2 ContentHospitality and Management: Knowledge, Experiences, ExpectationsEverchanging Tourism – Basics of HospitalityExpansion strategies in international hotel operationManagement in hospitalityMarketing in hospitalityProduction and Management in hospitalityControllingBrand-building in hospitalityWellness in hotelsStarting a business in the hospitality sectorAbbrevationsSourcesInternet adresses
3 Knowledge – Experiences - Expectations Hospitality – Why am I interested in this part of the tourism system (even though it has the biggest human resource fluctuation of all?)?Which experiences I already have in this fieldas a customeras an employee
4 1. Everchanging Tourism – Basics of hospitality Basic situation and development of the tourism sector1.1 Economic importance of hospitality1.2 Segmentation hospitality1.3 Segmentation Food and Beverages sector1.4 Segmentation Accomodation sector1.5 Definitions Accomodation companies1.6 Minimum levels of hotel room offers1.7 Actors in the accomodation market1.8 Segmentation of hotels1.9 Different types of accomodation1.10 DeHoGa – German Hotels Association1.11 Hotel classification in Europa – a critical view
5 Cowboys„The travel industry, according to everybody outside it, is run by cowboys. Despite the abundance of professionally run companies, both big and small, the perception is still that holiday firms rip off unsuspecting customers. … But the biggest problem is that operators are often selling a product where the gap between perception and reality is huge. Mass-market holidays are often sold as a dream vacation when they are often anything but.“ (Quelle: Issue 226 (Sept. 2002), zitiert in Page 2003)
7 Economic importance of hospitality Germany (DeHoGa, 2004)Employees Total, of whichAccomodationFood and beveragesCanteen, catering services83.000Apprentices, Total, of whichCook, Restaurant/Hotel/Hotel economics expert, Expert for system gastronomy97.126Hospitality companies Total, of whichCanteens, catering services48.5438.558Turnover Total, of which55,1 Mrd. €18,4 Mrd. €32,6 Mrd. €4,1 Mrd. €
8 Segmentation hospitality hospitality (Major company goal)Profit-orientated, main source of income, open to everybody, for longer periodPub (Schankwirtschaft)Restaurant (Speisewirtschaft)Accomodation company (Hotel, Pension, B&B etc.)Drinks are offered and are consumed on the premisesFood is offered and consumed on the premisesGuests are accomodatedhospitality (Minor company goal)Hospitality part of a non-hospitality company, or non-profit hospitality company, offering services for social, political or religios purposes, not necessarily open for everybodyRailroad workers holiday homeUnion home„Müttergenesungswerk“
10 Segmentation Catering/Restaurants Service gastronomy (Versorgungsgastronomie)Experience gastronomy (Erlebnisgastronomie)Train station RestaurantsMotorway RestaurantsSnack bar / Take awayKiosk (Trinkhallen)Fast-Food RestaurantCafés without seatingJuice barsSandwich ShopsMilk barsCanteensCatering (Banquet and Parties, Industrial, Event)System gastronomyEthnic RestaurantsBars, Dance and Entertainment clubsDiskothequesBistrosPubsRock-CafésPerforming art clubsVideo and Karaoke parloursIce barsCafésLocal style restaurants (Gastwirtschaften)Beer gardensHeurigen Restaurants (Strauss- und Besenwirtschaften)
11 Segmentation Accomodation companies Abgrenzung nach den Empfehlungen des: DIHK, DTV, DeHoGa, DSFT(diese Empfehlungen gelten nur für Deutschland)Nichtgewerbliche Beherbergung bzw. UnterkunftsgewährungGewerbliche Beherbergung bzw. Unterkunftsgewährungbis 8 Betten, privatRaumvermietung privat mit Möbeln und Bettwäschefür längere Dauer, mit KündigungsfristMiete im voraus zahlbar, Sicherheitsleistung kann verlangt werdenKennzeichnung nicht vorgeschriebeni.d.R. ohne oder mit nur eingeschränkter DienstleistungMitnahme des Schlüssels durch den Mieter beim Verlassen der WohnungMietvertragab 9 Betten, Hotel ab 20 Bettenfür jedermann zugänglichvorübergehende Unterkunftsgewährung für die Dauer der Bestellung und für kurze ZeitKennzeichnung der Zimmer durch Symboleallgemeine Dienstleistung insbesondere ReinigungBerechnung tageweise, zahlbar bei der AbreiseBeherbergungsvertrag
12 Segmentation Accomodation companies Hotellerie = Traditional Accomodation companiesParahotellerie = Additional Accomodation companiesHotel (Individual, Chain)Hotel GarniHotel pensionPensionRoad side hotel (Rasthof)Rural hotel (Gasthof)MotelMotorway hotelWellness hotelAparthotel / BoardinghouseHospizAppartementHoliday resortsHoliday flats / housesYouth HostelsFarmCamping, CaravaningHoliday campHomes of Associations (Vereinsheime)Guest housesRecuperation institutions (Sanatorien)Bed & BreakfastPrivate roomsCollective forms of accomodation like hay hotelsSki and hiking huts
13 Definition Accomodation companies In Germany: „Ein Hotel ist ein Beherbergungsbetrieb mit angeschlossenem Verpflegungsbetrieb für Hausgäste und Passanten. Er zeichnet sich durch einen angemessenen Standard seines Angebotes und durch entsprechende Dienstleistungen aus.“ (DeHoGA und DTV)Necessary conditions:At least nine guest bedsMajority of rooms with en suite bath and toiletReception existingParahotellerieOthers form of accomodation (can be commercial or non-commercial)Commercial accomodation companies have to beProfit-orientated, main source of income, open to everybody, for longer period
14 1.6 Minimum requirements Hotel room According toDeHoGa, DIHK, DTV, IHA, DRV (gilt nur in Deutschland)GrößeOhne Nasszelle gerechnet 8 qm Grundfläche für ein EinzelzimmerMehrbettzimmer zusätzlich 4 qm pro BettAusstattung/LageEin Bett pro Gast (1,80 m x 0,90 m) mit Ablage und LeuchteGetrennt von anderen Räumen mit eigenem ZugangVon innen und außen abschließbarEine Sitzgelegenheit pro Bett, Papierkorb, Kleiderschrank, TischAusreichende Lüftung, mind. ein Fenster, VerdunkelungsmöglichkeitenHygienisch einwandfreie, anderen Gästen nicht zugängliche Waschgelegenheit, 2 Handtücher pro Gast, WC auf der selben Etage (Anzahl nach Bettenzahl gestaffelt)Zimmer beheizbar und fortlaufend nummeriertGesetzliche AnforderungenPangVO: Zimmerpreisverzeichnis mit Angabe über Preis für Frühstück, Telefoneinheit, Internetzugang und Pay-TVBrandschutzhinweise und Verhalten bei Gefahr
15 Actors in the accomodation market Structural forms in accomodation marketIndividual hotelsChain hotelsFranchise hotelsManagement hotelsLeased hotelsCooperation hotelsCooperationsFor instance Best Western, Ringhotel, Romantic-HotelReservation service companiesFor instance Utell, HRS, hotel.comMarketing ringsFor instance Summit Int., Preferred Hotels, Relais & Châteaux, Four Seasons, Leading Hotels of the World
16 Systematic view on company forms HotelunternehmungenIndividual hotelsBranded hotelsHotel CooperationChain hotelsBranch systemFranchise systemConglomerateOne unitSeveral unitsLegally and commercially independent hotel companyHorizontal cooperation of legally and commercially independent hotel companiesUnified company with several non-independent branch hotelsVertical association of legally and commercially independent hotel companiesLegally independent hotel companies under unified leadership
17 Branded hotels Hotel brand in Germany – some examples (2004) Nr. CompanyBrandsNo. of hotels in GermanyNo. of hotels internationally1ACCOR Hotellerie Deutschland GmbHEtap, Formule 1, Ibis, Mercure, Novotel, Suitehotel, Sofitel2783.9162ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbHArabellaSheraton Hotels & Resorts (18), Four Points Hotels (6), The Luxury Collection (8)19133ARKONA AGArkona (5), A-ROSA (1), Steigenberger (5)104CHOICE Hotels Germany GmbHClarion (2), Comfort (31), Quality (24)574.8105DERAG Hotel and Living AGDerag Hotel and Living96DORINT AGDorint Hotels & Resorts79177FOUR SEASONS Hotels & ResortsFour Season Hotel598GOLDEN TULIP Hotel, Inns & Resorts B.V.Golden Tulip Hotels (15), Tulip Inns (5)20242
18 Nr. 9 HILTON International Hilton (14), Scandic (3) 17 400 10 Hospitality Alliance AG; siehe auch MARRIOTT International, Inc.Ramada-Treff (42), Treff (17), Ramada (8), Ramada Plaza (4)7211HYATT International Hotels & ResortsHyatt Regency (2), Park Hyatt, Grand Hyatt421012IFA Hotel & Touristik AGIFA-Hotels1613INTERCONTINENTAL Hotels GroupInterContinental (5), Crowne Plaza (7), Holiday Inn (49), Express by Holiday Inn (8)693.45414JOLLY Hotels Deutschland GmbHJolly Hotels25015KEMPINSKI AGKempinski Hotels & Resorts22MANDARIN ORIENTAL Hotel GroupMandarin Oriental120
19 Nr. 17 MARITIM Hotelgesellschaft mbH Maritim 36 9 18 MARRIOTT International, Inc.; siehe auch: TREFF Hotels AG Services & ReservationsMarriott (9), Courtyard by Marriott (15), Ramada (4), Renaissance (9), Ritz Carlton (2)392.60019MÉRIDIEN Hotels Deutschland GmbHLe Méridien714320MILLENNIUM & COPTHORNE Hotels Ltd.Millennium Hotels, Copthorne Hotels29121MINOTEL Deutschland e.V.Minotel (63), Suntime (6)6951422MÖVENPICK Gesellschaft für Hotel- u. Restaurant-betriebe u. -beteiligungen mbHMövenpick Hotels & Resorts133723NH HOTELES Deutschland GmbHNH Hotels52196
20 Nr. 24 NIKKO Hotels International Nikko 1 51 25 PARK PLAZA Germany Holdings GmbHPark Plaza (6), art‘otels (3)9>10026QUEENS Gruppe DeutschlandQueens Hotels (8), Holiday Inn (16)6927RAFFLES International Ltd.Raffles, Swissôtel (2)33328RELAIS & CHÂTEAUX DeutschlandRelais & Châteaux29441REZIDOR SAS HospitalityRadisson SAS (16), Country Inns & Suites by Carlson (2), Park Inn (6)86830RIMC International Hotel Resort Management and Consulting GmbHRIMC-Hotels, Golden Tulip, Tulip Inn, Quality Choice17231ROBINSON CLUB GmbHRobinson
21 1.7. continued Nr. 32 SOL MELIÁ Deutschland GmbH Tryp Hotel 12 350 33 SORAT Hotel Consult GmbHSorat, Partner of Sorat Hotels2034SRS Hotels Steigenberger Reservation Service GmbH & Co. KGSRS-Worldhotels10635STARWOOD Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc.; compare: ArabellaSheraton Hotelmanagement GmbHSheraton (2), Westin (3)574536STEIGENBERGER Hotels AGSteigenberger Hotels, InterCity Hotels6637THE RITZ-CARLTON Hotel CompanyThe Ritz-Carlton255
22 Hotel cooperations in Germany (2004) Hotels internationally Brand cooperationsHotel cooperations in Germany (2004)Nr.CompanyHotels GermanyHotels internationally1AKZENT Hotelkooperation GmbH582BAYERWALD Hotels93DESIGN Hotels81084FAMILOTEL AG21145FLAIR Hotels132136„HOTEL‘S MIT HERZ“ GmbH Hotelkooperation367EUREGIO BODENSEE e.V. Hotelkooperation10127MINOTEL Deutschland e.V.69514MÜNCHNER HOTEL VERBUND GmbH4210RELAIS DU SILENCE – Silencehotels D. GbR3722911RINGHOTELS e.V.155
23 Nr. 12 ROMANTIK Hotels & Restaurants GmbH & Co. KG 88 99 13 SMALL LUXURY Hotels of the World Ltd.330514SRS Hotels Steigenberger Reservation Service GmbH & Co. KG10635015SUPRANATIONAL Hotelsk.A.75016The LEADING Hotels of the World Ltd.2539017THEATER-Hotels Deutschland e.V.818TOP INTERNATIONAL Hotels GmbH906019VIABONO GmbH23020WELLNESS-Hotels Deutschland GmbH43
24 Forms of segmentation of hotels Completeness of services offeredHotel, Hotel Garni, Full hotelLocationCity, Resort etc.Connection to transport infrastructureMotel, Airport hotelQualityStar rated, other categoriesDuration of stayHours, days, weeks, seasonsLegal form of companySingle company, Limited, etc.Size of companyIndividual hotel, family hotel, chain hotel, major hotelProfit orientationProfit-orientated, non-profit-orientated, communal, social institution, learning hotel, minor part of company
25 Different types of accomodation Class L – Luxury hotelsHotel, Congress hotel, All-Suite-HotelAccomodation, breakfast, food and beverages offeredInternational Standard, luxurious, modernGreetings of guests in front of the houseHigh level of technical and personal servicesMeeting point, modern communication equipmentOutside Germany often big shopping center includedPrice highClass 1 – First Class Hotel – Convention hotelHigh Standard of comfortGood level of technical and personal servicesPrice medium to highMostly large number of beds, chain hotels
26 Class 2 – Middle class hotel, Aparthotel Accomodation, breakfast, food and beverages offeredPractical, solid level of basic servicesPrice mediumClass 3 – Hotel GarniAccomodation and breakfast, only some food and beverages only for guestsLittle city hotels, not much staff, often family runPrice lower medium
27 Class 4 – Pensions, Hotel pensions Accomodation and breakfast for longer stay guests, fixed menu food at specific timesSimple, no special comfort, often close to spa institutionsWithout special servicesPrices dependent on length of stayClass 5 – Rural hotel „Gasthof“Mainly restaurant, few beds mainly for restaurant guestsSimple, rural, no special comfortOften family run with own butcher or fish farmPrice low, except Star-restaurant placesOthersMotels, Resorts, Highway hotels, holiday homes etc.
28 1.10 DeHoGa German Hotel Association DeHoGa Association = Deutscher Hotel- und Gaststättenverband17 Provincial associations (HoGa‘s)3 special associationsIHA-Hotelverband DeutschlandUNIPAS-Union der Pächter von Autobahn-Service-BetriebenVIC-Verband der Internationalen Caterer in Deutschland4 special departmentsSystemgastronomieGemeinschaftsgastronomieBahnhofsgastronomieDiskothekenmembers in Germany
29 Hotel classification – a critical view CountryOfficial Hotel classificationLevelCompulsoryControlled byBelgiumYNationalGovernmentGermanyNoAssociationFinnland-Italy21 regional systemsMaltaSchweizY for membersSpanienRegionalUKfour regional SystemeAutomobil clubs and Government
30 System of German hotel classification Why Classification?Better sales, better product positioningReliable quantitative indicator for potential guestsBetter categorization of services offered (not: quality of services)German hotel classification of DeHoGaSince 1996 unified German systemEvaluation of objective, not subjective criteriaEnjoys legal brand protectionDevelopment of criteriaBy sub-group hotels of DeHoGa
31 Basics of classification Voluntarily: Entering and exit always possibleTransparency: Every hotel company can learn beforehand into which category it will be putParticipantsAll accomodation companies with more than eight bedsCriteria of Classification19 criteria, higher level of fulfillment needed for each star levelFurther minimum levels of points for a star level from the criteriaBuilding/roomsInterior decoration/FeaturesService / Leisure offersForm of product offerIn-house conference facilities
32 Regular random controls CategoriesFive star categoriesTourist * (Garni)Standard * * (Garni)Komfort * * * (Garni)First Class * * * * (Garni)Luxus * * * * * (Superior)Evaluation processHoGa‘s on provincial level themselves or by other organisations like CoCs)Regular random controlsClassification by document and representative sign
33 DiscussionIn 1996 Germany and Denmark started a hotel classification program Sweden adopted the Danish system. Through this process now all important European countries have classification systems. How about a EU-wide harmonized system?In 2004 the European Association of hotel associations HOTREC decided to start working on a europe-wide classification system.Arguments against: Regional differences, high costsMost major markets are dominated by domestic guests (Germany, France, Italy, Japan, USA) or specific source markets (Germany/UK at Spanish coast and islands).
34 Cultural as well as climatic differences result in different criterias for quality: Slippers and oneway-tooth brush important in Japan, not in AustriaGood and diverse range of wines offered – necessary in Austria, not in BritainBaked breakfast available – important in Britain, not in PortugalTobacco shop in the hotel necessary in Portugal, not in FranceBidet necessary in France, not in NetherlandsMany towels positive in Netherlands, not in USAIce machine on each floor important for USA
35 Beds have to be longer in Northern Europe than in Southern Europe Rooms are smaller in a 5 Star hotel in Tokyo than in a cheap motel in USALobby in 4 Star hotel in Beijing much bigger than in 5 Star hotel in EuropeSwedish 3 Star hotels do not need to have a windowEven bigger differences for African, South American destinationsIt is therefore not suitable to have a harmonized system all over the world. The 5 Star system is established internationally (Middle East 7 Star hotels only marketing gag), not easily abandonedEven now star rating criteria lead to useless investments (Sauna in 4 Star hotel in Malta)
36 Star rating only looks at single quantitative criteria set. Most important criticism:Star rating only looks at single quantitative criteria set.No clear distinction between business travellers and holiday makers needsNo recognition of the most important fact: service QUALITY
39 The ten biggest hotel groups in the world (rooms, 2005) 2.1 Facts and FiguresThe ten biggest hotel groups in the world (rooms, 2005)RoomsHotelsInterContinental Hotels Group3.540Cendant6.396Marriott International2.600Accor3.973Choice4.977Hilton Corporation2.259Best Western4.114Starwood733Carlson Hospitality Worldwide890Global Hyatt356
40 Die three hightest hotels in the world (2005) 1. Grand Hyatt 421 m Shanghai, China2.Burji al Arab321 mDubai City, Dubai, VAE3.Emirates Towers Hotel309 mPlanned (year of opening)Burji Dubai (2008)560 mRitz Carlton (2009)480 mSAR Hong Kong, ChinaFederazjia (2007)440 mMoskau, Russland4.Emirates Hotel (2008)350 m5.Shangri-La (2009)310 mLondon, GB
41 2.1 Some examples of the best hotels in the world Best hotels in different categories 2006 according to the readers of „Travel and Leisure“:„Leading Hotels of the world“ Group:Special Interest: „Best Geek Hotels in the World“:„The best hotel in the world“:
42 2.2 Reasons for Expansion Brand and Strength help acquisition Reputation and training programs help with Human Resource Acquisition, HR Retention, HR ExpansionReservation system already existingGoals: Economy of scale, Synergies, risk sharing:More growth, more revenuesBrand strengthening through increased visibility especially if high level of standardisationSynergies by cost reduction in backstage operationsSynergies by cost reduction and quality control in housekeeping, food and beverages, renovationIncreased bargaining power in sourcingCentral marketing and reservationRegional risk sharing
43 2.3 Preconditions of expansion In destinationPositive economic trend in local economyStabilityExisting infrastructureFavourable laws (taxes, ecology, entrepreneurial freedom etc.)Resources (physical and human)Attractive for target group (business people, tourists, VFR, transit travellers)In hotel groupStandardisationOrganisation geared to expansionBrand valueClear division between investment and management functions
44 2.4 Branding & Diversification Brand – the most important part of the immaterial value of companyBrand – difference between book value and market valueBrand – part of Shareholder Value Goodwill
45 2.4 Branding & Diversification Hotel groups and their brands (examples)CompanyEconomyMidscaleUpscale / LuxuryNo. of brands MarkenAccorIbisFormule 1EtapRed Roof InnMotel 6NovotelMercureSuite HotelSofitel9MarriottCourtyard by MarriottRamadaRitz CarltonRenaissance5Sol MeliaSol Inn HotelsSol HotelsMelia ComfortSol EliteGran MeliaMelia Hoteles6Maritim1Best Western
46 2.5 Expansion as management policy Expansion formsBuying of existing hotels / hotel groups – Fast growth, need of capitalFusion of hotel groups – Synergies in different marketsJoint Ventures – Minority stakes to enter new marketsAlliances – Close cooperation in different marketsLicencing of use of nameDifferent forms of contracts
47 2.5 Expansion as management policy Different forms of contractsRentManagementFranchiseBuyDifferent levels ofRisk sharingTaxesRevenue opportunitiesDuration
48 2.5 Contract forms Rent User pays monthly or yearly rent to investor Based on RoI of investorDifferent levels of risk and profit sharing:Fixed rent: Fixed amount (plus inflation index) regardless of results, long-term contractFixed rent with reduction in first years, or main part fixed rent, minor part tied to economic resultTurnover based rent with minimum guaranteeRisk and profit sharing rent, balance sheets accessible for investor
49 2.5 Contract forms Management Long term contract Management companies operates by order and for account of investor but using own brandFinancial and image risk stays with the investorManagement company gets turnover-based management fee (2-4%) and marketing fee (1,5 %) plus incentive fee (8–12 % of gross operating revenue)Most common form of hotel contract, almost all hotels not run by the owners are based on management contractsTrends: more management companies, saturation of hotel market in many regions, therefore growing- financial engagement of management companies- involvement of investors in company policy with regard to expansion plans, budgets, human resource decisions
50 2.5 Contract forms Franchise Franchise grantor provides for a fee brand and know-how to franchiseeFranchisee is independent company acting in own name but has to keep the agreed standards of grantorGrantor gets RoI of brand and know-how developmentFranchisee gets material and immaterial support of grantor, however is dependent on policy of grantor while having the complete risk of his businessFranchisee pay Entrance fee, royalties, marketing feesFranchise most common form of contract in USA, in Europe only 25%Different forms of franchise agreements in hotel business: real estate developed by grantor or franchisee, franchise to existing hotel etc.Closer connection compared to cooperation of independent hotelsExample:
51 What reasons could be responsible for this fact? 2 DiscussionHotel franchise contracts are much more common in the USA than in Germany.What reasons could be responsible for this fact?
53 3. Introduction: Law and hospitality Als deutscher Tourist im Ausland steht man vor der Frage, ob man sich anständig benehmen muss oder ob schon deutsche Touristen da gewesen sind.Kurt Tucholsky
54 3. Introduction: Law and hospitality Tourism and hospitality are the subject of laws and regulations in almost all countries. However, the extent and goals of regulation are widely different.A database for all tourism laws, regulation and legislation in the world is provided by UNWTO:
55 3. Introduction: Law and hospitality Tourism Law development: Example Ecuador (Source: Ecuador Ministry of Tourism) “The new Ecuadorian Tourism Law is designed to develop one of the most prosperous industries in the world and protect the tourist as the consumer. Highlighted is the fact that Ecuador is competing in an international arena with other countries that offer good connections, excellent roads, competitive prices, quality facilities, and great accommodations. The priority is to work with a functional infrastructure and with the people.The President of the Republic and the Congress have recommended to update legislation and redefine the role of the State so that it becomes more of a facilitator and controlling body, thereby paving the way for the private sector to have more responsibility for tourism.
56 3. Introduction: Law and hospitality The new law is based on four fundamental principles:A transition from a focus on satisfying supply (those offering the service) to one focused on satisfying demand (the tourist as a client and consumer who should be given quality service).The establishment of mechanisms designed to protect tourists and increase their level of satisfaction so that they will return to the country and encourage others to visit it, instead of avoiding Ecuador. A satisfied tourist will lead to one new visitor, whereas an unsatisfied one will convince seven potential visitors not to come.The simplification and delegation of control, supervision, and monitoring to decentralized bodies in order to increase transparency in State transactions.This will also cut down on public entities’ discretional decision-making when applying sanctions, giving licenses, and carrying out all other administrative procedures related to the tourism industry.The application of tax incentives to attract foreign investment in the tourism sector. This is indispensable for developing infrastructure as well as introducing higher quality products and services.
57 3. Introduction: Law and hospitality In order to protect tourists as “end consumers”, the Tourism Fiscal Office, dependent on the Attorney General’s Office, was established. This body will deal with civil and penal matters and will liaise with the Ministry of Tourism. Another aim of this project is to eliminate the bureaucratic and legal barriers which prevent citizens, whether a legal entity or individual, from becoming involved in the tourism industry.This is the recommendation made by the World Code of Tourism Ethics. The law also establishes two representative bodies from the private sector: an advisory committee, which will be a consulting body for the Minister, and the Federation of Tourist Chambers, which will represent the private sector and publicity. Short-, medium-, and long-term planning is necessary to sell Ecuador to the world as a “green country”.”
58 Management in the hospitality sector The Hotel ManagerThe Hotel Manager is a man from the distant future who opens up a restaurant in the distant past. The guests travel there via time machine (yes, just like The Restaurant at the End of the Universe by Douglas Adams). He's pretty funny as he's very evolved, but he's still a stupid jerk.Appearances: Tick vs. Prehistory: This episode is featuring a restaurant located about 3.5 million years ago. The Tick and Arthur wind up stuck in the distant past, but they're 'saved' when The Hotel Manager kidnaps their tribe of human-ape ancestors and takes them to the hotel to replace his waitstaff. Tick manages to overthrow the hotel staff and return his tribe to freedom and restore himself and Arthur to the 20th century.
59 Management or improvisation Planned and managed:Fixed „normal“ ways of doing things, management by exceptionJob descriptions, workflow descriptionsDifferentiation between operational and strategic managementImprovisation:Management by experience: good for stable situation only
60 Human Resource Management Hospitality is a People industryHuman Resource Management among the most important functionsFinding and retaining staffCoordinating staffControling staffSupporting staffLeading staff
61 Classical HR Organigram – Single hotel ManagementFood and Beverages (Buying/Storage)1 Chef2 Kitchen staff5 helpersService1 RestaurantManager1 Hote ManagerAdministrationAccountingReception1 Receptionist2 General staffAccomodation1 Matron (Hausdame)chambermaids33 helpers
62 Customer orientated HR Management End of Column structureProcess orientationProblem solving instead of ZuständigkeitEmpowermentMoments of Truth ConceptAbilities MatrixData Mining of abilities of staffCompetence clusterExample Accor Ibis Hotels: 15 Minutes Total Zen: How can it work?
63 Quality managementQuality ≠ ExpensiveQuality: Hardware, Surroundings, SoftwareQuality: Ongoing process
64 TQM – Total Quality Management Customer point of view: How important is the service offered and how was the quality of the service perceived?Producers point of view: How good was the quality management?TQM as a never-ending upward spiral (Kaizen)
65 Ecology management Based on: Laws and regulations Customer demand Staff demandIn Germany:DeHoGa Eco CriteriaGovernment subsidies fromEuropean Recovery Program (ERP)Deutsche Ausgleichsbank (DtA)Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW)Bundesländer Subsidies
66 Ecology management Labels: Many Ecology labels worldwide on different levelsExample Bavaria:Other examples:Blaue Flagge, Grüner KofferTop label in Germany: Viabono
67 Ecology management Discussion: In the 1990s the hospitality companies in Germanycould not agree on a label like „Grüner Koffer“.Today Viabono is supported by DeHoGa etc.Is ecological engagement in hotels just a marketinggag or will we see a real „greening“ of the hospitalityindustry?