2 Rhetorical Situation WRITER Text Reader Author Constraints Exigence AUDIENCESUBJECT
3 Rhetorical Situation Text = the work being read Reader =the audience Author =writer of the pieceConstraints = circumstances that might influence the responses of the reader and the authorExigence = the motivation and context for the argument
4 Apply Rhetorical Analysis You may choose a restaurant advertisement, another type of advertisement, a provocative piece of art, a political cartoon, or a YouTube argument.Make sure the piece is found online and has a direct link to the piece. You will need to provide the direct link to your professor.
5 AnalysisAnalysis requires dissecting the advertisement and categorizing/labeling its various parts.Analysis requires full understanding of the argument’s general rhetorical structure.The rhetorical analysis separates the parts of the argument to see how the whole works.
6 Types of AppealsAristotle identified three types of appeals the might be used to persuade an audience.
7 Logos AppealA logos appeal is derived from the nature of the case or informed (fact) information for the topic under discussion.Logical appeals might show performance facts. Auto makers frequently state mpg data.Appeals to reason often fail in an ad.
8 Ethos AppealIt is derived from the character of the person or organization.Ethical appeal ads remind us of how long they have been in business or how environmentally responsible the firm is.Ethical appeals are frequently abused.Writers have ethical appeal when they show character: a sense of fairness, willingness to hear both sides, extensive research, and honesty.
9 Pathos Appeal It is derived from emotional state. These ads address needs, desires, fears and other emotional states for the consumer.Emotion is a powerful appeal, but works best when combined with logic.
10 The AppealsMany ads use all three appeals in order to meet a wide audience base.Ads use the formulaAttention – bright colors, loud noises, shocking statementsInterest—after getting attention, it must keep the interest of the target audienceDesire—once the ad has interest, the ad develops in the viewer a desire to buyAction—once the viewer desires the product, action is needed and the product is purchased
11 Writing a Rhetorical Analysis Separate the types of appeals and found in the ad.It requires the reader to explain how the appeals are used in the ad and what is the effect.A clear knowledge of the intended audience is important.
12 The ProcessAnalyze a restaurant advertisement, another type of advertisement, a provocative piece of art, a political cartoon, or a YouTube argument.Analyze the piece in terms of its rhetorical structure.Identify the audience for the piece.Isolate the central claim and show its argumentative purposeInclude a clear claim/thesis which argues for or against the piece’s rhetorical strategy.
13 The Outline Introduce piece: Show clear thesis/claim which argues for or against the piece’s strategy.Make an argument about the piece.Sample thesis: "Virginia Slims uses a combination of warm colors, gender stereotyping related to power, and sexual associations to recruit minority women smokers."BodyDescribe the piece so the reader knows what it looks like without seeing it.Describe the target audience –characteristics, fears, concerns, wants, and so forth.Describe the strategies used – color, words, imagesExplain how the strategies appeal to the piece’s audience
14 The Outline Cont’d. Body Cont’d. Use the following questions to help analyze the piece you select:What is the piece trying to do?Who is the intended audience?What strategies are used to sell the product?What does the piece reveal or conceal about the company or the product?What emotions does the piece target?
15 The Outline Cont’d. Body Cont’d. Conclusion Back facts with specific facts drawn from the ad.May use other researched sources to support views expressed.When describing the ad, do not assume the reader will be looking at the ad.ConclusionTie the analysis together.Restate thesis/claim about the ad.Summarize the main points.Leave the reader thinking about the restaurant or the product.The paper will be words, plus Works Cited/References per instructor’s guidelines.
16 Works CitedMLA samples for citing an ad (include hanging indent not shown here):Air Canada. Advertisement. CNN. 1 Apr Television.Gurrin, John. Blond Angel Indianapolis Museum of Art. IMA: It’s My Art. Web. 9 May 2007.Lee Mood Ring. Advertisement. n.d. Web. 29 June <
17 ReferencesAPA samples for citing an ad (include hanging indent not shown here):Air Canada. (1998, May15). [Advertisement]. CNN.Gurrin, J. (2001). Blond angel [Oil on canvas]. Indianapolis Museum of Art, IN.Lee mood ring. (n.d.) [Advertisement]. Retrieved June 29, 1998, from