexpected loss. Food cost for a month must account for more than just food purchases: Food and beverage purchases are tracked separately Inventory in storage is valued by physical count at the start and end of each period 22

23 Controlling Total Food Cost (cont.) Employee meals are valued and shifted to labor cost as they are employee perks. Promotions (giving away food for marketing purposes) is assigned to marketing, not food cost. Transfers move ingredients from one department to another. Transfer in adds to the food cost; transfer out deducts the value from the food cost. Transfers can occur between restaurants in a larger hotel or campus or between a kitchen and bar 23

24 Controlling Total Food Cost (cont.) Steward Sales are sales of ingredients from a purveyor to an employee using the restaurant as a middleman. Grease Sales are monies raised by selling grease or animal fat to another company. 24

25 Cost of Food Sold Formula Preliminary Cost of Food Sold = Opening Inventory + Purchases – Closing Inventory Cost of Food Sold = Preliminary Cost of Food + Transfers In And/or - Transfers Out - Employee Meals - Promotions and Write-Offs - Steward Sales - Grease Sales 25

26 Example 6f A hotel restaurant has the following data. What is the cost of food sold for this restaurant? food purchases = $73,000 opening inventory = $41,000 closing inventory = $44,000 transfers in = $1,200 transfers out = $250 employee meals = $2,850 promotions and write-offs = $460 steward sales = $180 grease sales = $30 26

27 Example 6f (cont.) Preliminary Cost of Food =$41,000 + $73,000 - $44,000 = $70,000 Cost of Food Sold = $70,000 + $1,200 - $250 - $2,850 - $460 - $180 - $30 = $67,430 27

28 Total Sales and Food Cost Percent Total Sales (food sales) = total money charged to customers for the food they purchase. Beverages tracked separately Standard Food Cost Percent = budgeted FC% used to determine menu prices Actual Food Cost Percent = actual FC% calculated from cost of food sold and sales Often a variance between actual and stand FC% because of menu price rounding, theft, waste, spoilage, fluctuation in purveyor pricing, or guests who leave without paying 28

29 FC-FC%-Sales Graphic Formula FC FC% x Sales 29

30 FC% Variance Managers should try to keep actual and standard FC% as close as possible High FC% translates to lower profit 30

31 Reasons and Solutions for FC% Variance requires greater security Theft requires closer production oversight or additional employee training Waste requires purchasing adjustments Spoilage requires new purveyor, portion size change, or menu price increase Purveyor price increaseGovt regulations can have an impact, too 31

32 Below Budget FC% Below budget FC% is only good if it comes from better pricing and efficiency. May signal reduction of quality or quantity standards. Reduced standards = fewer customers and less revenue. Variances are red flags that require investigation to see if standards are being met, where the problem lies, or if the variance is good news. 32

33 Controlling Revenue POS tracks which server is responsible for uncollected monies. Only managers should be able to remove an item from a guest check. Managers can require all cash to go through a single cashier. Point of Sales (POS) Systems control revenue by assigning all food ordered from the kitchen to a guest and server. 33

34 Controlling Revenue with a POS Computer-less businesses should use duplicate check pads with one check going to the table and the duplicate copy going to the kitchen. Managers can reconcile kitchen and cashier checks to confirm they match and none are missing. Checks can be reviewed for addition errors too. 34

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